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wavering faith, she rendered with all honour anders and that King Henry the Third, awaked by security; and his person to safe and faithful those pressing dangers, was compelled to execute hands; and so ever after during his minority the Duke of Guise without ceremony; and yet continued his principal guardian and protector. nevertheless found the despair of so many persons In the time and between the two occasions of embarked and engaged in that conspiracy, so vioScotland, when the same faction of Guise, lent, as the flame thereby was little assuaged; so covered still with pretence of religion, and that he was inforced to implore her aids and sucstrengthened by the desire of retaining govern- cours. Consider how benign care and good corment in the queen-mother of France, had raised respondence she gave to the distressed requests of and moved civil wars in that kingdom, only to that king; and he soon after being, by the sacriextirpate the ancient nobility, by shocking them legious hand of a wretched jacobin lifted up against one against another, and to waste that realm as the sacred person of his natural sovereign, taken a candle which is lighted at both ends: and that away, not wherein the criminous blood of Guise, those of the religion, being near of the blood- but the innocent blood which he hath often spilled royal, and otherwise of the greatest house in by instigation of him and his house was revenged, France, and great officers of the crown, opposed and that this worthy gentleman who reigneth themselves only against their insolency, and to come to the crown; it will not be forgotten by so their supports called in her aid, giving unto them grateful a king, nor by so observing an age, how Newhaven for a place of security: see with what ready, how opportune and reasonable, how royal alacrity, in tender regard towards the fortune of and sufficient her succours were, whereby she that young king, whose name was used to the enlarged him at that time, and preferred him to suppliants of his strength, she embraced the his better fortune: and ever since in those tedienterprise; and by their support and reputation ous wars, wherein he hath to do with a hydra, or the same party suddenly made great proceedings, a monster with many heads, she hath supported and in conclusion made their peace as they would him with treasure, with forces, and with en ploge themselves: and although they joined themselves ment of one that she favoureth most. What shall against her, and performed the parts rather of I speak of the offering of Don Anthony to his good patriots than of good confederates, and that fortune; a devoted Catholic, only commended after great demonstration of valour in her sub- unto her by his oppressed state ? What shall I jects. For, as the French will to this day report, say of the great storm of a mighty invasion, not especially by the great mortality by the hand of of preparation, but in act, by the Turk upon the God, and the rather because it is known she did King of Poland, lately dissipated only by the never much affect the holding of that town to her beans of her reputation : which with the Grand own use; it was left, and her forces withdrawn, Signor is greater than that of all the states of yet did that nothing diminish her merit of the Europe put together? But let me rest upon the crown, and namely of that party who recovered honourable and continual aid and relief she hath by it such strength, as by that and no other thing gotten to the distressed and desolate people of the they subsisted long after: and lest that any Low Countries; a people recommended unto her by should sinisterly and maliciously interpret that ancient confederacy and daily intercourse, by their she did nourish those divisions; who knoweth cause so innocent, and their fortune so lamentanot what faithful advice, continual and earnest ble. And yet, notwithstanding, to keep the consolicitation she used by her ambassadors and formity of her own proceeding never stained with ministers to the French kings successively, and to the least note of ambition or malice, she refused their mother, to move them to keep their edicts of the sovereignty of divers of those goodly propacification, to retain their own authority and vinces otfered unto her with great instance, to have greatness by the union of her subjects? Which been accepted with great contentment both of her counsel, if it had been as happily followed, as it own people and others, and justly to be derived was prudently and sincerely given, France at this either in respect of the hostility of Spain, or in day had been a most flourishing kingdom, which respect of the conditions, liberties, and privileges now is a theatre of misery. And now, at last, when of those subjects, and without charge, danger, the said house of Guise, being one of the whips and offence to the King of Spain and his partisans. of God, whereof themselves are but the cords, and She hath taken upon her their defence and proSpain the stock, had by their infinite aspiring tection, without any further avail or profit unto practices wronght the miracles of states, to make a herself, than the honour and merit of her benigking in possession long established to play again nity to the people, that hath been pursued by their for his crown, without any title of a competitor, | natural king only upon passion and wrath, in without any invasion of a foreign enemy, yea, such sort that he doth consume his means upon without any combination in substance of a blood-revenge. And, having to verify that which I said, royal or nobility ; but only by furring in audacious that her merits have extended to her greatest enepersons into sundry governments, and by making mies; let it be remembered what hath passed in the populace of towns drunk with seditious preach- that matter between the king of Spain and her: how in the beginning of the troubles there, sheject to him that enjoyeth moderate liberty, upon gave and imparted to him faithful and friendly whom he tyrannizeth not: let them all know, it is advice touching the course that was to be taken by the mercy of this renowned queen, that standfor quieting and appeasing of them. Then she eth between them and their misfortunes. These interposed herself to most just and reasonable be some of the beams of noble and radiant magcapitulations, wherein always should have been nanimity, in contempt of peril, which so manipreserved unto him as ample interest, jurisdiction, festly, in contempt of profit, which so many adand superiority in those countries as he in right mire, and in merit of the world, which so many could claim, or a prince well-minded would seek include in themselves; set forth in my simplito have: and, which is the greatest point, she did city of speech with much loss of lustre, but with by her advice, credit, and policy, and all good near approach of truth; as the sun is seen in the means, interrupt and appeach, that the same peo- water. ple by despair should not utterly alien and distract Now to pass to the excellences of her person: themselves from the obedience of the King of the view of them wholly and not severally, do Spain, and cast themselves into the arms of a make so sweet a wonder, as I fear to divide them. stranger: insomuch, that it is most true, that she Again, nobility extracted out of the royal and did ever persuade the Duke of Anjou from that | victorious line of the kings of England; yea, action, notwithstanding the affection she bore to both roses, white and red, do as well flourish in that duke, and the obstinacy which she saw daily her nobility as in her beauty, as health, such as growing in the King of Spain. Lastly, to touch was like she should have that was brought forth the mighty general merit of this queen, bear in by two of the most goodly princes of the world, mind, that her benignity and beneficence hath in the strength of their years, in the heat of their been as large as the oppression and ambition of love ; that hath been injured neither with an overSpain. For, to begin with the church of Rome, liberal nor over-curious diet; that hath not been that pretended apostolic see is become but a dona- sustained by an umbratile life still under the roof, tive cell of the King of Spain; the vicar of Christ but strengthened by the use of the pure and open is become the King of Spain's chaplain; he part- air, that still retaineth flower and vigour of youth. eth the coming in of the new pope, for the treasure For the beauty and many graces of her presence, of the old: he was wont to exclude but some two what colours are fine enough for such a portraitor three cardinals, and to leave the election of the ure ? let no light poet be used for such a descriprest; but now he doth include, and present direct- tion, but the chastest and the royalest: ly some small number, all incapable and incomi- Of her gait; “ Et vera incessu patuit Dea." patible with the conclave, put in only for colour, Of her voice; “ Nec vox hominem sonat." except one or two. The states of Italy, they be Of her eye; “ Et lætos oculis afflavit honores." like little quillets of freehold, being intermixed in Of her colour; “Indum sanguineo veluti violathe midst of a great honour or lordship: France

