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quire of.

311. As for percolation inward and outward, maketh it work again. It were good also to enwhich belongeth to separation, trial would be made force the spirits by some mixtures that may excite of clarifying by adhesion, with milk put into new and quicken them; as by putting into the bottles, beer, and stirred with it: for it may be that the nitre, chalk, lime, &c. We see cream is matured grosser part of the beer will cleave to the milk: and made to rise more speedily by putting in cold the doubt is, whether the milk will sever well water; which, as it seemeth, getteth down the again; which is soon tried. And it is usual in whey. clarifying hippocras to put in milk; which after 315. It is tried, that the burying of bottles of severeth and carrieth with it the grosser parts of drink well stopped, either in dry earth a good the hippocras, as hath been said elsewhere. Also depth; or in the bottom of a well within water; for the better clarification by percolation, when and best of all, the hanging of them in a deep well they tun new beer, they use to let it pass through somewhat above the water for some fortnight's a strainer, and it is like the finer the strainer is space, is an excellent means of making drink fresh the clearer it will be.

and quick; for the cold doth not cause any exhal.

ing of the spirits at all, as heat doth, though it rariExperiments in consort touching maturation, and fieth the rest that remain; but cold maketh the

the accelerating thereof. And first, touching the spirits vigorous, and irritateth them, whereby they maturation and quickening of drinks. And next, incorporate the parts of the liquor perfectly. touching the maturation of fruits.

316. As for the maturation of fruits, it is wrought. The accelerating of maturation we will now in- by the calling forth of the spirits of the body out

And of maturation itself. It is of three ward, and so spreading them more smoothly: and natures. The maturation of fruits, the maturation likewise by digesting in some degree the grosser of drinks, and the maturation of imposthumes and parts; and this is effected by heat, motion, attracalcers. This last we refer to another place, where tion, and by a rudiment of putrefaction; for the eve shall handle experiments medicinal. There inception of putrefaction hath in it a maturation. be also other maturations, as of metals, &c. where- 317. There were taken apples, and laid in straw, of we will speak as occasion serveth. But we in hay, in flour, in chalk, in lime; covered over will begin with that of drinks, because it hath with onions, covered over with crabs, closed up such affinity with the clarification of liquors. in wax, shut in a box, &c. There was also an

312. For the maturation of drinks, it is wrought apple hanged up in smoke, of all which the expeby the congregation of the spirits together, where- riment sorted in this manner. by they digest more perfectly the grosser parts: 318. After a month's space, the apple enclosed and it is effected partly by the same means that in wax was as green and fresh as at the first putclarification is, whereof we spake before; but then ting in, and the kernels continued white. The note, that an extreme clarification doth spread the cause is, for that all exclusion of open air, which spirits so smooth, as they become dull, and the is ever predatory, maintaineth the body in its first drink dead, which ought to have a little flowering. freshness and moisture; but the inconvenience And therefore all your clear amber drink is fiat. is, that it tasteth a little of the wax: which I sup

313. We see the degrees of maturation of drinks pose, in a pomegranate, or some such thick-coated in muste, in wine, as it is drunk, and in vinegar. fruit, it would not do. Whereof muste hath not the spirits well congre- 319. The apple hanged in the smoke turned gated; wine hath them well united, so as they make like an old mellow apple, wrinkled, dry, soft, the parts somewhat more oily; vinegar hath them sweet, yellow within. The cause is, for that such congregated, but more jejune, and in a smaller a degree of heat, which doth neither melt nor quantity, the greatest and finest spirit and part scorch, (for we see that in a greater heat, a roast being exhaled : for we see vinegar is made by set- apple softeneth and melteth ; and pigs' feet, made ting the vessel of wine against the hot sun; and of quarters of wardens, scorch and have a skin of therefore vinegar will not burn; for that much of cole,) doth mellow, and not adure: the smoke the finer parts is exhaled.

