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seeing there is required light; and any thing that little tincture to that air which is adjacent; which toucheth the pupil of the eye all over excludeth if they did, we should see colours, out of a right the light. For I have heard of a person very cre- line. But as this is in colours, so otherwise it dible, who himself was cured of a cataract in one is in the body of light. For when there is a of his eyes, that while the silver needle did work screen between the candle and the eye, yet the upon the sight of his eye, to remove the film of light passeth to the paper whereupon one writeth; the cataract, he never saw any thing more clear so that the light is seen where the body of the or perfect than that white needle: which, no flame is not seen, and where any colour, if it doubt, was, because the needle was lesser than were placed where the body of the fame is, would the pupil of the eye, and so took not the light not be seen. I judge that sound is of this latter from it. The other error may be, for that the ob- nature; for when two are placed on both sides ject of sight doth strike upon the pupil of the eye of a wall, and the voice is heard, I judge it is not directly without any interception; whereas the only the original sound which passeth in an archcave of the ear doth hold off the sound a little from ed line; but the sound which passeth above the the organ : and so nevertheless there is some dis- wall in a right line, begetteth the like motion tance required in both.
round about it as the first did, though more weak. 273. Visibles are swiftlier carried to the sense than audibles ; as appeareth in thunder and light- Experiments in consort touching the sympathy or ning, flame, and report of a piece, motion of the untipathy of sounds one with another. air in hewing of wood. All which have been set 278. All concords and discords of music are, down heretofore, but are proper for this title. no doubt, sympathies and antipathies of sounds.
274. I conceive also, that the species of au- And so, likewise, in that music which we call dibles do hang longer in the air than those of vi- broken music, or consort music, some consorts sibles: for although even those of visibles do of instruments are sweeter than others, a thing hang some time, as we see in rings turned, that not sufficiently yet observed : as the Irish harp show like spheres; in lute-strings filliped ; a fire- and base viol agree well: the recorder and brand carried along, which leaveth a train of light stringed music agree well: organs and the voice behind it; and in the twilight, and the like; yet agree well, &c. But the virginals and the lute, I conceive that sounds stay longer, because they or the Welsh harp and Irish harp, or the voice are carried up and down with the wind; and be- and pipes alone, agree not so well: but for the cause of the distance of the time in ordnance dis- melioration of music there is yet much left, in charged, and heard twenty miles off.
this point of exquisite consorts, to try and inquire. 275. In visibles there are not found objects so 279. There is a common observation, that if a odious and ingrate to the sense as in audibles. lute or viol be laid upon the back, with a small For foul sights do rather displease, in that they straw upon one of the strings, and another lute excite the memory of foul things, than in the or viol be laid by it; and in the other lute or viol immediate objects. And therefore in pictures, the unison to that string be strucken, it will make those foul sights do not much offend; but in au- the string move, which will appear both to the dibles, the grating of a saw, when it is sharpen-eye, and by the straw's falling off. The like will ed, doth offend so much as it setteth the teeth on be, if the diapason or eighth to that string be edge. And any of the harsh discords in music strucken, either in the same lute or viol, or in the ear doth straightways refuse.
others lying by: but in none of these there is 276. In visibles, after great light, if you come any report of sound that can be discerned, but suddenly into the dark, or contrariwise, out of the only motion. dark into a glaring light, the eye is dazzled for a 280. It was devised, that a viol should have a time, and the sight confused ; but whether any lay of wire-strings below, as close to the belly such effect be after great sounds, or after a deep as a lute, and then the strings of guts mounted silence, may be better inquired. It is an old tra- upon a bridge as in ordinary viols: to the end, dition, that those that dwell near the cataracts of that by this means, the upper strings strucken Nilus are strucken deaf: but we find no such effect should make the lower resound by sympathy, and in cannoniers nor millers, nor those that dwell so make the music the better; which if it be to upon bridges.
purpose, then sympathy worketh as well by 277. It seemeth that the impression of colour report of sound as by motion. But this device I is so weak as it worketh not but by a cone of conceive to be of no use, because the upper direct beams, or right lines, whereof the basis is strings, which are stopped in great variety, canin the object, and the vertical point in the eye; so not maintain a diapason or unison with the lower, as there is a corradiation and conjunction of which are never stopped. But if it should be of beams; and those beams so sent forth, yet are use at all, it must be in instruments which have not of any force to beget the like borrowed or no stops, as virginals and harps; wherein trial second beams, except it be by reflection, whereof may be made of two rows of strings, distant the we speak not. For the beams pass, and give one from the other.
