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reign of women, for that is supplied by counsel, not only as lawful, but as meritorious even of and subordinate magistrates masculine, but where divine honours ; and this although the deliverer the regiment of state justice, families, is all ma- came from the one end of the world unto the naged by women. And yet this last case differ- other. Let us now set down some arguments to eth from the other before, because in the rest there prove the same; regarding rather weight than is terror of danger, but in this there is only error of number, as in such a conference as this is fit. nature. Neither should I make any great diffi- The first argument shall be this.

It is a great culty to affirm the same of the sultanry of the error, and a narrowness or straitness of mind, if Mamelukes; where slaves, and none but slaves, any man think that nations have nothing to do bought for money, and of unknown descent, one with another, except there be either a union reigned over families of freemen. And much like in sovereignty, or a conjunction in pacts or leagues. were the case if you suppose a nation, where the There are other bands of society, and implicit concustom were, that after full age the sons should federations. That of colonies, or transmigrants, expulse their fathers and mothers out of their pos- towards their mother nation. “Gentes unius labii" sessions, and put them to their pensions: for these is somewhat; for as the confusion of tongues was cases, of women to govern men, sons the fathers, a mark of separation, so the being of one language slaves freemen, are much in the same degree; all is a mark of union. To have the same fundamental being total violations and perversions of the laws laws and customs in chief, is yet more, as it was of nature and nations. For the West Indies, I between the Grecians in respect of the barbarians. perceive, Martius, you have read Garcilazzo de To be of one sect or worship; if it be a false worViega, who himself was descended of the race of ship, I speak not of it, for that is but “ fratres in the Incas, a Mestizo, and is willing to make the malo." But above all these, there is the supreme best of the virtues and manners of his country: and indissoluble consanguinity and society beand yet in troth he doth it soberly and credibly tween men in general ; of which the heathen poet, enough. Yet you shall hardly edify me, that whom the apostle calls to witness, saith, “ we are those nations might not by the law of nature have all his generation.” But much more we Chrisbeen subdued by any nation that had only policy tians, unto whom it is revealed in particularity, and moral virtue ; though the propagation of the that all men came from one lump of earth ; and faith, whereof we shall speak in the proper place, that two singular persons were the parents from were set by, and not made part of the case. Surely whom all the generations of the world are detheir nakedness, being with them, in most parts scended : we, I say, ought to acknowledge, that no of that country, without all veil or covering, was nations are wholly aliens and strangers the one 2 great defacement; for in the acknowledgment to the other; and not to be less charitable than of nakedness was the first sense of sin ; and the the person introduced by the comic poet, “ Homo heresy of the Adamites was ever accounted an sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto.” Now if affront of nature. But upon these I stand not: there be such a tacit league or confederation, sure nor yet upon their idiocy, in thinking that horses it is not idle; it is against somewhat or somebody. did eat their bits, and letters speak, and the like; who should they be? Is it against wild beasts ; nor yet upon their sorceries, which are, almost, or the elements of fire and water? No, it is common to all idolatrous nations. But, I say, against such routs and shoals of people, as have their sacrificing, and more especially their eating utterly degenerated from the laws of nature; as of men, is such an abomination, as, methinks, a have in their very body and frame of estate a monman's face should be a little confused, to deny strosity; and may be truly accounted, according to that this custom, joined with the rest, did not the examples we have formerly recited, common make it lawful for the Spaniards to invade their enemies and grievances of mankind; or disgraces territory, forfeited by the law of nature ; and either and reproaches to human nature. Such people, all to reduce them or displant them. But far be it nations are interested, and ought to be resenting, from me, yet, nevertheless, to justify the cruelties to suppress; considering that the particular states which were at first used towards them : which themselves, being the delinquents, can give no had their reward soon after, there being not one redress. And this, I say, is not to be measured of the principal of the first conquerors, but died a so much by the principles of jurists, as by “ lex violent death himself; and was well followed by charitatis : lex proximi,” which includes the Sathe deaths of many more. Of examples enough: maritan as well as the Levite; “ lex filiorum Adæ except we should add the labours of Hercules; an de massa una :" upon which original laws this opiexample, which though it be flourished with much nion is grounded; which to deny, if a man may fabulous matter, yet so much it hath, that it doth speak freely, were almost to be a schismatic in notably set forth the consent of all nations and nature. ages, in the approbation the extirpating and debellating of giants, monsters, and foreign tyrants, [The rest was not perfected.]





