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the readiness and good zeal of that our chiefest to extend our princely care to the supply of the and most famous city, the city of London, the very neglects and omissions of any thing that chamber of that our kingdom: assuring them, that may tend to the good of our people. So that we will be unto that city, by all means of confirm- every place and service that is fit for the honour ing and increasing their happy and wealthy estate, or good of the commonwealth shall be filled, and not only a just and gracious sovereign lord and king, no man's virtue left idle, unemployed, or unrebut a special and bountiful patron and benefactor. warded ; and every good ordinance and constitu
And we, on our part, as well in remuneration tion, for the amendment of the estate and times, of all their loyal and loving affections, as in dis- be revived and put in execution. charge of our princely office, do promise and In the mean time, minding by God's leave, all assure them, that as all manner of estates have delay set apart, to comfort and secure our loving concurred and consented in their duty and zeal subjects in our kingdom of England by our pertowards us, so it shall be our continual care and sonal presence there, we require all our loving resolution to preserve and maintain every several subjects joyfully to expect the same: and yet so, estate in a happy and flourishing condition, with as we signify our will and pleasure to be, that all out confusion or overgrowing of any one to the such ceremonies and preparations as shall be prejudice, discontentment, or discouragement of made and used to do us honour, or to express the rest: and generally in all estates we hope gratulation, be rather comely and orderly, than God will strengthen and assist us, not only to sumptuous and glorious; and for the expressing extirpate all gross and notorious abuses, and cor- of magnificence, that it be rather employed and ruptions, of simonies, briberies, extortions, exac- bestowed upon the funeral of the late queen, to tions, oppressions, vexations, burdensome pay- whose memory, we are of opinion, too much ments, and overcharges, and the like; but further I honour cannot be done or performed.
A DRAUGHT OF A PROCLAMATION
TOUCHING HIS MAJESTY'S STYLE.
[PREPARED, NOT USED.]
As it is a manifest token, or rather a substantial | freedom from inward burdens, unto both which effect, of the wrath and indignation of God, people under petty and weak estates are more when kingdoms are rent and divided, which have exposed; which so happy fruit of the union of formerly been entire and united under one monarch kingdoms is chiefly to be understood, when such and governor; so, on the contrary part, when it conjunction or augmentation is not wrought by shall please the Almighty, by whom kings reign conquest and violence, or by pact and submission, as his deputies and lieutenants, to enlarge his but by the law of nature and hereditary descent. commissions of empire and sovereignty, and to For in conquest it is commonly seen although commit those nations to one king to govern, the bulk and quantity of territory be increased, which he hath formerly committed to several yet the strength of kingdoms is diminished, as kings, it is an evident argument of his great well by the wasting of the forces of both parts favour both upon king and upon people; upon in the conflict, as by the evil coherence of the the king, inasmuch as he may with comfort con- nation conquering and conquered, the one being ceive that he is one of those servants to whom it apt to be insolent, and the other discontent; and was said, " Thou hast been faithful in the less, I so both full of jealousies and discord. And will make thee lord of more;' upon the people, where countries are annexed only by act of because the greatness of kingdoms and domi- estates and submissions, such submissions are nions, especially not being scattered, but adjacent commonly grounded upon fear, which is no good and compact, doth ever bring with it greater author of continuance, besides the quarrels and security from outward enemies, and greater revolts which do ensue upon conditional and articulate subjections: but when the lines of two difference at all between the subjects of either kingdoms do meet in the person of one monarch, nation, in affection, honours, favours, gifts, emas in a true point or perfect angle; and that from ployments, confidences, or the like; but only marriage, which is the first conjunction in human such as the true distinctions of the persons, society, there shall proceed one inheritor in blood being capable or not capable, fit or not fit, to several kingdoms, whereby they are actually acquainted with affairs or not acquainted with united and incorporated under one head; it is the affairs, needing our princely bounty or not needwork of God and nature, whereunto the works of ing the same, approved to us by our experience force and policy cannot attain; and it is that or not approved, meriting or not meriting, and which hath not in itself any manner of seeds of the several degrees of these and the like condi. discord or disunion, other than such as envy and tions, shall in right reason tie us unto, without malignity shall sow, and which groundeth a any manner of regard to the country in itself; to union, not only indissoluble, but also most com- the end that they may well perceive, that in our fortable and happy amongst the people. mind and apprehension they are all one and the