281. The experiment of sympathy may be essence of sounds. For if it were corporeal, the transferred, perhaps, from instruments of strings repercussion should be created in the same man. to other instruments of sound. As to try, if ner, and by like instruments with the original there were in one steeple two bells of unison, sound: but we see what a number of exquisite whether the striking of the one would move the instruments must concur in speaking of words, other, more than if it were another accord: and so in whereof there is no such matter in the returning pipes, if they be of equal bore and sound, whether of them, but only a plain stop and repercussion. a little straw or feather would move in the one 288. The exquisite differences of articulate pipe, when the other is blown at a unison. sounds, carried along in the air, show that they
282. It seemeth, both in ear and eye, the in- cannot be signatures or impressions in the air, as strument of sense hath a sympathy or similitude hath been well refuted by the ancients. For it is with that which giveth the reflection, as hath true, that seals make excellent impressions; and been touched before; for as the sight of the eye so it may be thought of sounds in their first is like a crystal, or glass, or water; so is the ear generation; but then the delation and continuance a sinuous cave, with a hard bone to stop and of them, without any new sealing, show apparently reverberate the sound; which is like to the places they cannot be impressions. that report echoes.
289. All sounds are suddenly made, and do
suddenly perish: but neither that, nor the exquiExperiments in consort touching the hindering or site differences of them, is matter of so great helping of the hearing.
admiration: for the quaverings and warblings in 283. When a man yawneth, he cannot hear so lutes and pipes are as swift; and the tongue, well. The cause is, for that the membrane of which is no very fine instrument, doth in speech the ear is extended; and so rather casteth off the make no fewer motions than there be letters in all sound than draweth it to.
the words which are uttered. But that sounds 284. We hear better when we hold our breath should not only be so speedily generated, but than contrary: insomuch, as in all listening to carried so far every way in such a momentary attain a sound afar off, men hold their breath. time, deserveth more admiration. As, for exThe cause is, for that in all expiration the motion ample, if a man stand in the middle of a field is outwards; and therefore rather driveth away and speak aloud, he shall be heard a furlong in the voice than draweth it: and besides, we see, round; and that shall be in articulate sounds; that in all labour to do things with any strength, and those shall be entire in every little portion of we hold the breath; and listening after any sound the air; and this shall be done in the space of less that is heard with difficulty is a kind of labour. than a minute.
285. Let it be tried, for the help of the hearing, 290. The sudden generation and perishing of and I conceive it likely to succeed, to make an sounds must be one of these two ways. Either instrument like a tunnel ; the narrow part whereof that the air suffereth some force by sound, and may be of the bigness of the hole of the ear; and then restoreth itself as water doth; which being the broader end much larger, like a bell at the divided, maketh many circles, till it restore itself skirts; and the length half a foot or more. And to the natural consistence: or otherwise, that the let the narrow end of it be set close to the ear: and air doth willingly imbibe the sound as grateful, mark whether any sound, abroad in the open air, but cannot maintain it; for that the air hath, as will not be heard distinctly from farther distance it should seem, a secret and hidden appetite of than without that instrument; being, as it were, receiving the sound at the first; but then other an ear-spectacle. And I have heard there is in gross and more materiate qualities of the air Spain an instrument in use to be set to the ear, straightways suffocate it, like unto flame, which that helpeth somewhat those that are thick of is generated with alacrity, but straight quenched hearing.
by the enmity of the air or other anbient bodies. 286. If the mouth be shut close, nevertheless There be these differences in general, by which there is yielded by the roof of the mouth a murmur, sounds are divided : 1. Musical, immusical. 2. such as is used by dumb men. But if the nostrils Treble, base. 3. Flat, sharp. 4. Soft, loud. be likewise stopped, no such murmur can be made, 5. Exterior, interior. 6. Clean, harsh, or purling. except it be in the bottom of the palate towards 7. Articulate, inarticulate. the throat. Whereby it appeareth manifestly, We have laboured, as may appear, in this that a sound in the mouth, except such as afore- inquisition of sounds diligently; both because said, if the mouth be stopped, passeth from the sound is one of the most hidden portions of palate through the nostrils.