also maketh the apple, as it were, sprinkled with 314. The refreshing and quickening of drink soot, which helpeth to mature. We see that in palled or dead, is by enforcing the motion of the drying of pears and prunes in the oven, and respirit: so we see that open weather relaxeth the moving of them often as they begin to sweat, there spirit, and maketh it more lively in motion. We is a like operation; but that is with a far more insee also bottling of beer or ale, while it is new tense degree of heat. and full of spirit, so that it spirteth when the stop- 320. The apples covered in the lime and ashes ple is taken forth, maketh the drink more quick were well matured, as appeared both in their yeland windy. A pan of coals in the cellar doth lowness and sweetness. The cause is, for that likew good, and maketh the drink work again. that degree of heat which is in lime and

hes, beNew drink put to drink that is dead provoketh it ing a smothering heat, is of all the rest most proto work again : nay, which is more, as some per, for it doth neither liquefy nor arefy, and that affirm, a brewing of new beer set by old beer is true maturation. Note, that the taste of those apples was good, and therefore it is the experi- she would perform her own work; and that, if ment fittest for use.

the crudities, impurities, and leprosities of metals 321. The apples covered with crabs and onions were cured, they would become gold; and that a were likewise well matured. The cause is, not little quantity of the medicine, in the work of any heat; but for that the crabs and the onions projection, will turn a sea of the baser metal into draw forth the spirits of the apple, and spread gold by multiplying: all these are but dreams; them equally throughout the body, which taketh and so are many other grounds of alchymy. And away hardness. So we see one apple ripeneth to help the matter, the alchymists call in likewise against another. And therefore in making of ci- many vanities out of astrology, natural magic, der they turn the apples first upon a heap. So superstitious interpretations of Scriptures, aurione cluster of grapes that toucheth another whilst cular traditions, feigned testimonies of ancient it groweth, ripeneth faster; “botrus contra botrum authors, and the like. It is true, on the other citius maturescit."

side, they have brought to light not a few profit322. The apples in hay and the straw ripened able experiments, and thereby made the world apparently, though not so much as the other; but some amends. But we, when we shall come to the apple in the straw more. The cause is, for that handle the version and transmutation of bodies, the hay and straw have a very low degree of heat, and the experiments concerning metals and but yet close and smothering, and which drieth not. minerals, will lay open the true ways and pas

323. The apple in the close box was ripened sages of nature, which may lead to this great also: the cause is, for that all air kept close hath effect. And we commend the wit of the Chinese, a degree of warmth ; as we see in wool, fur, who despair of making of gold, but are mad upon plush, &c. Note, that all of these were compared the making of silver: for certain it is, that it is with another apple of the same kind that lay of more difficult to make gold, which is the most itself; and in comparison of that were more sweet ponderous and materiate amongst metals, of other and more yellow, and so appeared to be more ripe. metals less ponderous and less materiate, than

324. Take an apple or pear, or other like fruit, “via versa," to make silver of lead or quicksilver, and roll it upon a table hard: we see in common both which are more ponderous than silver: so experience, that the rolling doth soften and sweeten that they need rather a further degree of fixation the fruit presently; which is nothing but the than any condensation. In the mean time, by smooth distribution of the spirits into the parts; occasion of handling the axioms touching matufor the unequal distribution of the spirits maketh ration, we will direct a trial touching the maturing the harshness: but this hard rolling is between of metals, and thereby turning some of them into concoction and a simple maturation ; therefore, if gold: for we conceive indeed, that a perfect good you should roll them but gently, perhaps twice a concoction, or digestion, or maturation of some day, and continue it some seven days, it is like metals, will produce gold. And hereby, we call they would mature more finely, and like unto the to mind, that we knew a Dutchman, that had natural maturation.

wrought himself into the belief of a great person, 325. Take an apple, and cut out a piece of the by undertaking that he could make gold: whose top, and cover it, to see whether that solution of discourse was, that gold might be made; but that continuity will not hasten a maturation: we see the alchymists over-fired the work: for, he said, that where a wasp, or a fly, or a worm hath bitten, the making of gold did require a very temperate in a grape, or any fruit, it will sweeten hastily. heat, as being in nature a subterrany work, where