We therefore in all humbleness acknowledge, same nation: and that our heart is truly placed that it is the great and blessed work of Almighty in the centre of government, from whence all God, that these two ancient and mighty realms lines to the circumference are equal and of one of England and Scotland, which by nature have space and distance. no true but an imaginary separation, being both But for the further advancing and perfecting of situated and comprehended in one most famous this work, we have taken into our princely care and and renowned island of Great Britany, compassed cogitations, what it is that may appertain to our by the ocean, without any mountains, seas, or own imperial power, right, and authority: and what other boundaries of nature, to make any partition, requireth votes and assents of our parliaments or wall, or trench, between them, and being also estates; and, again, what may presently be done, exempted from the first curse of disunion, which and what must be left to further time, that was the confusion of tongues, and being people our proceedings may be void of all inconvenience of a like constitution of mind and body, espe- and informality; wherein, by the example of Alcially in warlike prowess and disposition: and mighty God, who is accustomed to begin all his yet, nevertheless, have in so many ages been great works and designments by alterations or disjoined nnder several kings and governors, are impositions of names, as the fittest means to imnow at the last, by right inherent in the commix- print in the hearts of people a character and exture of our blood, united in our person and ge- pectation of that which is to follow; we have neration; wherein it hath pleased God to anoint thought good to withdraw and discontinue the us with the oil of gladness and gratulation above divided names of England and Scotland out of our progenitors, kings of either nation. Neither our regal style and title, and to use in place of can we sufficiently contemplate and behold the them the common and contracted name of Great passages, degrees, and insinuations, whereby it Britany: not upon any vainglory, whereof, we hath pleased the eternal God, to whom all his persuade ourselves, our actions do sufficiently free works are from beginning known and present, to us in the judgment of all the world ; and if any open and prepare a way to this excellent work; such humour should reign in us, it were better having first ordained that both nations should be satisfied by length of style and enumeration of knit in one true and reformed religion, which is kingdoms : but only as a fit signification of that the perfectest band of all unity and union; and, which is already done, and a significant prefigurasecondly, that there should precede so long a tion of that which we further intend. For as, in peace continued between the nations for so many giving names to natural persons, it is used to imyears last past, whereby all seeds and sparks of pose them in infancy, and not to stay till fulness of ancient discord have been laid asleep, and grown growth ; so it seemed to us not unseasonable to to an obliteration and oblivion; and, lastly, that bring in further use this name at the first, and to ourselves, in the true measure of our affections, proceed to the more substantial points of the union should have so just cause to embrace both nations after, as fast and as far as the common good of with equal and indifferent love and inclination, both the realms should permit, especially coninasmuch as our birth and the passing of the sidering the name of Britany was no coined, or first part of our age hath been in one nation, and new-devised, or affected name at pleasure, but the our principal seat and mansion, and the passing true and ancient name which God and time hath of the latter part of our days is like to be in the imposed, extant, and received in histories, in other. Which our equal and upright holding of cards, and in ordinary speech and writing, where the balance between both nations, being the the whole island is meant to be denominated ; so highest point of all others in our distributive as it is not accompanied with so much as any justice, we give the world to know, that we are strangeness in common speech. And although constantly resolved to preserve inviolate against we never doubted, neither ever heard that any all emulations and partialities, not making any other presumed to doubt, but that the form and tenor of our regal style and title, and the delinea- subjects whatsoever, to whom it may in any wise tion of the same, did only and wholly of mere appertain, that from henceforth, in all commissions, sight appertain to our supreme and absolute pre- patents, writs, processes, grants, records, instrurogative to express the same in such words or ments, impressions, sermons, and