nature, as we said in the beginning, and because
it is a virtue which may be called incorporeal Experiments in consort touching the spiritual and and immateriate, whereof there be in nature but fine nature of sounds.
few. Besides, we were willing, now in these 287. The repercussion of sounds, which we our first centuries, to make a pattern or precedent call echo, is a great argument of the spiritual of an exact inquisition; and we shall do the like hereafter in some other subjects which require it. | cleaving more or less : and that they love better For we desire that men should learn and perceive the touch of somewhat that is tangible, than of air. how severe a thing the true inquisition of nature For water in small quantity cleaveth to any thing is; and should accustom themselves by the light that is solid; and so would metal too, if the of particulars, to enlarge their minds to the ampli- weight drew it not off. And therefore gold fotude of the world, and not reduce the world to the liate, or any metal foliate cleaveth ; but those narrowness of their minds.
bodies which are noted to be clammy and cleaving,
are such as have a more indifferent appetite at Experiment solitary touching the orient colours in once to follow another body, and to hold to them- dissolution of metals.
selves. And therefore they are commonly bodies 291. Metals give orient and fine colours in dis-ill mixed; and which take more pleasure in a fosolutions; as gold giveth an excellent yellow, reign body than in preserving their own consistquicksilver an excellent green, tin giveth an ence, and which have little predominance in excellent azure: likewise in their putrefactions or drought or moisture. rusts; as vermilion, verdigrease, bise, cirrus, &c., and likewise in their vitrifications. The cause is, Experiment solitary touching the like operations of for that by their strength of body they are able to
heat and time. endure the fire or strong waters, and to be put into 294. Time and heat are fellows in
effects. an equal posture, and again to retain part of their Heat drieth bodies that do easily expire; as parchprincipal spirit; which two things, equal posture ment, leaves, roots, clay, &c. And so doth time or and quick spirits, are required chiefly to make age arefy: as in the same bodies, &c. Heat discolours lightsome.
solveth and melteth bodies that keep in their spi
rits : as in divers liquefactions : and so doth time Experiment solitary touching prolongation of life. in some bodies of a softer consistence, as is mani
292. It conduceth unto long life, and to the fest in honey, which by age waxeth more liquid, more placid motion of the spirits, which thereby and the like in sugar; and so in old oil, which is do less prey and consume the juice of the body, ever more clear and more hot in medicinable use. either that men's actions be free and voluntary, Heat causeth the spirits to search some issue out that nothing be done “invita Minerva,” but “ se- of the body; as in the volatility of metals: and cundum genium;" or, on the other side, that the so doth time ; as in the rust of metals. But geneactions of men be full of regulation and commands rally heat doth that in small time which doth within themselves : for then the victory and per- in long. forming of the command giveth a good disposition to the spirits, especially if there be a proceeding from Experiment solitary touching the differing operadegree to degree; for then the sense of the victory
tion of fire and time. is the greater. An example of the former of these 295. Some things which pass the fire are softis in a country life; and of the latter in monks and est at first, and by time grow hard, as the crumb philosophers, and such as do continually enjoin of bread. Some are harder when they come from themselves.
the fire, and afterwards give again, and grow soft,
as the crust of bread, bisket, sweet-meats, salt, &c. Experiment solitary touching appetite of union in 'The cause is, for that in those things which wax bodies.
