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or striking of the bottom of a vessel, filled either | ferior to that of silver or brass, but rather better:
with milk or with oil; which, though they be yet we see that a piece of money of gold soundeth
more light, yet are they more unequal bodies than far more flat than a piece of money of silver.
air.

223. The harp hath the concave not along the Of the natures of the mediums we have now strings, but across the strings; and no instrument spoken; as for the disposition of the said me- hath the sound so melting and prolonged as the diums, it doth consist in the penning, or not pen- Irish harp. So as I suppose, that if a virginal ning of the air; of which we have spoken before in were made with a double concave, the one all the the title of delation of sounds: it consisteth also in length, as the virginal hath, the other at the end the figure of the concave through which it passeth ; of the strings, as the harp hath; it must needs. of which we will speak next.

make the sound perfecter, and not so shallow and

jarring. You may try it without any sound-board Experiments in consort, what the figures of the pipes, along, but only harp-wise at one end of the strings;

or concaves, or the bodies deferent, conduce to the or lastly, with a double concave, at each end of sounds.

the strings one. How the figures of pipes, or concaves, through which sounds pass, or of other bodies deferent, Experiments in consort touching the mixture of conduce to the variety and alteration of the sounds;

sounds. either in respect of the greater quantity, or less 224. There is an apparent diversity between quantity of air which the concaves receive, or in the species visible and audible in this, that the respect of the carrying of sounds longer and visible doth not mingle in the medium, but the shorter way; or in respect of many other circum- audible doth. For if we look abroad, we see stances; they have been touched, as falling into heaven, a number of stars, trees, hills, men, beasts, other titles. But those figures which we are now at once. And the species of the one doth not conto speak of, we intend to be, as they concern the found the other. But if so many sounds came lines through which the sound passeth ; as from several parts, one of them would utterly constraight, crooked, angular, circular, &c.

found the other. So we see, that voices or con221. The figure of a bell partaketh of the pyra- sorts of music do make a harmony by mixture, mis, but yet coming off and dilating more sud- which colours do not. It is true nevertheless that denly. The figure of a hunter's horn and cornet a great light drowneth a smaller, that it cannot bo is oblique; yet they have likewise straight horns; seen; as the sun that of a glow-worm ; as well as if they be of the same bore with the oblique, differ a great sound drowneth a lesser. And I suppose little in sound, save that the straight require some- likewise, that if there were two lanterns of glass, what a stronger blast. The figures of recorders, the one a crimson, and the other an azure, and a and flutes, and pipes are straight; but the recorder candle within either of them, those coloured lights hath a less bore and a greater, above and be would mingle, and cast upon a white paper a purlow. The trumpet hath the figure of the letter S: ple colour. And even in colours, they yield a which maketh that purling sound, &c. Gene- faint and weak mixture: for white walls mako rally the straight line hath the cleanest and round-rooms more lightsome than black, &c. but the est sound, and the crooked the more hoarse and cause of the confusion in sounds, and the inconjarring.

fusion in species visible, is, for that the sight 222. Of a sinuous pipe that may have some worketh in right lines, and maketh several cones ; four flexions, trial would be made. Likewise of and so there can be no coincidence in the eye or a pipe inade like a cross, open in the midst. And visual point: but sounds, that move in oblique so likewise of an angular pipe; and see what will and arcuate lines, must needs encounter and disbe the effects of these several sounds. And so turb the one the other. again of a circular pipe; as if you take a pipe per- 225. The sweetest and best harmony is, when fect round, and make a hole whereinto you shall every part or instrument is not heard by itself, blow, and another hole not far from that; but but a conflation of them all; which requireth to with a traverse or stop between them : so that your stand some distance off, even as it is in the mixbreath may go the round of the circle, and come ture of perfumes; or the taking of the smells of forth at the second hole. You may try likewise several flowers in the air. percussions of solid bodies of several figures; as 226. The disposition of the air in other qualitics, globes, flats, cubes, crosses, triangles, &c., and except it be joined with sound, hath no great their combinations, as flat against flat, and convex operation upon sounds : for whether the air be against convex, and convex against flat, &c., and lightsome or dark, hot or cold, quiet or stirring, mark well the diversities of the sounds. Try also except it be with noise, sweet smelling, or stinkthe difference in sound of several crassitudes of ing, or the like; it importeth not much; some hard bodies percussed; and take knowledge of the pretty alteration or difference it may make. diversities of the sounds. I myself have tried, that 227. But sounds do disturb and alter the one the a bell of gold yieldeth an excellent sound, not in- other: sometimes the one drowning the other