all other writsort as seemed good to our royal pleasure : yet ings and speeches whatsoever, wherein our style because we were to have the advice and assent of is used to be set forth or recited, that our said our parliament concerning other points of the style, as is before by these presents declared and union, we were pleased our said parliament prescribed, be only used, and no other. And beshould, amongst the rest, take also the same into cause we do but now declare that which in truth their consideration. But finding by the grave was before, our will and pleasure is, that in the opinion of our judges, who are the interpreters of computation of our reign, as to all writings or inour laws, that, in case that alteration of style strunients hereafter to be made, the same comwhich seemed to us but verbal, should be esta- putation be taken and made as if we had taken blished and enacted by parliament, it might involve upon us the style aforesaid immediately after by implication and consequence, not only a more the decease of our late dear sister. And we do present alteration, but also a further innovation notify to all our subjects, that if any person, than we any ways intended; or at least might be of what degree or condition soever he be, shall subject to some colourable scruple of such a impugn our said style, or derogate and detract perilous construction : we rested well satisfied to from the same by any arguments, speeches, respite the same, as to require it by act of parlia- words, or otherwise ; we shall proceed against ment. But being still resolved and fixed that it him, as against an offender against our crown and may conduce towards this happy end of the better dignity, and a disturber of the quiet and peace of uniting of the nations, we have thought good by our kingdom, according to the utmost severity of the advice of our council to take the same upon us our laws in that behalf. Nevertheless, our meanby our proclamation, being a course safe and free ing is not, that where in any writ, pleading, or from any of the perils or scruples aforesaid. And other record, writing, instrument of speech, it hath therefore we do by these presents publish, pro- been used for mention to be made of England or claim, and assume to ourselves from henceforth, the realm of England, or any other word or words according to our undoubted right, the style and derived from the same, and not of our whole and title of King of Great Britany, France, and Ireland, entire style and title; that therein any alteration and otherwise as followeth in our style formerly at all be used by pretext of this our proclamation, used. And we do hereby straitly charge and com- which we intend to take place only where our whole mand our chancellor, and all such as have the custo-style shall be recited, and not otherwise ; and in the dy of any of our seals; and all other our officers and other cases the ancient form to be used and observed.
INQUISITIONS TOUCHING THE COMPOUNDING OF METALS.
To make proof of the incorporation of iron with Thirdly, Whether they will incorporate, except fint, or other stone. For if it can be incorporated the iron and stone be first calcined into powder ? without over-great charge, or other incommodity, And if not, whether the charge of the calcination the cheapness of the flint or stone doth make the will not eat out the cheapness of the material ? compound stuff profitable for divers uses. The The uses are most probable to be; first, for the doubts may be three in number.
implements of the kitchen; as spits, ranges, cobFirst, Whether they will incorporate at all, irons, pots, etc.; then for the wars, as ordnance, otherwise than to a body that will not hold well portcullises, grates, chains, etc. together, but become brittle and uneven?
Note; the finer works of iron are not so probaSecondly, Although it should incorporate well, ble to be served with such a stuff; as locks, yet whether the stuff will not be so stubborn as it clocks, small chains, etc., because the stuff is not will not work well with a hammer, whereby the like to be tough enough. charge in working will overthrow the cheapness For the better use, in comparison of iron, it is of the material ?
like the stuff will be far lighter : for the weight of iron to flint is double and a third part; and, se-| the like, the beauty will not be so much respected, condly, it is like to rust not so easily, but to be so as the compound stuff is like to pass. more clean.
For the better use of the compound stuff, it will The ways of trial are two: first, by the iron and be sweeter and cleaner than brass alone, which stone of themselves, wherein it must be inquired yieldeth a smell or soiliness; and therefore may what are the stones that do easiliest melt. Se- be better for the vessels of the kitchen and brew. condly, with an additament, wherein brimstone is ing. It will also be harder than brass, where approved to help to the melting of iron or steel. hardness may be required. But then it must be considered, whether the For the trial, the doubts will be two: first, the charge of the additament will not destroy the over-weight of brass towards iron, which will profit.