hard with time, the work of the fire is a kind of 293. It is certain that in all bodies there is an melting; and in those that wax soft with time, appetite of union and evitation of solution of conti- contrariwise, the work of the fire is a kind of baknuity; and of this appetite there be many degrees; ing: and whatsoever the fire baketh, time doth in but the most remarkable and fit to be distinguished some degree dissolve. are three. The first in liquors; the second in hard bodies; and the third in bodies cleaving or Experiment solitary touching motions by imitation. tenacious. In liquors this appetite is weak: we 296. Motions pass from one man to another, see in liquors the threading of them in stillicides, not so much by exciting imagination as by invitaas hath been said ; the falling of them in round tion; especially if there be an aptness or inclinadrops, which is the form of union, and the staying tion before. Therefore gaping, or yawning, and of them for a little time in bubbles and froth. In stretching do pass from man to man; for that that the second degree or kind, this appetite is strong; causeth gaping and stretching is, when the spirits as in iron, in stone, in wood, &c. In the third, are a little heavy by any vapour, or the like. For this appetite is in a medium between the other then they strive, as it were, to wring out and extwo: for such bodies do partly follow the touch of pel that which loadeth them. So men drowsy, another body, and partly stick and continue to and desirous to sleep, or before the fit of an ague, thernselves; and therefore they rope and draw do use to yawn and stretch, and do likewise yield themselves in threads, as we see in pitch, glue, a voice or sound, which is an interjection of exbirdlime, &c. But note, that all solid bodies are pulsion : so that if another be apt and prepared to
do the like, he followeth by the sight of another. nourishment into the parts more forcibly. SeSo the laughing of another maketh to laugh. condly, that it helpeth to excern by sweat, and so Experiment solitary touching infectious diseases. Thirdly, that it maketh the substance of the body
maketh the parts assimilate the more perfectly. 297. There be some known diseases that are infectious; and others that are not. Those that consumed and depredated by the spirits. The
more solid and compact, and so less apt to be are infectious are, first, such as are chiefly in the evils that come of exercise are, first, that it maketh spirits, and not so much in the humours, and the spirits more hot and predatory, Secondly, therefore pass easily from body to body ; such that it doth absorb likewise, and attenuate too are pestilences, lippitudes, and such like. Secondly, such as taint the breath, which we see maketh too great concussion, especially if it be
much the moisture of the body. Thirdly, that it passeth manifestly from man to man, and not violent, of the inward parts, which delight more invisibly, as the effects of the spirits do; such in rest.
But generally exercise, if it be much, are consumptions of the lungs, &c. Thirdly, is no friend to prolongation of life, which is one such as come forth to the skin, and therefore taint
cause why women live longer than men, because the air of the body adjacent, especially if they they stir less. consist in an unctuous substance not apt to dissipate, such as scabs and leprosy. Fourthly, such Experiment solitary touching meats that induce as are merely in the humours, and not in the
satiety. spirits, breath, or exhalations; and therefore they
300. Some food we may use long, and much, never infect but by touch only; and such a touch without glutting, as bread, flesh that is not fat or also as cometh within the “ epidermis ;” as the rank, &c. Some other, though pleasant, glutteth venom of the French pox, and the biting of a sooner, as sweet-meats, fat-meats, &c. The cause mad dog.
is, for that appetite consisteth in the emptiness of the Experiment solitary touching the incorporation of mouth of the stomach, or possessing it with somepowders and liquors.
what that is astringent, and therefore cold and 298. Most powders grow more close and co- dry. But things that are sweet and fat are more herent by mixture of water, than by mixture of filling, and do swim and hang more about the oil, though oil be the thicker body: as meal, &c. mouth of the stomach, and go not down so speediThe reason is, the congruity of bodies; which if ly: and again turn soon to choler, which is hot, it be more, maketh a perfecter imbibition and in- and ever abateth the appetite. We see also that corporation; which in most powders is more be- another cause of satiety is an over-custom, and tween them and water, than between them and of appetite is novelty, and therefore meats, if the oil : but painters' colours ground, and ashes, do same be continually taken, induce loathing. To better incorporate with oil.
give the reason of the distaste of satiety, and of
the pleasure in novelty, and to distinguish not Experiment solitary touching exercise of the body. only in meats and drinks, but also in motions,
299. Much motion and exercise is good for loves, company, delights, studies, what they be some bodies; and sitting and less motion for that custom maketh more grateful, and what more others. If the body be hot and void of super- tedious, were a large field. But for meats, the fluous moistures, too much motion hurteth: and cause is attraction, which is quicker, and more it is an error in physicians to call too much upon excited towards that which is new than towards exercise. Likewise men ought to beware, that that whereof there remaineth a relish by former they use not exercise and a spare diet both: but use. And, generally, it is a rule, that whatsoever if much exercise, then a plentiful diet; and if is somewhat ingrate at first is made grateful by sparing diet, then little exercise. The benefits custom ; but whatsoever is too pleasing at first, that come of exercise are, first, that it sendeth | groweth quickly to satiate.