Questions wherein I desire opinion joined with Whether a war be lawful for the restoring arguments and authorities.

and purging of the Holy Land, the sepulchre, Whether a war be lawful against infidels, and other principal places of adoration and devoonly for the propagation of the Christian faith, tion? without other cause of hostility ?

Whether, in the cases aforesaid, it be not obli. Whether a war be lawful to recover to the gatory to Christian princes to make such a war, and church countries which formerly have been Chris- not permissive only? tian, though now alienate, and Christians utterly Whether the making of a war against the extirpated ?

infidels be not first in order of dignity, and to be Whether a war be lawful, to free and deliver preferred before extirpations of heresies, reconcileChristians that yet remain in servitude and sub- ments of schisms, reformation of manners, purjection to infidels ?

suits of just temporal quarrels, and the like acWhether a war be lawful in revenge, or vindi- tions for the public good ; except there be either cation, of blasphemy, and reproaches against the a more urgent necessity, or a more evident facility Deity and our Saviour ? Or for the ancient effusion in those inferior actions, or except they may both of Christian blood, and cruelties upon Christians ? j go on together in some degree?

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No praise of magnanimity, nor of love, nor of wars, left her to make her own peace; one that knowledge, can intercept her praise, that planteth could never be by any solicitation moved to renew and nourisheth magnanimity by her example, love the treaties; and one that since hath proceeded by her person, and knowledge by the peace and from doubtful terms of amity to the highest acts serenity of her times. And if these rich pieces be of hostility. Yet, notwithstanding the opposition so fair unset, what are they set, and set in all per- so great, the support so weak, the season so imfection ? Magnanimity no doubt consisteth in proper; yet, I say, because it was a religion contempt of peril, in contempt of profit, and in wherein she was nourished and brought up; a meriting of the times wherein one liveth. For religion that freed her subjects from pretence of contempt of peril, see a lady that cometh to a foreign powers, and indeed the true religion; she crown after the experience of some adverse fortune brought to pass this great work with success which for the most part extenuateth the mind, worthy so noble a resolution. See a queen that, and maketh it apprehensive of fears. No sooner when a deep and secret conspiracy was plotted she taketh the sceptre into her sacred hands, but against her sacred person, practised by subtile inshe putteth on a resolution to make the greatest, struments, embraced by violent and desperate the most important, the most dangerous that can humours, strengthened and bound by vows and be in a state, the alteration of religion. This she sacraments, and the same was revealed unto her, doth, not after a sovereignty established and con-|(and yet the nature of the affairs required further tinued by sundry years, when custom might have ripening before the apprehension of any of the bred in her people a more absolute obedience; parties,) was content to put herself into the guard when trial of her servants might have made her of the divine providence, and her own prudence, more assured whom to employ : when the reputa- to have some of the conspirators in her eyes, to tion of her policy and virtue might have made her suffer them to approach to her person, to take a government redoubted : but at the very entrance petition of the hand that was conjured for her of her reign, when she was green in authority, death ; and that with such majesty of countenance, her servants scant known unto her, the adverse such mildness and serenity of gesture, such art and part not weakened, her own part not confirmed. impression of words, as had been sufficient to Neither doth she reduce or reunite her realm to have repressed and bound the hand of a conspirator, the religion of the states about her, that the evil if he had not been discovered. Lastly, see a queen, inclination of the subject might be countervailed that when her realın was to have been invaded by by the good correspondence in foreign parts : but, an army, the preparation whereof was like the contrariwise, she introduceth a religion extermi- travel of an elephant, the provisions were infinite, nated and persecuted both at home and abroad. Ker the setting forth whereof was the terror and wonproceeding herein is not by degrees and by stealth, der of Europe; it was not seen that her cheer, her but absolute and at once. Was she encouraged fashion, her ordinary manner was any thing alterthereto by the strength she found in leagues and ed: not a cloud of that storm did appear in that alliances with great and potent confederates ? countenance wherein peace doth ever shine; but No, but she found her realm in wars with her with excellent assurance, and advised security, nearest and mightiest neighbours. She stood she inspired her council, animated her nobility, single and alone, and in league only with one, redoubled the courage of her people, still having that after the people of her nation had made his this noble apprehension, not only that she would