326. Take an apple, &c., and prick it with a little heat cometh ; but yet more to the making of pin full of holes, not deep, and smear it a little gold than of any other metal; and therefore that with sack, or cinnamon water, or spirit of wine, he would do it with a great lamp that should carry every day for ten days, to see if the virtual heat a temperate and equal heat; and that it was the of the wine or strong waters will not mature it. work of many months. The device of the lamp

In these trials also, as was used in the first, set was folly; but the over-firing now used, and the another of the same fruits by to compare them, equal heat to be required, and the making it a and try them by their yellowness and by their work of some good time, are no ill discourses. sweetness.

We resort therefore to our axioms of maturation,

in effect touched before. The first is, that there be Experiment solitary touching the making of gold. used a temperate heat; for they are ever temperate

The world hath been much abused by the heats that digest and mature: wherein we mean opinion of making of gold: the work itself I temperate according to the nature of the subject; judge to be possible; but the means hitherto for that may be temperate to fruits and liquors, propounded to effect it are, in the practice, full of which will not work at all upon metals. The error and imposture, and in the theory, full of second is, that the spirits of the metal be quickunsound imaginations. For to say, that nature ened, and the tangible parts opened : for without hath an intention to make all metals gold; and those two operations, the spirit of the metal that, if she were delivered from impediments, wrought upon will not be able to digest the parts. VOL. II.-7


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The third is, that the spirits do spread themselves of the spirits of bodies, which ever are unquiet to even, and move not subsultorily, for that will make get forth and congregate with the air, and to enjoy the parts close and pliant. And this requireth a the sunbeams. The getting forth, or spreading of heat that doth not rise and fall, but continue as the spirits, which is a degree of getting forth, hath equal as may be. The fourth is, that po part of five differing operations. If the spirits be dethe spirit be omitted but detained : for if there be tained within the body, and move more violently, emission of spirit, the body of the metal will be there followeth colliquation, as in metals, &c. If hard and churlish. And this will be performed, more mildly, there followeth digestion or maturapartly by the temper of the fire, and partly by the tion, as in drinks and fruits. If the spirits be not closeness of the vessel. The fifth is, that there merely detained, but protrude a little, and that be choice made of the likeliest and best prepared motion be confused and inordinate, there followeth metal for the version, for that will facilitate the putrefaction; which ever dissolveth the consistwork. The sixth is, that you give time enough ence of the body into much inequality, as in flesh, for the work; not to prolong hopes, as the alchy- rotten fruits, shining wood, &c., and also in tho mists do, but indeed to give nature a convenient rust of metals. But if that motion be in a certain space to work in. These principles are most order, there followeth vivification and figuration; certain and true; we will now derive a direction as both in living creatures bred of putrefaction, of trial out of them, which may, perhaps, by and in living creatures perfect. But if the spirits further meditation, be improved.

issue out of the body, there followeth desiccation, 327. Let there be a small furnace made of a induration, consumption, &c., as in brick, evapotemperate heat; let the heat be such as may keep ration of bodies liquid, &c. the metal perpetually molten, and no more; for 329. The means to induce and accelerate putrethat above all importeth to the work. For the faction, are, first, by adding some crude or watery material, take silver, which is the metal that in moisture; as in wetting of any flesh, fruit, wood, nature symbolizeth most with gold ; put in also with water, &c., for contrariwise unctuous and with the silver, a tenth part of quicksilver, and a oily substances preserve. twelfth part of nitre, by weight; both these to 330. The second is by invitation or excitation: quicken and open the body of the metal ; and so as when a rotten apple lieth close to another apple let the work be continued by the space of six that is sound; or when dung, which is a substance months at the least. I wish also, that there be already putrefied, is added to other bodies. And at some times an injection of some oiled substance, this is also notably seen in churchyards, where such as they use in the recovering of gold, which they bury much, where the earth will consume by vexing with separations hath been made churl- the corpse in far shorter time than other earth will. ish; and this is to lay the parts more close and 331. The third is by closeness and stopping, smooth, which is the main work. For gold, as which detaineth the spirits in prison more than we see, is the closest, and therefore the heaviest they would; and thereby irritateth them to seek of metals; and is likewise the most flexible and issue; as in corn and clothes, which wax musty; tensible. Note, that to think to make gold of and therefore open air, which they call “aêr perquicksilver, because it is the heaviest, is a thing flabilis," doth preserve: and this doth appear more not to be hoped ; for quicksilver will not endure evidently in agues, which come, most of them, the manage of the fire. Next to silver, I think of obstructions, and penning the humours which copper were fittest to be the material.

