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His angels spirits are, that wait his will; But when the day appears, they back do fly, As flames of fire his anger they fulfil.

And in their dens again do lurking lie. In the beginning, with a mighty hand,

Then man goes forth to labour in the field, He made the earth by counterpoise to stand, Whereby his grounds more rich increase may Never to move, but to be fixed still ;

yield. Yet hath no pillars but his sacred will.

O Lord, thy providence sufficeth all;
This earth, as with a veil, once cover'd was, Thy goodness, not restrained, but general
The waters overflowed all the mass :

Over thy creatures: the whole earth doth flow But upon his rebuke away they fled,

With thy great largess pour'd forth here below. And then the hills began to show their head; Nor is it earth alone exalts thy name, The vales their hollow bosoms open'd plain, But seas and streams likewise do spread the The streams ran trembling down the vales again:

The rolling seas unto the lot doth fall And that the earth no more might drowned be, Of beasts innumerable, great and small; He set the sea his bounds of liberty;

There do the stately ships plough up the floods, And though his waves resound, and beat the shore, The greater navies look like walking woods; Yet it is bridled by his holy lore.

The fishes there far voyages do make, Then did the rivers seek their proper places, To divers shores their journey they do take. And found their heads, their issues, and their There hast thou set the great leviathan, races;

That makes the seas to seeth like boiling pan. The springs do feed the rivers all the way, All these do ask of thee their meat to live, And so the tribute to the sea repay:

Which in due season thou to them dost give. Running along through many a pleasant field, Ope thou thy hand, and then they have good Much fruitfulness unto the earth they yield:

fare ; That know the beasts and cattle feeding by, Shut thou thy hand, and then they troubled are. Which for to slake their thirst do thither hie. All life and spirit from thy breath proceed, Nay, desert grounds the streams do not forsake, Thy word doth all things generate and feed. But through the unknown ways their journey If thou withdraw'st it, then they cease to be, take:

And straight return to dust and vanity; The asses wild, that hide in wilderness,

But when thy breath thou dost send forth again, Do thither come, their thirst for to refresh. Then all things do renew and spring amain; The shady trees along their banks do spring, So that the earth, but lately desolate, In which the birds do build, and sit, and sing ; Doth now return unto the former state. Stroking the gentle air with pleasant notes, The glorious majesty of God above Plaining, or chirping through their warbling Shall ever reign in mercy and in love : throats.

God shall rejoice all his fair works to see, The higher grounds, where waters cannot rise, For as they come from him, all perfect be. By rain and dews are water'd from the skies ; The earth shall quake, if aught his wrath provoke; Causing the earth put forth the grass for beasts, Let him but touch the mountains, they shall And garden herbs, served at the greatest feasts ;

smoke. And bread, that is all viands firmament,

As long as life doth last I hymns will sing, And gives a firm and solid nourishment; With cheerful voice, to the eternal King; And wine, man's spirits for to recreate; As long as I have being, I will praise And oil, his face for to exhilarate.

The works of God, and all his wondrous ways. The sappy cedars, tall like stately towers, I know that he my words will not despise, High-flying birds do harbour in their bowers : Thanksgiving is to him a sacrifice. The holy storks, that are the travellers,

But as for sinners, they shall be destroy'd
Choose for to dwell and build within the firs; From off the earth, their places shall be void.
The climbing goats hang on steep mountains' side; Let all his works praise him with one accord
The digging coneys in the rocks do bide. O praise the Lord, my soul; praise ye the Lord !
The moon, so constant in inconstancy,
Doth rule the monthly seasons orderly ;
The sun, eye of the world, doth know his race,
And when to show, and when to hide his face.
Thou makest darkness, that it may be night, THE TRANSLATION OF THE CXXVIth.
When as the savage beasts, that fly the light,

As conscious of man's hatred, leave their den,
And range abroad, secured from sight of men. When God return'd us graciously
Then do the forests ring of lions roaring,

Unto our native land,
That ask their meat of God, their strength restor- We seem'd as in a dream to be,

And in a maze to stand. VOL. II.-55

2 0

The heathen likewise they could say: Jerusalem, where God his throne hath set,
The God, that these men serve,

Shall any hour absent thee from my mind!
Hath done great things for them this day, Then let my right-hand quite her skill forget,
Their nation to preserve.

Then let my voice and words no passage find;

Nay, if I do not thee prefer in all
'Tis true; God hath pour'd out his grace That in the compass of my thoughts can
On us abundantly,

For which we yield him psalms and praise,
And thanks with jubilee.

Remember thou, O Lord, the cruel cry

Of Edom's children, which did ring and sound,
O Lord, turn our captivity,

Inciting the Chaldean's cruelty,
As winds, that blow at south,

“ Down with it, down with it, even unto the Do pour the tides with violence

ground.” Back to the rivers' mouth.

