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as in most of his philosophical works; nor written pressly and weightily, as the Novum Organum: but they seem remarkable only for antithesis, something like Fuller, without his spirit: a sort of dry Fuller, or, as he would say, Fuller's earth : or like the Essay on Death, published also in the Remains, and ascribed without authority to the same illustrious author.3

The evidence in favour of the authenticity of the Paradoxes, from the style, is, that—1. Aphorisms are the favourite style of Lord Bacon. 2. The paradoxes contain two of Lord Bacon's expressions; the one is in the beginning of the 26th Paradox, “ He is often tossed and shaken, yet is as Mount Sion : he is a serpent and a dove." The other in the 10th Paradox. “ He lends and gives most freely, and yet he is the greatest usurer. 3d. That although the Paradoxes do not contain any patent internal evidence of their authenticity, yet there is latent evidence from the dissimilarity of the style, as Lord Bacon, knowing how to discover the mind through words, well knew the art of concealment, by which he could cast a cloud about him so as to obscure himself from his enemies. To this refined reason which, without proving the authenticity of the Paradoxes, shows only that, by possibility, they may be authentic, it is sufficient to say that, as they were not published or intended for publication, it seems difficult to discover any assignable cause for this mystery.

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CONSIDERATIONS TOUCHING THE PACIFICATION OF THE CHURCH. This was published in 1640, and there are copies in the British Museum, and at Cambridge: and a MSS. in Sloane's Collection, 23.

THE TRANSLATION OF CERTAIN PSALMS. This was published in 8vo. in 1625, and in the Resuscitatio.

HOLY WAR. This was written and published in 4to. in 1623, and in 1629; and there are MSS. in the British Museum.

1 Ben Jonson in his Discoveries says, Dominus Verulamius.-One though he be excellent, and the chief, is not to be imitated alone; for no imitator ever grew up to his author : likeness is always on this side of truth; yet there happened in my time one noble speaker, who was full of gravity in his speaking. His language (where he could spare or pass by a jest) was nobly censorious. No man ever spake more neatly, more pressly, more weightily, or suffered less emptiness, less idleDess, in what he uttered. No member of his speech but consisted of his own graces. His hearers could not cough, or look aside from him without loss. He commanded where he spoke ; and had his judges angry and pleased at his devotion. No man had their affections more in his power. The fear of every man that heard him was lest he should make an end.

2 Tak for instance any of the Nervous Aphorisms, in the Novum Organum, and compare it with the sentences of the Paradoxes.

See Preface to vol. i. • No man was, for his own sake, less attached to system or ornament than Lord Bacon. A plain, unadorned style in aphorisms, in which the Norum Organum is written, is, he invariably states, the proper style for philosophy. In the midst of his own arrangement, in the Advancement of Learning, he says: “The worst and most absurd sort of triflers are those who have pent the whole art into strict methods and narrow systems, which men commonly cry up for the sake of their regularity and style.” Then see Advancement of Learning.

5 This union of the serpent and the dove is a favourite image of Lord Bacon's. See the Advancement of Learning, vol. i. p. 223: "It is not possible to join serpentine wisdom with the columbine innocency, except men know exactly all the conditions of the serpent ; his baseness and going upon his belly, his volubility and lubricity, his envy and sting, and the rest; that is, all forms and natures of evil : for without this, virtue lieth open and unfenced.” See also the Meditationes Sacræ, “of the innocency of the dove, and the wisdom of the serpent." 6 See Apophthegm 148, in vol. i. p. 115, it is as follows:

"They would say of the Duke of Guise, Henry, that had sold and oppignerated all his patrimony, to suffice the great donatives that he had made; that he was the greatest usurer of France, because all his state was in obligations."

7 See Treatise De Augmentis, b. vi. c. 1, 11.

THEOLOGICAL TRACTS.

A PRAYER, OR PSALM,

MADE BY THE

LORD BACON, CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND.

Most gracious Lord God, my merciful Father, so secret darts from thee have pierced me; and from my youth up, my Creator, my Redeemer, when I have ascended before men, I have demy Comforter. Thou, O Lord, soundest and scended in humiliation before thee. And now, searchest the depths and secrets of all hearts : when I thought most of peace and honour, thy thou acknowledgest the upright of heart: thou hand is heavy upon me, and hath humbled me judgest the hypocrite: thou ponderest men's according to thy former loving-kindness, keeping thoughts and doings as in a balance : thou mea- me still in thy fatherly school, not as a bastard, surest their intentions as with a line: vanity and but as a child. Just are thy judgments upon me crooked ways cannot be hid from thee.