and making it not heard; sometimes the one jar- trial may be made of a lute or viol with a double ning and discording with the other, and making belly, making another belly with a knot over a confusion; sometimes the one mingling and the strings; yet so as there be room enough for compounding with the other, and making a har- the strings, and room enough to play below that mony.

belly. Trial may be made also of an Irish harp, 228. Two voices of like loudness will not with a concave on both sides, whereas it useth to be heard twice as far as one of them alone: and have it but on one side. The doubt may be, lest two candles of like light will not make things it should make too much resounding, whereby one seen twice as far off as one. The cause is pro- note would overtake another. found; but it seemeth that the impressions from 233. If you sing into the hole of a drum, it the objects of the senses do mingle respectively, maketh the singing more sweet. And so I conevery one with his kind : but not in proportion, ceive it would, if it were a song in parts sung as is before demonstrated: and the reason may into several drums; and for handsomeness and be, because the first impression, which is from strangeness' sake, it would not be amiss to have privative to active, as from silence to noise, or a curtain between the place where the drums are, from darkness to light, is a greater degree than and the hearers. from less noise to more noise, or from less light 234. When a sound is created in a wind instruto more light. And the reason of that again may ment between the breath and the air, yet if the be, for that the air, after it hath received a charge, sound be communicated with a more equal body doth not receive a surcharge, or greater charge of the pipe, it meliorateth the sound. For, no with like appetite as it doth the first charge. As doubt, there would be a differing sound in a for the increase of virtue, generally, what propor- trumpet or pipe of wood: and again in a trumpet tion it beareth to the increase of the matter, it is or pipe of brass. It were good to try recorders a large field, and to be handled by itself. and hunters' horns of brass, what the sound

would be. Experiments in consort touching melioration of

235. Sounds are meliorated by the intension sounds.

of the sense, where the common sense is collected 229. All reflections concurrent do make sounds most to the particular sense of hearing, and the greater; but if the body that createth either the sight suspended : and therefore sounds are sweeter, original sound, or the reflection, be clean and as well as greater, in the night than in the day; smooth, it maketh them sweeter. Trial may be and I suppose they are sweeter to blind men than made of a lute or viol, with the belly of polished to others : and it is manifest, that between sleepbrass instead of wood. We see that even in the ing and waking, when all the senses are bound open air, the wire-string is sweeter than the and suspended, music is far sweeter than when string of guts. And we see that for reflection one is fully waking. water excelleth; as in music near the water, or in echoes.

Experiments in consort touching the imitation of 230. It hath been tried, that a pipe a little

sounds. moistened on the inside, but yet so as there be 236. It is a thing strange in nature when it is no drops left, maketh a more solemn sound than attentively considered, how children, and some if the pipe were dry: but yet with a sweet degree birds, learn to imitate speech. They take no of sibilation or purling; as we touched it before mark at all of the motion of the mouth of him in the title of equality.” The cause is, for that that speaketh, for birds are as well taught in the all things porous being superficially wet, and, dark as by light. The sounds of speech are very as it were, between dry and wet, became a little curious and exquisite: so one would think it more even and smooth; but the purling, which were a lesson hard to learn. It is true that it is must needs proceed of inequality, I take to be done with time, and by little and little, and with bred between the smoothness of the inward sur-many essays and proffers: but all this dischargeth face of the pipe, which is wet, and the rest of the not the wonder. It would make a man think, wood of the pipe unto which the wet cometh not, though this which we shall say may seem exceed but it remaineth dry.