In that good day repay it unto them,

When thou shalt visit thy Jerusalem.
Who sows in tears shall reap in joy,
The Lord doth so ordain;

And thou, O Babylon, shalt have thy turn
So that his seed be pure and good,

By just revenge, and happy shall he be
His harvest shall be gain.

That thy proud walls and towers shall waste and

burn, And as thou didst by us, so do by thee. Yea, happy he, that takes thy children's


And dasheth them against the pavement THE TRANSLATION OF THE CXXXVIIth

stones. PSALM.

When, as we sat all sad and desolate,

By Babylon upon the river's side,
Eased from the tasks which in our captive state
We were enforced daily to abide,

Our harps we had brought with us to the

Some solace to our heavy souls to yield. O SING a new song to our God above,

Avoid profane ones, 'tis for holy choir:
But soon we found we fail'd of our account, Let Israel sing songs of holy love

For when our minds some freedom did obtain, To him that made them, with their hearts
Straightways the memory of Sion Mount

on fire :
Did cause afresh our wounds to bleed again; Let Zion's sons lift up their voice and sing

So that with present griefs, and future fears, Carols and anthems to their heavenly King.
Our eyes burst forth into a stream of tears.

Let not your voice alone his praise forth tell,
As for our harps, since sorrow struck them dumb, But move withal, and praise him in the dance;
We hang'd them on the willow trees were Cymbals and harps let them be tuned well,

'Tis he that doth the poor's estate advance : Yet did our cruel masters to us come,

Do this not only on the solemn days,
Asking of us some Hebrew songs to hear : But on your secret beds your spirits raise.

Taunting us rather in our misery,
Than much delighting in our melody. O let the saints bear in their mouth his praise,

And a two-edged sword drawn in their hand,
Alas, said we, who can once force a frame Therewith for to revenge the former days

His grieved and oppressed heart to sing Upon all nations that their zeal withstand; The praises of Jehovah's glorious name,

To bind their kings in chains of iron strong
In banishment, under a foreign king?

And manacle their nobles for their wrong.
In Zion is his seat and dwelling-place,
Thence doth he show the brightness of his Expect the time, for 'tis decreed in heaven,

Such honour shall unto his saints be given.








Amongst consolations, it is not the least to represent to a man's self like examples of calamity in others. For examples give a quicker impression than arguments; and, besides, they certify us, that which the Scripture also tendereth for satisfaction; "that no new thing is happened unto us." This they do the better, by how much the examples are liker in circumstances to our own case; and more especially if they fall upon persons that are greater and worthier than ourselves. For as it savoureth of vanity, to match ourselves highly in our own conceit; so, on the other side, it is a good sound conclusion, that if our betters have sustained the like events, we have the less cause to be grieved.

In this kind of consolation I have not been wanting to myself, though, as a Christian, I have tasted, through God's great goodness, of higher remedies. Having, therefore, through the variety of my reading, set before me many examples, both of ancient and later times, my thoughts, I confess, have chiefly stayed upon three particulars, as the most eminent and the most resembling. All three persons that had held chief place of authority in their countries; all three ruined, not by war, or by any other disaster, but by justice and sentence, as delinquents and criminals; all three famous writers, insomuch as the remembrance of their calamity is now as to posterity but as a little picture of night-work, remaining amongst the fair and excellent tables of their acts and works : and all three, if that were any thing to the matter, fit examples to quench any man's ambition of rising again; for that they were every one of them restored with great glory, but to their farther ruin and destruction, ending in a violent death. The men were, Demosthenes, Cicero, and Seneca; persons that I durst not claim affinity with, except the similitude of our fortunes had contracted it. When I had cast mine eyes upon these examples, I was carried on farther to observe, how they did bear their fortunes, and principally, how they did employ their times, being banished, and disabled for public business: to the end that I might learn by them; and that they might be as well my counsellors as my comforters. Whereupon I happened to note, how diversely their fortunes wrought upon them; especially in that point at which I did most aim, which was the employing of their times and pens. In Cicero, I saw that during his banishment, which was almost two years, he was so softened and dejected, as he wrote nothing but a few womanish epistles. And yet, in mine opinion, he had least reason of the three to be discouraged : for that although it was judged, and judged by the highest kind of judgment, in form of a statute or law, that he should be banished, and his whole estate confiscated and seized, and his houses pulled down, and that it should be highly penal for any man to propound a repeal; yet his case even then had no great blot of ignominy; for it was thought but a tempest of popularity which overthrew him. Demosthenes, contrariwise, though his case was foul, being condemned for bribery, and not simple bribery, but bribery in the nature of treason and disloyalty, yet, nevertheless, took so little knowledge of his fortune, as during his banishment he did much busy himself, and intermeddle with matters of state; and took upon him to counsel the state, as if he had been still at the helm, by letters; as appears by some epistles of his which are extant. Seneca indeed, who was condemned for many corruptions and crimes, and banished into a solitary island, kept a mean; and though his pen did not freeze, yet he abstained from intruding into matters of business; but spent his time in writing books of excellent argument and use for all ages; though he might have made better choice, sometimes, of his dedications.