for my sins, which are more in number than the Remember, O Lord, how thy servant hath sands of the sea, but have no proportion to thy walked before thee: remember what I have first mercies; for what are the sands of the sea, earth, sought, and what hath been principal in my in- heavens, and all these are nothing to thy mercies. tentions. I have loved thy assemblies: I have Besides my innumerable sins, I confess before mourned for the divisions of thy church: I have thee, that I am debtor to thee for the gracious delighted in the brightness of thy sanctuary. This talent of thy gifts and graces, which I have vine, which thy right hand hath planted in this neither put into a napkin, nor put it, as I ought, nation, I have ever prayed unto thee, that it might to exchangers, where it might have made best have the first and the latter rain; and that it might profit, but misspent it in things for which I was stretch her branches to the seas and to the floods. least fit: so I may truly say, my soul hath been The state and bread of the poor and oppressed a stranger in the course of my pilgrimage. Be have been precious in mine eyes: I have hated merciful unto me, O Lord, for my Saviour's sake, all cruelty and hardness of heart: I have, though and receive me into thy bosom, or guide me in in a despised weed, procured the good of all men. thy way. If any have been my enemies, I thought not of them; neither hath the sun almost set upon my displeasure; but I have been as a dove, free from

A PRAYER superfluity of maliciousness. Thy creatures have been my books, but thy Scriptures much more. I have sought thee in the courts, fields, and gardens, but I have found thee in thy temples. Thousands have been my sins, and ten thousands Jesus Christ: Let the words of our mouths, and

O eternal God, and most merciful Father in my transgressions; but thy sanctifications have re- the meditations of our hearts be now and ever mained with me, and my heart, through thy grace, gracious in thy sight, and acceptable unto thee, hath been an unquenched coal upon thine altar.

O Lord, our God, our strength, and our Redeemer. O Lord, my strength, I have since my youth met with thee in all my ways, by thy fatherly com- O eternal God, and most merciful Father in passions, by thy comfortable chastisements, and Jesus Christ, in whom thou hast made a covenant by thy most visible providence. As thy favours of grace and mercy with all those that come unto have increased upon me, so have thy corrections; thee in him; in his name and mediation we humso as thou hast been always near me, O Lord; bly prostrate ourselves before the throne of thy and ever as my worldly blessings were exalted, I mercies' seat, acknowledging that, by the breach

MADE AND USED BY THE LORD CHANCELLOR BACON.

of all thy holy laws and commandments, we are to newness of life, may be truly born anew, and become wild olive branches, strangers to thy co- may be effectually made partakers of the first revenant of grace; we have defaced in ourselves surrection, that then the second death may never thy sacred image imprinted in us by creation; we have dominion over us. Teach us, O Lord, so to have sinned against heaven and before thee, and number our days, that we may apply our hearts are no more worthy to be called thy children. O unto wisdom; make us ever mindful of our last admit us into the place even of hired servants. end, and continually to exercise the knowledge of Lord, thou hast formed us in our mothers' wombs, grace in our hearts, that in the said divorce of soul thy providence hath hitherto watched over us, and and body, we may be translated here to that kingpreserved us unto this period of time: 0 stay not dom of glory prepared for all those that love thee, the course of thy mercies and loving-kindness and shall trust in thee; even then and ever, O towards us : have mercy upon us, O Lord, for thy Lord, let thy holy angels pitch their tents round dear Son Christ Jesus' sake, who is the way, the about us, to guard and defend us from all the malice truth, and the life. In him, O Lord, we appeal of Satan, and from all perils both of soul and body. from thy justice to thy mercy, beseeching thee in Pardon all our unthankfulness, make us daily more his name, and for his sake only, thou wilt be and more thankful for all thy mercies and benefits graciously pleased freely to pardon and forgive us daily poured down upon us. Let these our humall our sins and discbedience, whether in thought, ble prayers ascend to the throne of grace, and be word, or deed, committed against thy divine ma- granted not only for these mercies, but for whatjesty; and in his precious blood-shedding, death, soever else thy wisdom knows needful for us; and and perfect obedience, free us from the guilt, the for all those that are in need, misery, and distress, stain, the punishment, and dominion of all our whom, Lord, thou hast afflicted either in soul or sins, and clothe us with his perfect righteousness. body; grant them patience and perseverance in There is mercy with thee, O Lord, that thou mayest the end, and to the end: And that, O Lord, not be feared; yea, thy mercies swallow up the great for any merits of ours, but only for the merits ness of our sins: speak peace to our souls and of thy Son, and our alone Saviour Christ Jesus; to consciences; make us happy in the free remission whom with thee and the Holy Spirit be ascribed of all our sins, and be reconciled to thy poor ser- all glory, &c. Amen. vants in Jesus Christ, in whom thou art well pleased : suffer not the works of thine own hands to perish; thou art not delighted in the death of sinners, but in their conversion. Turn our hearts, THE STUDENT'S PRAYER. and we shall be turned; convert us, and we shall

To God the Father, God the Word, God the be converted ; illuminate the eyes of our minds and understanding with the bright beams of thy supplications; that he remembering the calami