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communicate her fortune with them, but that it selves;" yet, when it is question of drawing the was she that would protect them, and not they sword, there is ever a conflict between the justice her: which she testified by no less demonstration of her place, joined with the necessity of her state than her presence in camp. Therefore, that and her royal clemency, which as a sovereign and magnanimity that neither feareth greatness of precious balm continually distilleth from her fair alteration, nor the views of conspirators, nor the hands, and falleth into the wounds of many that power of enemy, is more than heroical.

have incurred the offence of her law. For contempt of profit, consider her offers, con- Now, for her beneficence, what kind of persons sider her purchases. She hath reigned in a most have breathed during her most happy reign, but populous and wealthy peace, her people greatly have had the benefit of her virtues conveyed unto multiplied, wealthily appointed, and singularly them? Take a view, and consider whether they devoted. She wanted not the example of the have not extended to subjects, to neighbours, to repower of her arms in the memorable voyages and mote strangers, yea, to her greatest enemies. For invasions prosperously made and achieved by her subjects, where shall we begin in such a maze sundry her noble progenitors. She had not of benefits as presenteth itself to remembrance ? wanted pretences, as well as of claim and right, Shall we speak of the purging away of the dross of as of quarrel and revenge. She hath reigned religion, the heavenly treasure; or that of money, during the minority of some of her neighbour the earthly treasure? The greater was touched princes, and during the factions and divisions of before, and the latter deserveth not to be forgotten. their people upon deep and irreconcilable quar- For who believeth not, that knoweth any thing in rels, and during the embracing greatness of some matter of estate, of the great absurdities and frauds one that hath made himself so weak through too that arise of divorcing the legal estimation of much burden, as others are through decay of moneys from the general, and, as I may term it, strength; and yet see her sitting, as it were, natural estimation of metals, and again of the within the compass of her sands. Scotland, that uncertainty and wavering values of coins, a very doth, as it were, eclipse her island; the United laybrinth of cousenages and abuse, yet such as Provinces of the Low Countries, which, for great princes have made their profit of towards wealth, commodity of traffic, affection to our their own people. Pass on from the mint to the nation, were most meet to be annexed to this revenue and receipts: there shall you find no crown; she left the possession of the one, and raising of rents, notwithstanding the alteration of refused the sovereignty of the other: so that not- prices and the usage of the times; but the over withstanding the greatness of her means, the value, besides a reasonable fine left for the relief justness of her pretences, and the rareness of her of tenants and the reward of servants; no raising opportunity, she hath continued her first mind, of customs, notwithstanding her continual charges she hath made the possessions which she received of setting to the sea; no extremity taken of forthe limits of her dominions, and the world the feiture and penal laws, means used by some kings limits of her name, by a peace that hath stained for the gathering of great treasures. A few forall victories.

feitures, indeed, not taken to her own purse, but For her merits, who doth not acknowledge, set over to some others for the trial only, whether that she hath been as a star of most fortunate gain could bring those laws to be well executed, influence



wherein she hath shined? which the ministers of justice did neglect. But Shall we speak of merit of clemency? or merit of after it was found, that only compassions were beneficence? Where shall a man take the most used, and the law never the nearer the execution, proper and natural trial of her royal clemency ? the course was straight suppressed and disconWill it best appear in the injuries that were done tinued. Yea, there have been made laws more unto her before she attained the crown? or after than one in her time for the restraint of the vexashe is seated in her throne? or that the common- tion of informers and promoters: nay, a course wealth is incorporated in her person? Then taken by her own direction for the repealing of clemency is drawn in question, as a dangerous all heavy and snared laws, if it had not been encounter of justice and policy. And, therefore, crossed by those to whom the benefit should have who did ever note, that she did relent, after that redounded. There shall you find, no new taxes, she was established in her kingdom, of the impositions, nor devices; but the benevolence of wrongs done unto her former estate? Who doth the subject freely offered by assent of parliament, not remember how she did revenge the rigour and according to the ancient rates, and with great rudeness of her jailor by a word, and that no bitter moderation in assessment; and not so only, but but salt, and such as showed rather the excel- some new forms of contribution offered likewise lency of her wit than any impression of her by the subject in parliament; and the demonstrawrong?