Experiments in consort touching the clarification 306. On the other side it were good to try,
of liquors, and the accelerating thereof. what the adding to the liquor more lees than his ACCELERATION of time, in works of nature, may own will work; for though the lees do make the well be esteemed “inter magnalia naturæ.” And liquor turbid, yet they refine the spirits. Take even in divine miracles, accelerating of the time therefore a vessel of new beer, and take another is next to the creating of the matter. We will vessel of new beer, and rack the one vessel from the now therefore proceed to the inquiry of it: and lees, and pour the lees of the racked vessel into for acceleration of germination, we will refer it the unracked vessel, and see the effect: this inover unto the place where we shall handle the stance is referred to the refining of the spirits. subject of plants generally, and will now begin 307. Take new beer, and put in some quantity with other accelerations.
of stale beer into it, and see whether it will not 301. Liquors are, many of them, at the first, accelerate the clarification, by opening the body thick and troubled; as muste, wort, juices of of the beer, and cutting the grosser parts, whereby fruits, or herbs expressed, &c. and by time they they may fall down into lees. And this instance settle and clarify. But to make them clear before again is referred to separation. the time is a great work, for it is a spur to nature, 308. The longer malt or herbs, or the like, are and putteth her out of her pace: and, besides, it infused in liquor, the more thick and troubled the is of good use for making drinks and sauces po- liquor is; but the longer they be decocted in the table and serviceable speedily. But to know the liquor, the clearer it is. The reason is plain, means of accelerating clarification, we must first because in infusion, the longer it is, the greater know the causes of clarification. The first cause is the part of the gross body that goeth into the is, by the separation of the grosser parts of the liquor : but in decoction, though more goth liquor from the finer. The second, by the equal forth, yet it either purgeth at the top, or settleth distribution of the spirits of the liquor with the at the bottom. And therefore the most exact way tangible parts: for that ever representeth bodies to clarify is, first, to infuse, and then to take off clear and untroubled. The third, by the refining the liquor and decoct it; as they do in beer, which the spirit itself, which thereby giveth to the liquor hath malt first infused in the liquor, and is aftermore splendour and more lustre.
wards boiled with the hop. This also is referred 302. First, for separation, it is wrought by to separation. weight, as in the ordinary residence or settlement 309. Take hot embers, and put them about a of liquors; by heat, by motion, by precipitation, bottle filled with new beer, almost to the very or sublimation, that is, a calling of the several neck; let the bottle be well stopped, lest it fly parts either up or down, which is a kind of at- out; and continue it, renewing the embers every traction; by adhesion, as when a body more day, by the space of ten days, and then compare viscous is mingled and agitated with the liquor, it with another bottle of the same beer set by. which viscous body, afterwards severed, draweth Take also lime both quenched and unquenched, with it the grosser parts of the liquor; and lastly, and set the bottles in them “ut supra." This by percolation or passage.
instance is referred both to the even distribution, 303. Secondly, for the even distribution of the and also to the refining of the spirits by heat. spirits, it is wrought by gentle heat; and by 310. Take bottles, and swing them, or carry agitation or motion, for of time we speak not, them in a wheel-barrow upon rough ground twice because it is that we would anticipate and re- in a day, but then you may not fill the bottles full, present; and it is wrought also by mixture of but leave some air; for if the liquor come close to some other body which hath a virtue to open the the stopple, it cannot play nor flower: and when liquor, and to make the spirits the better pass you have shaken them well either way, pour the through.
drink into another bottle stopped close after the 304. Thirdly, for the refining of the spirit, it usual manner, for if it stay with much air in it, is wrought likewise by heat, by motion, and by the drink will pall; neither will it settle so permixture of some body which hath virtue to attenu- fectly in all the parts. Let it stand some twentyate. So therefore, having shown the causes for four hours, then take it, and put it again into a the accelerating of clarification in general, and the bottle with air, “ ut supra :" and thence into a botinducing of it, take these instances and trials. tle stopped, “ut supra :" and so repeat the same
305. It is in common practice to draw wine or operation for seven days. Note, that in the emptybeer from the lees, which we call racking, whereby ing of one bottle into another, you must do it it will clarify much the sooner; for the lees, though swiftly lest the drink pall. It were good also to try they keep the drink in heart, and make it lasting, it in a bottle with a little air below the neck, without yet withal they cast up some spissitude: and this emptying. This instance is referred to the even instance is to be referred to separation.
distribution and refining of the spirits by motion.