verit ostro Si quis ebur." is turned upside down, the bject against the Of her neck; “ Et rosea cervice refulsit.” king, cut and mangled infinitely, a country of Of her breast; - Veste sinus collecta fluentes." Rodamonts and Roytelets, farmers of the ways: Of her hair; “Ambrosiæque comæ divinum Portugal usurped by no other title than strength

vertice odorem and vicinity: the Low Countries warred upon, be

Spiravere." cause he seeketh, not to possess them, for they If this be presumption, let him bear the blame were possessed by him before, but to plant there that owneth the verses. What shall I speak of an absolute and martial government, and to sup- her rare qualities of compliment; which as they press their liberties: the like at this day attempted be excellent in the things themselves, so they have upon Arragon: the poor Indies, whereas the always besides somewhat of a queen: and as Christian religion generally brought enfranchise- queens use shadows and veils with their rich ment of slaves in all plices where it came, in a apparel; methinks in all her qualities there is contrary course are brought from freemen to be somewhat that flieth from ostentation, and yet slaves, and slaves of most miserable condition : inviteth the mind to contemplate her more? sundry trains and practices of this king's ambi- What should I speak of her excellent gift of tion in Germany, Deninark, Scotland, the east speech, being a character of the greatness of her towns, are not unknown. Then it is her govern- conceit, the height of her degree, and the sweetment, and her government alone, that hath been ness of her nature? What life, what edge is there the sconce fort of all Europe, which hath leit in those words and glances wherewith at pleasure this proud nation from overrunning all. If any she can give a man long to think; be it that she state be yet free from his factions erected in the mean to daunt him, to encourage him, or to amaze bowels thereof; if there be any state wherein this him! How adinirable is her discourse, whether faction is erected. that is not yet fired with civil it be in learning, state, or love! what variety of troubles; if there be any slíta under his protection knowledge; what rareness of conceit; what upon whom he usurpeth not; if there be any sub-choice of words; what grace of utterance ! Dotb Vol. II.-57