thereupon putrefy.

332. The fourth is by solution of continuity; Erperiment solitary touching the nature of gold.

as we see an apple will rot sooner if it be cut or 328. Gold hath these natures; greatness of pierced ; and so will wood, &c. And so the flesh weight, closeness of parts, fixation, pliantness or of creatures alive, where they have received any softness, immunity from rust, colour or tincture wound. of yellow. Therefore the sure way, though most 333. The fifth is either by the exhaling or by about, to make gold, is to know the causes of the the driving back of the principal spirits which several natures before rehearsed, and the axioms preserve the consistence of the body; so that concerning the same. For if a man can make a when their government is dissolved, every part metal that hath all these properties, let men dis- returneth to his nature or homogeny. And this pute whether it be gold or no.

appeareth in urine and blood when they cool, and

thereby break: it appeareth also in the gangrene, Experiments in consort touching the inducing and or mortification of flesh, either by opiates or by accelerating of putrefaction.

intense colds. I conceive also the same effect is The inducing and accelerating of putrefaction in pestilences: for that the malignity of the inis a subject of very universal inquiry: for corrup- fecting vapour danceth the principal spirits, and tion is a reciprocal to generation: and they two maketh them fly and leave their regiment; and are as nature's two terms or boundaries; and the then the humours, flesh, and secondary spirits, do guides to life and death. Putrefaction is the work dissolve and break, as in an anarchy.

334. The sixth is, when a foreign spirit, stronger factions of the bodies of men and living creatures, and more eager than the spirit of the body, enter- as in agues, worms, consumptions of the lungs, ėth the body, as in the stinging of serpents. imposthumes, and ulcers both inwards and outAnd this is the cause generally, that upon all wards, they are a great part of physic and surgery; poisons followeth swelling: and we see swelling and therefore we will reserve the inquiry of them followeth also when the spirits of the body itself to the proper place, where we shall handle medicongregate too much, as upon blows and bruises ; cinal experiments of all sorts. Of the rest we or when they are pent in too much, as in swelling will now enter into an inquiry: wherein much upon cold. And we see also, that the spirits light may be taken from that which hath been coming of putrefaction of humours in agues, &c., said of the means to induce or accelerate putrewhich may be counted as foreign spirits, though faction: for that which caused putrefaction doth they be bred within the body, do extinguish and prevent and avoid putrefaction. suffocate the natural spirits and heat.

341. The first means of prohibiting or checking 335. The seventh is by such a weak degree of putrefaction is cold: for so we see that meat and heat as setteth the spirits in a little motion, but drink will last longer unputrefied, or unsoured, in is not able either to digest the parts, or to issue winter than in summer : and we see that flowers the spirits; as is seen in flesh kept in a room and fruits, put in conservatories of snow, keep that is not cool; whereas in a cool and wet larder fresh. And this worketh by the detention of the it will keep longer. And we see that vivification, spirits, and constipation of the tangible parts. whereof putrefaction is the bastard brother, is 342. The second is astriction: for astriction affected by such soft heats; as the hatching of prohibiteth dissolution; as we see generally in eggs, the heat of the womb, &c.