Spirit, we pour forth most humble and hearty Holy Spirit, that we may daily grow in the saving ties of mankind, and the pilgrimage of this our knowledge of the heavenly mystery of our redemp- life, in which we wear out days few and evil, tion, wrought by our dear Lord and Saviour Jesus would please to open to us new refreshments out Christ; sanctify our wills and affection by the of the fountains of his goodness, for the alleviating same Spirit, the most sacred fountain of all grace of our miseries. This also we humbly and earand goodness; reduce them to the obedience of

nestly beg, that human things may not prejudice thy most holy will in the practice of all piety such as are divine; neither that from the unlocktoward thee, and charity towards all men. Infiame ing of the gates of sense, and the kindling of a our hearts with thy love, cast forth of them what displeaseth thee, all infidelity, hardness of heart, intellectual night, may arise in our minds towards

greater natural light, any thing of incredulity, or profaneness, hypocrisy, contempt of thy holy word divine mysteries. But, rather, that by our mind and ordinances, all uncleanness, and whatsoever thoroughly cleansed and purged from faney and advanceth itself in opposition to thy holy will. And vanities, and yet subject and perfectly given up grant that henceforth, through thy grace, we may to the divine oracles, there may be given unto be enabled to lead a godly, holy, sober, and Chris- faith the things that are faith’s. Amen. tian life, in true sincerity and uprightness of heart before thee. To this end, plant thy holy fear in our hearts, grant that it may never depart from before our eyes, but continually guide our feet in

THE WRITER'S PRAYER. the paths of thy righteousness, and in the ways of thy commandments : increase our weak faith, Thou, O Father, who gavest the visible light grant it may daily bring forth the true fruits of as the first-born of thy creatures, and didst pour unfeigned repentance, that by the power of the into man the intellectual light as the top and condeath of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ we summation of thy workmanship, be pleased to may daily die unto sin, and by the power of his protect and govern this work, which coming from Tesurrection we may be quickened, and raised up thy goodness, returneth to thy glory. Thou after thou hadst reviewed the works which thy hands | partakers of thy vision and thy Sabbath. We had made, beheldest that every thing was very humbly beg that this mind may be steadfastly in good, and thou didst rest with complacency in us; and that thou, by our hands, and also by the them. But man, reflecting on the works which hands of others, on whom thou shalt bestow the he had made, saw that all was vanity and vexa- same spirit, wilt please to convey a largess of tion of spirit

, and could by no means acquiesce in new alms to thy family of mankind. These them. Wherefore, if we labour in thy works things we commend to thy everlasting love, by with the sweat of our brows, thou wilt make us our Jesus, thy Christ, God with us. Amen.

A CONFESSION OF FAITH,

WRITTEN BY

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE FRANCIS BACON, BARON OF VERULAM, &c.

I believe that nothing is without beginning, buttery and perfect centre of all God's ways with his God; no nature, no matter, no spirit, but one, creatures, and unto which all his other works and only, and the same God. That God, as he is wonders do but serve and refer. eternally almighty, only wise, only good, in his That he chose, according to his good pleasure, nature; so he is eternally Father, Son, and Spirit, man to be that creature, to whose nature the perin persons.

son of the eternal Son of God should be united; I believe that God is so holy, pure, and jealous, and amongst the generations of men, elected a as it is impossible for him to be pleased in any small flock, in whom, by the participation of himcreature, though the work of his own hands; so self, he purposed to express the riches of his glory; that neither angel, man, nor world, could stand, all the ministration of angels, damnation of devils or can stand, one moment in his eyes, without and reprobates, and universal administration of beholding the same in the face of a Mediator; and, all creatures, and dispensation of all times, having therefore, that before him, with whom all things no other end, but as the ways and ambages of are present, the Lamb of God was slain before all God, to be further glorified in his saints, who are worlds: without which eternal counsel of his, it one with their head the Mediator, who is one with was impossible for him to have descended to any God. work of creation; but he should have enjoyed the That by the virtue of this his eternal counsel blessed and individual society of three persons in he condescended of his own good pleasure, and Godhead forever.

according to the times and seasons to himself But that, out of his eternal and infinite good- known, to become a Creator; and by his eternal ness and love purposing to become a Creator, and Word created all things; and by his eternal Spirit to communicate to his creatures, he ordained in doth comfort and preserve them. his eternal counsel, that one person of the God- That he made all things in their first estate head should be united to one nature, and to one good, and removed from himself the beginning of particular of his creatures : that so, in the person all evil and vanity into the liberty of the creature; of the Mediator, the true ladder might be fixed, but reserved in himself the beginning of all restiwhereby God might descend to his creatures, and tution to the liberty of his grace; using, neverthehis creatures might ascend to God : so that God, less, and turning the falling and defection of the by the reconcilement of the Mediator, turning his creature, which to his prescience was eternally countenance towards his creatures, though not in known, to make way to his eternal counsel, equal light and degree, made way unto the dis- touching a Mediator, and the work he purposed pensation of his most holy and secret will: to accomplish in him. whereby some of his creatures might stand, and That God created spirits, whereof some kept keep their state, others might possibly fall, and their standing, and others fell: he created heaven be restored; and others might fall, and not be and earth, and all their armies and generations; restored to their estate, but yet remain in being, and gave unto them constant and everlasting laws, though under wrath and corruption: all with which we call nature; which is nothing but the respect to the Mediator; which is the great mys- laws of the creation; which laws, nevertheless

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