ing strange, that there is some transmission of 231. In frosty weather, music within doors spirits; and that the spirits of the teacher, put in soundeth better. Which may be hy reason not motion, should work with the spirits of the learner of the disposition of the air, but of the wood or a predisposition to offer to imitate; and so to string of the instrument, which is made more perfect the imitation by degrees. But touching crisp, and so more porous and hollow: and we operations by transmissions of spirits, which is see that old lutes sound better than new, for the one of the highest secrets in nature, we shall same reason. And so do lule-strings that have speak in due place, chiefly when we come to been kept long.

inquire of imagination. But as for imitation, it 232. Sound is likewise meliorated by the is certain that there is in men and other creatures mingling of open air with pent air; therefore la predisposition to imitate. We see how scady apes and monkeys are to imitate all motions of Experiments in consort touching the reflection of man; and in the catching of dottrels, we see how

sounds. the foolish bird playeth the ape in gestures : and There be three kinds of reflections of sounds; no man, in effect, doth accompany with others, a reflection concurrent, a reflection iterant, which but he learneth, ere he is aware, some gesture, or we call echo; and a super-reflection, or an echo voice, or fashion of the other.

of an echo; whereof the first hath been handled 237. In imitation of sounds, that man should in the title of “magnitude of sounds;" the latter be the teacher is no part of the matter; for birds two we will now speak of. will learn one of another; and there is no reward 242. The reflection of species visible by mirrors by feeding, or the like, given them for the imita- you may command ; because passing in righti tion; and besides, you shall have parrots that lines, they may be guided to any point: but the will not only imitate voices, but laughing, knock- reflection of sounds is hard to master; because ing, squeaking of a door upon the hinges, or of the sound, filling great spaces in arched lines, a cart-wheel; and, in effect, any other noise they cannot be so guided : and therefore we see there hear.

hath not been practised any means to make 238. No beast can imitate the speech of man, artificial echoes. And no echo already known but birds only; for the ape itself, that is so ready returneth in a very narrow room. to imitate otherwise, attaineth not any degree of 243. The natural echoes are made upon walls, imitation of speech. It is true, that I have woods, rocks, hills, and banks; as for waters, known a dog, that if one howled in his ear, he being near, they make a concurrent echo; but would fall a howling a great while. What should being farther off, as upon a large river, they be the aptness of birds in comparison of beasts, make an iterant echo: for there is no difference to imitate the speech of man, may be further between the concurrent echo and the iterant, but inquired. We see that beasts have those parts the quickness or slowness of the return. But which they count the instruments of speech, as there is no doubt but water doth help the delalips, teeth, &c., liker unto man than birds. As tion of echo; as well as it helpeth the delation for the neck, by which the throat passeth, we see of original sounds. many beasts have it for the length as much as 244. It is certain, as hath been formerly birds. What better gorge or artery birds have touched, that if you speak through a trunk may be farther inquired. The birds that are stopped at the farther end, you shall find a blast known to be speakers are, parrots, pies, jays, return upon your mouth, but no sound at all. daws, and ravens. Of which parrots have an The cause is, for that the closeness which preadunque bill, but the rest not.

serveth the original, is not able to preserve the 239. But I conceive, that the aptness of birds reflected sound: besides that echoes are seldom is not so much in the conformity of the organs of created but by loud sounds. And therefore there speech as in their attention. For speech must is less hope of artificial echoes in air pent in a come by hearing and learning; and birds give narrow

Nevertheless it hath been more heed, and mark sounds more than beasts; tried, that one leaning over a well of twenty-five because naturally they are more delighted with fathom deep, and speaking, though but softly, yet them, and practise them more, as appeareth in not so soft as a whisper, the water returned a good their singing. We see also that those that teach audible echo. It would be tried, whether speakbirds to sing, do keep them waking to increase ing in caves, where there is no issue save where their attention. We see also that cock birds, you speak, will not yield echoes as wells do. amongst singing birds, are ever the better singers; 245. The echo cometh, as the original sound which may be, because they are more lively and doth, in a round orb of air: it were good to try listen more.