These examples confirmed me much in a resolution, whereunto I was otherwise inclined, to spend my time wholly in writing; and to put forth that poor talent, or half talent, or what it is, that God hath given me, not, as heretofore, to particular exchanges, but to banks, or mounts of perpetuity, which will not break. Therefore, having not long since set forth a part of my Instauration; which is the work that, in mine own judgment, “si nunquam fallit imago," I do most esteem: I think to proceed in some new parts thereof; and although I have received from many parts beyond the seas, testimonies touching that work, such as beyond which I could not expect at the first in so abstruse an argument; yet, nevertheless, I have just cause to doubt, that it flies too high over men's heads:I have a purpose, therefore, though I break the order of time, to draw it down to the sense, by some patterns of a natural story and inquisition. And, again, for that my book of Advancement of Learning may be some preparative, or key, for the better opening of the Instauration ; because it exhibits a mixture of new conceits and old ; whereas the Instauration gives the new unmixed, otherwise than with some little aspersion of the old for taste's sake; I have thought good to procure a translation of that book into the general language, not without great and ample additions, and enrichment thereof, especially in the second book, which handleth the partition of sciences; in such sort, as I hold it may serve in lieu of the first part of the Instauration, and acquit my promise in that part. Again, because I cannot altogether desert the civil person that I have borne; which, if I should forget, enough would remember ; I have also entered into a work touching laws, propounding a character of justice in a middle term, between the speculative and reverend discourses of philosophers, and the writings of lawyers, which are tied and obnoxious to their particular laws. And although it be true, that I had a purpose to make a particular digest, or recompilement of the laws of mine own nation; yet, because it is a work of assistance, and that which I cannot master by mine own forces and pen, I have laid it aside. Now, having in the work of mine Instauration had in contemplation the general good of men in their very being, and the dowries of nature; and in my work of laws, the general good of men likewise in society, and the dowries of government; I thought in duty I owed somewhat unto my own country, which I ever loved : insomuch as, although my place hath been far above my desert, yet my thoughts and cares concerning the good thereof were beyond, and over, and above my place: so now being, as I am, no more able to do my country service, it remained unto me to do it honour; which I have endeavoured to do it in my work of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh. As for my Essays, and some other particulars of that nature, I count them but as the recreations of my other studies, and in that sort purpose to continue them : though I am not ignorant that those kind of writings would, with less pains and embracement, perhaps, yield more lustre and reputation to my name than those other which I have in hand. But I account the use that a man should seek of the publishing of his own writings before his death, to be but an untimely anticipation of that which is proper to follow a man, and not to go along with him.

But, revolving with myself my writings, as well those which I have published, as those which I had in hand, methought they went all into the city, and none into the temple : where, because I have found so great consolation, I desire likewise to make some poor oblation. Therefore I have chosen an argument mixed of religious and civil considerations; and likewise mixed between contemplative and active. For who can tell whether there may not be an "exoriere aliquis ?" Great matters, especially if they he religious, have many times small beginnings : and the platform may draw on the building. This work, because I was ever an enemy to flattering dedications, I have dedicated to your lordship, in respect of our ancient and private acquaintance; and because amongst the men of our times I hold you in special reverence.

Your lordship’s loving friend, FR. ST. ALBAN.



There met at Paris, in the house of Eupolis,* were set in conference, Pollio came in to them Eusebius, Zebedæus, Gamaliel, Martius, all per- from court, and as soon as he saw them, after his sons of eminent quality, but of several dispositions. witty and pleasant manner, he said, Eupolis himself was also present; and while they Pollio. Here be four of you, I think, were able

to make a good world; for you are as differing as * Characters of the persons. Eusebius beareth the cha- the four elements, and yet you are friends. As racter of a moderate divine ; Gamaliel of a Protestant zealot; for Eupolis, because he is temperate, and withZebedæus of a Roman Catholic zealot ; Martius of a military man ; Eupolis of a politic; Pollio of a courtier.

out passion, he may be the fifth essence.