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it not appear, that though her wit be as the ada- | called his? Peruse the catalogue : Cornelius mant of excellences, which draweth out of any Sylla, Julius Cæsar, Flavius Vespasianus, Sevebook ancient or new, out of any writing or speech, rus, Constantinus the Great, and many more. the best; yet she refineth it, she enricheth it far “Generare et liberi, humana: creare et operari, above the value wherein it is received? And is divina.” And, therefore, this objection removed, her speech only that language which the child let us proceed to take a view of her felicity. learneth with pleasure, and not those which the A mate of fortune she never took: only some studious learn with industry ? Hath she not at- adversity she passed at the first, to give her a tained, besides her rare eloquence in her own lan- quicker sense of the prosperity that should follow, guage, infinitely polished since her happy times, and to make her more reposed in the divine provichanges of her languages,

s, both learned and modern? dence. Well, she cometh to the crown; it was no so that she is able to negotiate with divers ambas- small fortune to find at her entrance some such sadors in their own languages; and that with no servants and counsellors as she then found. The disadvantage upon them, who I think cannot but French king, who at this time, by reason of the have a great part of their wits distracted from their peace concluded with Spain, and of the interest matters in hand to the contemplation and admira- he had in Scotland, might have proved a dangertion of such perfections. What should I wonder ous neighbour: by how strange an accident was on to speak of the excellences of her nature, which he taken away? The King of Spain, who, if he cannot endure to be looked on with a discontented would have inclined to reduce the Low Countries eye: of the constancy of her favours, which by lenity, considering the goodly revenues which maketh service as a journey by land, whereas he drew from those countries, the great commodity the service of other princes is like an embarking to annoy her state from thence, might have made by sea. For her royal wisdom and policy of mighty and perilous matches against her repose; government, he that shall note and observe the putteth on a resolution not only to use the means prudent temper she useth in admitting access; of of those countries, but to spend and consume all the one side maintaining the majesty of her degree, his other means, the treasure of his Indies, and and on the other side not prejudicing he self by the forces of his ill-compacted dominions there and looking to her estate through too few windows: upon them. The Carles that rebelled in the her exquisite judgment in choosing and finding north, before the Duke of Norfolk's plot, which, good servants, a point beyond the former; her pro- indeed, was the strength and seal of that commofound discretion in assigning and appropriating tion, was fully ripe, brake forth, and prevented every of them to their aptest employment: her their time. The King Sebastian of Portugal, penetrating sight in discovering every man's ends whom the King of Spain would fain have perand drifts: her wonderful art in keeping servants suaded that it was a devouter enterprise to purge in satisfaction, and yet in appetite: her inventing Christendom, than to enlarge it, though I know wit in contriving plots and overturns: her exact some think that he did artificially nourish him caution in censuring the propositions of others for in that voyage, is cut apieces with his army in her service: her foreseeing events : her usage of Africa: then hath the King of Spain work cut out occasions: he that shall consider of these, and to make all things in readiness during the old other things that may not well be touched, as he cardinal's time for the conquest of Portugal; shall never cease to wonder at such a queen, so he whereby his desire of invading of England was shall wonder the less, that in so dangerous times, slackened and put off some years, and by that when wits are so cunning, humours extravagant, means was put in execution at a time for some passions so violent, the corruptions so great, the respects much more to his disadvantage. And dissimulations so deep, factions so many; she the same invasion, like and as if it had been athath notwithstanding done such great things, and tempted before, it had the time much more proper reigned in felicity.