Yea, and further, is it not so manisest, tion of their devotion only accepted, but the thing that since her reign, notwithstanding the princi- never put in ure. There shall you find loans, but ple that princes should not neglect, “ That the honourably answered and paid, as it were the concommonwealth's wrong is included in them- tract of a private man. To conclude, there shall

you find moneys levied upon failts of lands, alien-| Or that other, ation, though not of the ancient patrimony, yet

“ Condit quisque diem collibus in suis." of the rich and commodious purchases and perquisites of the crown only, because she will not be The opulency of the peace such as, if you have grievous and burdensome to the people. This respect, to take one sign for many, to the number treasure, so innocently levied, so honourably of fair houses that have been built since her gathered and raised, with such tenderness to the reign, as Augustus said, "that he had received subject, without any baseness or dryness at all, the city of brick, and left it of marble;" so she how hath it been expended and employed ? may say, she received it a realm of cottages, and Where be the wasteful buildings, and the exorbi- hath made it a realm of palaces: the state of tant and prodigal donatives, the sumptuous dissi- traffic great and rich: the customs, notwithpations in pleasures, and vain ostentations which standing these wars and interruptions, not fallen: we find have exhausted the coffers of so many many profitable trades, many honourable discokings? It is the honour of her house, the royal veries: and, lastly, to make an end where no end remunerating of her servants, the preservation of is, the shipping of this realm so advanced and her people and state, the protection of her sup- made so mighty and potent, as this island is pliants and allies, the encounter, breaking, and become, as the natural site thereof deserved, the defeating the enemies of her realm, that hath been lady of the sea; a point of so high consequence, the only pores and pipes whereby the treasure as it may be truly said, that the commandment hath issued. Hath it been the sinews of a blessed of the sea is an abridgment or a quintessence and prosperous peace? Hath she bought her of a universal monarchy. peace? Hath she lent the King of Spain money This and much more hath she merited of her upon some cavillation not to be repeated, and so subjects: now to set forth the merit of her neighbought his favour? And hath she given large bours and the states about her. It seemeth the pensions to corrupt his council ? No, but she things have made themselves purveyors of conhath used the most honourable diversion of trou-tinual, new, and noble occasions for her to show bles that can be in the world. She hath kept the them benignity, and that the fires of troubles fire from her own walls by seeking to quench it in abroad have been ordained to be as lights and her neighbours. That poor brand of the state of tapers to make her virtue and magnanimity more Burgundy, and that other of the crown of France apparent. For when that one, stranger born, the that remaineth, had been in ashes but for the family of Guise, being as a hasty weed sprung ready fountain of her continual benignity. For up in a night, had spread itself to a greatness, the honour of her house it is well known, that not civil but seditious; a greatness, not of almost the universal manners of the times doth encounter of the ancient nobility, not of preincline to a certain parsimony and dryness in that eminency in the favour of kings, and not remiss kind of expense; yet she retaineth the ancient of affairs from kings; but a greatness of innovamagnificence, the allowance as full, the charge tion in state, of usurpations of authority, of greater than in time of her father, or any king affecting of crowns; and that accordingly, under before; the books appear, the computation will colour of consanguinity and religion, they had not flatter. And for the remunerating and reward- brought French forces into Scotland, in the abing of her servants, and the attendance of the sence of their king and queen being within their court, let a man cast and sum up all the books of usurped tutele; and that the ancient nobility of gifts, fee-farms, leases, and custodies that have this realm, seeing the imminent danger of repassed her bountiful hands. Let him consider, ducing that kingdom under the tyranny of foagain, what a number of commodious and gainful reigners and their faction, had, according to the offices, heretofore bestowed upon men of other good intelligence betwixt the two crowns, prayed education and profession, have been withdrawn her neighbourly succours: she undertook the and conferred upon her court. Let him remem- action, expelled the strangers, restored the nobi. ber what a number of other gifts, disguised by lity to their degree. And, lest any man should other names, but, in effect, as good as money think her intent was to unnestle ill neighbours, given out of her coffers, have been granted by and not to aid good neighbours, or that she was her; and he will conclude, that her royal mind is readier to restore what was invaded by others far above her means. The other benefits of her than to render what was in her own hands; see politic, clement, and gracious government towards if the time provided not a new occasion afterthe subjects are without number; the state of wards, when, through their own divisions, without justice good, notwithstanding the great subtility the interinise of strangers, her forces were again and humorous affections of these times; the sought and required; she forsook them not, security of peace greater than can be described prevailed so far as to be possessed of the castle by that verse;

of Edinburgh, the principal strength of that “Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat:

kingdom, with peace, incontinently, without Nutrit rura Ceres, almaque Faustitas." cunctations or cavillations, the preambles of a

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