medicines, whereof such as are astringents do 336. The eighth is by the releasing of the inhibit putrefaction: and by the same reason of spirits, which before were close kept by the solid- astringency, some small quantity of oil of vitriol ness of their coverture, and thereby their appetite will keep fresh water long from putrefying. And of issuing checked; as in the artificial rusts this astriction is in a substance that hath a virtual induced by strong waters in iron, lead, &c., and cold; and it worketh partly by the same means therefore wetting hasteneth rust or putrefaction that cold doth. of any thing, because it softeneth the crust for 343. The third is the excluding of the air; and the spirits to come forth.

again, the exposing to the air ; for these contraries, 337. The ninth is by the interchange of heat as it cometh often to pass, work the same effect, and cold, or wet and dry ; as we see in the mould- according to the nature of the subject matter. ing of earth in frosts and sun; and in the more So we see, that beer or wine, in bottles close hasty rotting of wood that is sometimes wet, stopped, last long : that the garners under ground sometimes dry.

keep corn longer than those above ground; and 338. The tenth is by time, and the work and that fruit closed in wax keepeth fresh; and likeprocedure of the spirits themselves, which cannot wise bodies put in honey and flour keep more keep their station; especially if they be left to fresh: and liquors, drinks, and juices, with a themselves, and there be no agitation or local little oil cast on the top, keep fresh. Contrariwise, motion. As we see in corn not stirred, and men's we see that cloth and apparel not aired do breed bodies not exercised.

moths and mould; and the diversity is, that in 339. All moulds are inceptions of putrefaction; bodies that need detention of spirits, the exclusion as the moulds of pies and flesh; the moulds of of the air doth good; as in drinks and corn: but oranges and lemons, which moulds afterwards in bodies that need emission of spirits to discharge turn into worms, or more odious putrefactions; some of the superfluous moisture, it doth hurt, and therefore commonly prove to be of ill odour. for they require airing. And if the body be liquid, and not apt to putrefy 344. The fourth is motion and stirring; for totally, it will cast up a mother in the top, as the putrefaction asketh rest: for the subtile motion mnothers of distilled waters.

which putrefaction requireth, is disturbed by any 340. Moss is a kind of mould of the earth and agitation : and all local motion keepeth bodies trees. But it may be better sorted as a rudiment integral

, and their parts together; as we see that of germination, to which we refer it.

turning over of corn in a garner, or letting it run

like an hour-glass, from an upper-room into a Experiments in consort touching prohibiting and lower, doth keep it sweet: and running waters pupreventing putrefaction.

trefy not; and in men's bodies, exercise hindereth It is an inquiry of excellent use to inquire of putrefaction; and contrariwise, rest and want of the means of preventing or staying putrefaction; motion, or stoppings, whereby the run of humours, for therein consisteth the means of conservation or the motion of perspiration, is stayed further of bodies: for bodies have two kinds of dissolu- putrefaction; as we partly touched a little before. tions; the one by consumption and desiccation, 345. The fifth is the breathing forth of the ad the other by putrefaction. But as for the putre- ventitious moisture in bodies; for as wetting doth hasten putrefaction, so convenient drying, and it sorted not: for dry bladders will not blow: whereby the more radical moisture is only kept and new bladders rather further putrefaction : the in, putteth back putrefaction; so we see that way were therefore to blow strongly with a pair herbs and flowers, if they be dried in the shade, of bellows into a hogshead, putting into the or dried in the hot sun for a small time, keep best. hogshead, before, that which you would have For the emission of the loose and adventitious preserved; and in the instant that you withdraw moisture doth betray the radical moisture, and the bellows, stop the hole close. carrieth it out for company.