and favourable; so likewise had it in true disTo speak of her fortune, that which I did reserve course a better season afterwards: for, if it had for a garland of her honour; and that is, that she been dissolved till time that the league had been liveth a virgin, and hath no children: so it is that better confirmed in France; which no doubt would which maketh all her other virtues and acts more have been, if the Duke of Guise, who was the sacred, more august, more divine. Let them leave only man of worth on that side, had lived ; and the children that leave no other inemory in their times: French king durst never have laid hand upon him, “ Brutorum æternitas, soboles.” Revolve in histo- had he not been animated by the English victory ries the memories of happy men, and you shall not against the Spaniards precedent. And then, if find

any of rare felicity but either he died child- some maritime town had been gotten into the less, or his line spent soon after his death; or else hands of the league, it had been a great surety was unfortunate in his children. Should a man and strength to the enterprise. The popes, to have them to be slain by his vassals, as the consider of them whose course and policy it had “posthumus" of Alexander the Great was? or to been, knowing her majesty's natural clemency call them his imposthumes, as Augustus Cæsar to have temporized and dispensed with the Papista

coming to church, that through the mask of their skirmishes and services ? they are no blemish at hypocrisy they might have been brought into all to the militia of England. places of government in the state and in the In the Low Countries, the Lammas day, the country: these, contrariwise, by the instigation retreat of Ghent, the day of Zutphen, and the prosof some fugitive scholars that advised him, not perous progress of this summer : the bravado in that was best for the see of Rome, but what Portugal, and the honourable exploits in the aid agreed best with their eager humours and des of the French king, besides the memorable voyperate states; discover and declare themselves ages in the Indies; and, lastly, the good entertainso far by sending most seminaries, and taking of ment of the invincible navy, which was chased reconcilements, as there is now severity of laws till the chasers were weary, after infinite loss, introduced for the repressing of that sort, and without taking a cock-boat, without firing a sheepmen of that religion are become the suspect.cot, sailed on the mercies of the wind, and the What should I speak of so many conspiracies discretion of their adventures, making a perambumiraculously detected ? the records show the trea-lation or pilgrimage about the northern seas, and sons : but it is yet hidden in many of them how ignobling many shores and points of land by shipthey came to light. What should I speak of the wreck; and so returned home with scorn and disopportune death of her enemies, and the wicked honour much greater than the terror and expectainstruments towards her estate? Don Juan died tion of their setting forth. not amiss : Darleigh, Duke of Lenox, who was These virtues and perfections, with so great used as an instrument to divorce Scotland from felicity, have made her the honour of her times, the amity of England, died in no ill season: а the admiration of the world, the suit and aspiring man withdrawn indeed at that time to France; of greatest kings and princes, who yet durst never but not without great help. I may not mention have aspired unto her, but as their minds were the death of some that occur to mind : but still, raised by love. methinks, they live that should live, and they But why do I forget that words do extenuate die that should die. I would not have the King and embase matters of so great weight ? Time is of Spain die yet ; he is “seges gloriæ :" but her best commander, which never brought forth when he groweth dangerous, or any other besides such a prince, whose imperial virtues contend with him; I am persuaded they will die. What the excellency of her person; both virtues contend should I speak of the fortunes of her armies, with her fortune ; and both virtue and fortune conwhich, notwithstanding the inward peace of this tend with her fame. nation, were never more renowned ? What should

“Orbis amor, famæ carmen, cælique pupilla : I recount Leith and Newhaven for the honourable

Tu decus omne tuis, tu decus ipsa tibi ?'