make iron float on the top in the melting. This, It must be known also, what proportion of the perhaps, will be holpen with the calaminar stone, stone the iron will receive to incorporate well which consenteth so well with brass, and, as I with it, and that with once melting; for if either take it, is lighter than iron. The other doubt will the proportion be too small, or that it cannot be be the stiffness and dryness of iron to melt; which received but piecemeal by several meltings, the must be holpen either by moistening the iron, or work cannot be of value.
opening it. For the first, perhaps some mixture To make proof of the incorporating of iron and of lead will help. Which is as much more liquid brass. For the cheapness of the iron in compa- than brass, as iron is less liquid. The opening rison of the brass, if the uses may be served, may be holpen by some mixture of sulphur: so doth promise profit. The doubt will be touching as the trials would be with brass, iron, calaminar their incorporating; for that it is approved, that stone, and sulphur; and then, again, with the iron will not incorporate, neither with brass nor same composition, and an addition of some lead; other metals, of itself, by simple fire : so as the and in all this the charge must be considered, inquiry must be upon the calcination, and the whether it eat not out the profit of the cheapness additament, and the charge of them.
of iron? The uses will be for such things as are now There be two proofs to be made of incorporation made of brass, and might be as well served by the of metals for magnificence and delicacy. The one compound stuff; wherein the doubts will be for the eye, and the other for the ear. Statuechiefly the toughness, and of the beauty. metal, and bell-metal, and trumpet-metal, and
First, therefore, if brass ordnance could be made string-metal ; in all these, though the mixture of of the compound stuff, in respect of the cheapness brass or copper should be dearer than the brass of the iron, it would be of great use.
itself, yet the pleasure will advance the price to The vantage which brass ordnance hath over profit. iron, is chiefly, as I suppose, because it will hold First, therefore, for statue-metal, see Pliny's the blow, though it be driven far thinner than the mixtures, which are almost forgotten, and consider iron can be ; whereby it saveth both in the quan- the charge. tity of the material, and in the charge and com- Try, likewise, the mixture of tin in large promodity of mounting and carriage, in regard, by portion with copper, and observe the colour and reason of the thinness, it beareth much less beauty, it being polished. But chiefly let proof weight: there may be also somewhat in being be made of the incorporating of copper or brass not so easily overheated.
with glass-metal, for that is cheap, and is like to Secondly, for the beauty. Those things wherein add a great glory and shining. the beauty or lustre are esteemed, are andirons, For bell-metal. First, it is to be known what and all manner of images, and statues, and co- is the composition which is now in use. Secondly, lumns, and tombs, and the like. So as the doubt it is probable that it is the dryness of the metal will be double for the beauty; the one, whether that doth help the clearness of the sound, and the the colour will please so well, because it will not moistness that dulleth it; and therefore the inixbe so like gold as brass ? The other, whether it tures that are probable, are steel, tin, glass-metal. will polish so well? Wherein for the latter it For string-metal, or trumpet-metal, it is the will; for steel glosses are more resplendent than same reason ; save that glass-metal may not be the like plates of brass would be; and so is the used, because it will make it too brittle; and glittering of a blade. And, besides, I take it, trial may be made with mixture of silver, it being andiron brass, which they call white brass, hath but a delicacy, with iron or brass. some mixture of tin to help the lustre. And, for To make proof of the incorporation of silver and the golden colour, it may be by some small mix- tin in equal quantity, or with two parts silver and ture of orpiment, such as they use to brass in the one part tin, and to observe whether it be of equal yellow alchemy; it will easily recover that which beauty and lustre with pure silver; and also whe. the iron loseth. Of this, the eye must be the judge ther it yield no soiliness more than silver? And, upon proof made.