346. The sixth is the strengthening of the Experiment solitary touching wood shining in the spirits of bodies : for as a great heat keepeth

dark. bodies from putrefaction, but a tepid heat inclineth 352. The experiment of wood that shineth in them to putrefaction; so a strong spirit likewise the dark, we have diligently driven and pursued: preserveth, and a weak or faint spirit disposeth to the rather, for that of all things that give light corruption. So we find that salt water corrupteth here below, it is the most durable, and hath least not so soon as fresh: and salting of oysters, and apparent motion. Fire and flame are in continual powdering of meat, keepeth them from putrefac- expense; sugar shineth only while it is in scraption. It would be tried also whether chalk put ing; and saltwater while it is in dashing; glowinto water, or drink, doth not preserve it from worms have their shining while they live, or a putrefying or speedy souring. So we see that little after; only scales of fishes putrefied seem to strong beer will last longer than small; and all be of the same nature with shining wood: and it things that are hot and aromatical do help to is true, that all putrefaction hath with it an inward preserve liquors, or powders, &c., which they do motion, as well as fire or light. The trial sorted as well by strengthening the spirits as by soak- thus: 1. The shining is in some pieces more ing out the loose moisture.

bright, in some more dim; but the most bright 347. The seventh is separation of the cruder of all doth not attain to the light of a glow-worm. parts, and thereby making the body more equal; 2. The woods that have been tried to shine, are for all imperfect mixture is apt to putrefy; and chiefly sallow and willow; also the ash and hazle; watery substances are niore apt to putrefy than it may be it holdeth in others. 3. Both root and oily. So we see distilled waters will last longer bodies do shine, but the roots better. 4. The than raw waters; and things that have passed colour of the shining part, by day-light, is in some the fire do last longer than those that have not pieces white, in some pieces inclining to red ; passed the fire, as dried pears, &c.

which in the country they call the white and red 348. The eighth is the drawing forth continually garret. 5. The part that shineth is, for the most. of that part where the putrefaction beginneth; part, somewhat soft, and moist to feel to, but some which is, commonly, the loose and watery moist- was found to be firrn and hard, so as it might be ure; not only for the reason before given, that it figured into a cross, or into beads, &c. provoketh the radical moisture to come forth with must not look to have an image, or the like, in it; but because being detained in the body, the any thing that is lightsome; for even a face in putrefaction taking hold of it, infecteth the rest: iron red-hot will not be seen, the light confoundas we see in the embalming of dead bodies ; and ing the small differences of lightsome and darkthe same reason is of preserving herbs, or fruits, some, which show the figure. 6. There was the or flowers, in bran or meal.

shining part pared off, till you came to that that 349. The ninth is the commixture of any thing did not shine ; but within two days the part conthat is more oily or sweet: for such bodies are tiguous began also to shine, being laid abroad in least apt to putrefy, the air worketh little upon the dew: so as it seemeth the putrefaction spreadthem, and they not putrefying, preserve the rest. eth. 7. There was other dead wood of like kind And therefore we see syrups and ointments will that was laid abroad, which shined not at the first; last longer than juices.

but after a night's lying abroad began to shine. 350. The tenth is the commixture of somewhat 8. There was other wood that did first shine; that is dry; for putrefaction beginneth first from and being laid dry in the house, within five or the spirits and then from the moisture; and that six days lost the shining; and laid abroad again, that is dry is unapt to putrefy: and therefore recovered the shining. 9. Shining woods being smoke preserveth flesh; as we see in bacon and laid in a dry room, within a seven-night lose their neats' tongues, and Martlemas beef, &c. shining; but being laid in a cellar, or dark room,

351. The opinion of some of the ancients, that keeps the shining. 10. The boring of holes in blown airs do preserve bodies longer than other that kind of wood, and then laying it abroad, airs, seemeth to me probable; for that the blown seemeth to conduce to make it shine: the cause airs, being overcharged and compressed, will is, for that all solution of continuity doth help on hardly receive the exhaling of any thing, but putrefaction, as was touched before. 11. No rather repulse it. It was tried in a blown bladder, wood hath been yet tried to shine, that was cut whereinto flesh was put, and likewise a flower, down alive, but such as was rotted both in stock

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