Having great cause, at this time, to be moved royal heart, but to the judgment of all the world, with diversity of affections, we do in first place whether there ever appeared in us any ambitious condole with all our loving subjects of England, or impatient desire to prevent God's appointed for the loss of their so virtuous and excellent time. Neither are we so partial to our own hoqueen; being a prince that we always found a nour, but that we do in great part ascribe this our dear sister, yea a mother to ourself in many her most peaceable and quiet entrance and coming to actions and advices. A prince whom we hold these our crowns, next under the blessing of Aland behold as an excellent pattern and example mighty God, and our undoubted right, to the fruit to imitate in many her royal virtues and parts of of her majesty's peaceable and quiet government, government; and a prince whose days we could accustoming the people to all loyalty and obedi. have wished to have been prolonged ; we report- ence. As for that which concerneth ourselves, ing ourselves not only to the testimony of our we would have all our loving subjects know, that we do not take so much gladness and content for the which God hath brought us to the impe'ment in the devolving of these kingdoms unto rial crown of these kingdoms. our royal person, for any addition or increase of Further, we cannot but take great comfort in glory, power, or riches, as in this, that it is so the state and correspondence which we now stand manifest an evidence unto us, especially the man-in of peace and unity with all Christian princes, ner of it considered, that we stand, though un-and, otherwise, of quietness and obedience of our worthy, in God's favour, who hath put more own people at home: whereby we shall not need means into our hands to reward our friends and to expose that our kingdom of England to any servants, and to pardon and obliterate injuries, and quarrel or war, but rather have occasion to preto comfort and relieve the hearts and estates of serve them in peace and tranquillity, and openour people and loving subjects, and chiefly to ad- ness of trade with all foreign nations. vance the holy religion and church of Almighty Lastly, and principally, we cannot but take God, and to deserve well of the Christian com- unspeakable comfort in the great and wonderful monwealth. And more especially we cannot but consent and unity, joy and alacrity, wherewith gratulate and rejoice in this one point, that it hath our loving subjects of our kingdoin of England pleased God to make us the instrument, and, as have received and acknowledged us their natural it were, the corner-stone, to unite these two and lawful king and governor, according to our mighty and warlike nations of England and Scot- most clear and undoubted right, in so quiet and land into one kingdom. For although these two settled manner, as, if we had been long ago nations are situated upon the continent of one declared and established successor, and had taken island, and are undivided either by seas or moun- all men's oaths and homages, greater and more tains, or by diversity of language; and although perfect unity and readiness could not have been. our neighbour kingdoms of Spain and France have For, considering with ourselves, that, notwithalready had the happiness to be reunited in the standing difference of religion, or any other facseveral members of those kingdoms formerly dis- tion, and notwithstanding our absence so far off, joined; yet in this island it appeareth not in the and notwithstanding the sparing and reserved records of any true history, no, nor scarcely in the communicating of one another's minds; yet, all conceit of any fabulous narration or tradition, that our loving subjects met in one thought and voice, this whole island of Great Britain was ever united without any the least disturbance or interruption, under one sovereign prince before this day. Which, yea, hesitation or doubtfulness, or any show as we cannot but take as a singular honour and thereof; we cannot but acknowledge it is a great favour of God unto ourselves; so we may con- work of God, who hath an immediate and extraceive good hope that the kingdoms of Christen- ordinary direction in the disposing of kingdoms dom standing distributed and counterpoised, as and flows of people's hearts. by this last union they now are, it will be a foun- Wherefore, after our most humble and devout dation of the universal peace of all Christian thanks to Almighty God, by whom kings reign, princes; and that now the strife th: shall remain who hath established us king and governor of between them, shall be but an emulation who shall these kingdoms; we return our hearty and affecgovern best, and most to the weal and good of his tionate thanks unto the lords spiritual and tempopeople.

ral, the knights and gentlemen, the cities and Another great cause of our just rejoicing is, the towns, and generally unto our commons, and all assured hope that we conceive, that whereas our estates and degrees of that our kingdom of Engkingdom of Ireland hath been so long time torn land, for their so acceptable first-fruits of their and afflicted with the miseries of wars, the making obedience and loyalties offered and performed in and prosecuting of which wars hath cost such an our absence; much commending the great wisinfinite deal of blood and treasure of our realm of dom, courage, and watchfulness used by the England to be spilt and consumed thereupon; we peers of that our kingdom, according to the nobishall be able, through God's favour and assist. lity of their bloods and lineages, many of them ance, to put a speedy and an honourable end to mingled with the blood royal; and therefore in those wars. And it is our princely design, and nature affectionate to their rightful king; and full purpose and resolution, not only to reduce likewise of the counsellors of the late queen, that nation from their rebellion and revolt, but according to their gravity and oath, and the spirit also to reclaim them from their barbarous manners of their good mistress, now a glorious saint in to justice and the fear of God; and to populate, heaven, in carrying and ordering our affairs with plant, and make civil all the provinces in that that fidelity, moderation, and consent, which in kingdom: which also being an action that not them hath well appeared : and also the great any of our noble progenitors, Kings of England, readiness. concord, and cheerfulness in the prinhath ever had the happiness thoroughly to prose- cipal knights and gentlemen of several counties, cute and accomplish, we take so much to heart, with the head officers of great cities, corporations, as we are persuaded it is one of the chief causes, and towns: and do take knowledge by name of

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