again, whether it will endure the ordinary fire But now for pans, pots, curfews, counters, and I which betongeth to chafing-dishes, posnets, and
such other silver vessels? And if it do not endure. The first, means to make the glass more crystalthe fire, yet whether by some mixture of iron it line. The second, to make it more strong for may not be made more fixed ? For if it be in falls, and for fire, though it come not to the debeanty and all the uses aforesaid equal to silver, gree to be malleable. The third, to make it it were a thing of singular profit to the state, and coloured by tinctures, comparable to or exceeding to all particular persons, to change silver plate or precious stones. The fourth, to make a compound vessel into the compound stuff, being a kind of body of glass and galletyle; that is, to have the silver electre, and to turn the rest into coin. It colour milky like a chalcedon, being a stuff bemay be also questioned, whether the compound tween a porcelane and a glass. stuff will receive gilding as well as silver, and For the first, it is good first to know exactly with equal lustre? It is to be noted, that the the several materials whereof the glass in use is common allay of silver coin is brass, which doth made; window-glass, Normandy and Burgundy, discolour more, and is not so neat as tin. ale-house glass, English drinking-glass: and
The drownings of metals within other metals, then thereupon to consider what the reason is of in such sort as they can never rise again, is a the coarseness or clearness; and from thence to thing of great profit. For if a quantity of silver rise to a consideration how to make some additacan be so buried in gold, as it will never be ments to the coarser materials, to raise them to reduced again, neither by fire, nor parting waters, the whiteness and crystalline splendour of the nor other ways: and also that it serves all uses as finest. well as pure gold, it is in effect all one as if so For the second, we see pebbles, and some other much silver were turned into gold; only the stones, will cut as fine as crystal, which, if they weight will discover it; yet that taketh off but will melt, may be a mixture for glass, and may half of the profit; for gold is not fully double make it more tough and more crystalline. Besides, weight to silver, but gold is twelve times price to we see metals will vitrify; and perhaps some silver.
portion of the glass of metal vitrified, mixed in The burial must be by one of these two ways, the pot of ordinary glass-metal, will make the either by the smallness of the proportion, as per- whole mass more tough. haps fifty to one, which will be but sixpence For the third, it were good to have of coloured gains in fifty shillings; or it must be holpen by window-glass, such as is coloured in the pot, and somewhat which may fix the silver, never to be not by coloursrestored or vapoured away, when it is incorpo- It is to be known of what stuff galletyle is rated into such a mass of gold; for the less quan- made, and how the colours in it are varied; and tity is ever the harder to sever: and for this thereupon to consider how to make the mixture of purpose iron is the likest, or coppel stuff, upon glass-metal and them, whereof I have seen the which the fire hath no power of consumption. example.
The making of gold seemeth a thing scarcely Inquire what be the stones that do easiliest melt. possible; because gold is the heaviest of metals, Of them take half a pound, and of iron a pound and to add matter is impossible: and, again, to and half, and an ounce of brimstone, and see drive metals into a narrower room than their natu- whether they will incorporate, being whole, with ral extent beareth, is a condensation hardly to be a strong fire. If not, try the same quantities calexpected. But to make silver seemeth more easy, cined: and if they will incorporate, make a plate because both quicksilver and lead are weightier of them, and burnish it as they do iron. than silver: so as there needeth only fixing, and Take a pound and a half of brass, and half a not condensing. The degeee unto this, that is pound of iron; two ounces of the calaminar already known, is infusing of quicksilver in a stone, an ounce and a half of brimstone, an ounce parchment, or otherwise, in the midst of molten of lead; calcine them, and see what body they lead when it cooleth; for this stupefieth the quick- make; and if they incorporate, make a plate of it silver that it runneth no more. This trial is to be burnished. advanced three ways. First, by iterating the Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an melting of the lead, to see whether it will not ounce, and melt them together, and make a plate make the quicksilver harder and harder. Secondly, of them burnished. to put realgar hot into the midst of the quicksilver, Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an whereby it may be condensed, as well from within ounce, of glass-metal half an ounce; stir them as without. Thirdly, to try it in the midst of well in the boiling, and if they incorporate, make molten iron, or molten steel, which is a body more a plate of them burnished. likely to fix the quicksilver than lead. It may be Take of copper a pound and a half, tin four also tried, by incorporating powder of steel, or ounces, brass two ounces; make a plate of them coppel dust, by pouncing, into the quicksilver, burnished. and so to proceed to the stupefying.
Take of silver two ounces, tin half an ounce; Upon glass four things would be put in proof. I make a little say-cup of it, and burnish it. VOL. II.-58