EUPOLIS. If we five, Pollio, make the great ships, and forces, of Spanish, English, and Dutch, world, you alone make the little; because you enough to make China tremble; and all this, for profess, and practise both, to refer all things to pearl, or stone, or spices: but for the pearl of the yourself. Pollio. And what do they that prac- kingdom of heaven, or the stones of the heavenly tise it, and profess it not? Eupolis. They are the Jerusalem, or the spices of the spouse's garden, less hardy, and the more dangerous. But come not a mast hath been set up: nay, they can make and sit down with us, for we were speaking of the shift to shed Christian blood so far off amongst affairs of Christendom at this day; wherein we themselves, and not a drop for the cause of Christ. would be glad also to have your opinion. Pollio. But let me recall myself; I must acknowledge, My lords, I have journeyed this morning, and it that within the space of fifty years, whereof I is now the heat of the day; therefore your lord-spake, there have been three noble and memoraships' discourses had need content my ears very ble actions upon the infidels, wherein the Chriswell, to make them entreat mine eyes to keep tian hath been the invader : for where it is upon open. But yet if you will give me leave to awake the defensive, I reckon it a war of nature, and not you, when I think your discourses do but sleep, of piety. The first was, that famous and fortuI will keep watch the best I can. Eupolis. You nate war by sea, that ended in the victory of Lecannot do us a greater favour. Only I fear you panto; which hath put a hook into the nostrils of will think all our discourses to be but the better the Ottomans to this day; which was the work sort of dreams; for good wishes, without power chiefly of that excellent pope, Pius Quintus, whom to effect, are not much more. But, sir, when you I wonder his successors have not declared a saint. came in, Martius had both raised our attentions, The second was, the noble, though unfortunate, and affected us with some speech he had begun; expedition of Sebastian, King of Portugal, upon and it falleth out well, to shake off your drowsi- Africa, which was achieved by him alone; so ness; for it seemed to be the trumpet of a war. alone, as left somewhat for others to excuse. The And, therefore, Martius, if it please you, to begin last was, the brave incursions of Sigismund the again ; for the speech was such, as deserveth to Transylvanian prince, the thread of whose prosbe heard twice; and I assure you, your auditory perity was cut off by the Christians themselves, is not a little amended by the presence of Pollio. contrary to the worthy and paternal monitories of Martius. When you came in, Pollio, I was Pope Clement the Eighth. More than these, I do saying freely to these lords, that I had observed not remember. Pollio. No! What say you to how, by the space now of half a century of years, the extirpation of the Moors of Valentia ? At there had been, if I may speak it, a kind of mean- which sudden question, Martius was a little at a ness in the designs and enterprises of Christen- stop; and Gamaliel prevented him, and said: dom. Wars with subjects, like an angry suit for Gamaliel. I think Martius did well in omitting a man's own, that might be better ended by accord. that action, for I, for my part, never approved it; Some petty acquests of a town, or a spot of terri- and it seems God was not well pleased with that tory; like a farmer's purchase of a close or nook deed; for you see the king, in whose time it of ground, that lay fit for him. And although the passed, whom you Catholics count a saintlike wars had been for a Naples, or a Milan, or a Por- and imınaculate prince, was taken away in the tugal, or a Bohemia, yet these wars were but as flower of his age; and the author, and great the wars of heathens, of Athens, or Sparta, or counsellor of that rigour, whose fortunes seemed Rome, for secular interest, or ambition, not worthy to be built upon the rock, is ruined : and it is of the warfare of Christians. The church, indeed, thought by some, that the reckonings of that maketh her missions into the extreme parts of the business are not yet cleared with Spain; for that nations and isles, and it is well: but this is numbers of those supposed Moors, being tried now “ Ecce unus gladius hic.” The Christian princes by their exile, continue constant in the faith, and and potentates are they that are wanting to the true Christians in all points, save in the thirst of propagation of the faith by their arms. Yet our revenge. Zebedæus. Make not hasty judgment, Lord, that said on earth, to the disciples, “ Ite et Gamaliel, of that great action, which was as prædicate,” said from heaven to Constantine, " In Christ's fan in those countries, except you could hoc signo vince.” What Christian soldier is show some such covenant from the crown of Spain, there that will not be touched with a religious as Joshua made with the Gibeonites; that that emulation to see an order of Jesus, or of St. cursed seed should continue in the land. And Francis, or of St. Augustine, do such service, for you see it was done by edict, not tumultuously; enlarging the Christian borders; and an order of the sword was not put into the people's hand. St. Jago, or St. Michael, or St. George, only to Eupolis. I think Martius did omit it, not as making robe, and feast, and perform rites and observances ? any judgment of it either way, but because it Surely the merchants themselves shall rise in sorted not aptly with action of war, being upon judgment against the princes and nobles of subjects, and without resistance. But let us, if Europe: for they have made a great path in the you think good, give Martius leave to proceed in beas, unto the ends of the world; and set forth his discourse; for methought he spake like a divine

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