the creating of the echo where the body reper240. Labour and intention to imitate .voices cussing maketh an angle: as against the return doth conduce much to imitation: and therefore we of a wall, &c. Also we see that in mirrors there see that there be certain a pantomimi,” that will is the like angle of incidence, from the object to represent the voices of players of interludes so the glass, and from the glass to the eye. And if to life, as if you see them not you would think you strike a ball sidelong, not full upon the surthey were those players themselves; and so the face, the rebound will be as much the contrary voices of other men that they hear.

way: whether there be any such resilience in 241. There have been some that could coun- echoes, that is, whether a man shall hear better terfeit the distance of voices, which is a secondary if he stand aside the body repercussing, than if object of hearing, in such sort, as when they he stand where he speaketh, or anywhere in a stand fast by you, you would think the speech right line between, may be tried. Trial likewise came from afar off, in a fearful manner. How would be made, by standing nearer the place of this is done may be further inquired. But I see repercussing than he that speaketh; and again no great use of it but for imposture, in counter- by standing farther off than he that speaketh ; and feiting ghosts or spirits.

so knowledge would be taken, whether echoes,

concave.

as well as original sounds, be not strongest near | And whereas in echoes of one return, it is much hand.

to hear four or five words; in this echo of so many 246. There be many places where you shall returns upon the matter, you hear above twenty hear a number of echoes one after another; and words for three. it is when there is a variety of hills or woods, 250. The like echo upon echo, but only with some nearer, some farther off: so that the return two reports, hath been observed to be, if you stand from the farther, being last created, will be like-between a house and a hill, and lure towards the wise last heard.

hill. For the house will give a back echo; one 247. As the voice goeth round, as well towards taking it from the other, and the latter the weaker. the back, as towards the front of him that speak- 251. There are certain letters that an echo will eth; so likewise doth the echo: for you have hardly express; as S for one, especially being many back echoes to the place where you stand. principal in a word. I remember well, that when

248. To make an echo that will report three, I went to the echo at Pont-Charenton, there was or four, or five words distinctly, it is requisite that an old Parisian, that took it to be the work of the body repercussing be a good distance off: spirits, and of good spirits. For, said he, call for if it be near, and yet not so near as to make a “Satan,” and the echo will not deliver back the concurrent echo, it choppeth with you upon the devil's name; but will say, “va t'en;" which is sudden. It is requisite likewise that the air be as much in French as “apage" or avoid. And not much pent: for air at a great distance pent, thereby I did hap to find, that an echo would not worketh the same effect with air at large in a small return S, being but a hissing and an interior distance. And therefore in the trial of speaking sound. in the well, though the well was deep, the voice 252. Echoes are some more sudden, and chop came back suddenly, and would bear the report again as soon as the voice is delivered ; as hath but of two words.

been partly said : others are more deliberate, that 249. For echoes upon echoes, there is a rare is, give more space between the voice and the instance thereof in a place which I will now ex- echo, which is caused by the local nearness or actly describe. It is some three or four miles distance: some will report a longer train of words, from Paris, near a town called Pont-Charenton; and some a shorter; some more loud, full as loud and some bird-bolt shot or more from the river of as the original, and sometimes more loud, and Seine. The room is a chapel or small church. some weaker and fainter. The walls all standing, both at the sides and at 253. Where echoes come from several parts at the ends. Two rows of pillars, after the manner the same distance, they must needs make, as it of aisles of churches, also standing; the roof all were, a choir of echoes, and so make the report open, not so much as any embowments near any greater, and even a continued echo; which you of the walls left. There was against every pillar shall find in some hills that stand encompassed a stack of billets above a man's height; which theatre-like. the watermen that bring wood down the Seine in 254. It doth not yet appear that there is refracstacks, and not in boats, laid there, as it seemeth, tion in sounds, as well as in species visible. For for their ease. Speaking, at the one end, I did I do not think that, if a sound should pass through hear it return the voice thirteen several times; divers mediums, as air, cloth, wood, it would deand I have heard of others, that it would return liver the sound in a differing place from that unto sixteen times : for I was there about three of the which it is deferred; which is the proper effect clock in the afternoon: and it is best, as all other of refraction. But majoration, which is also the echoes are, in the evening. It is manifest that it work of refraction, appeareth plainly in sounds, is not echoes from several places, but a tossing as hath been handled at full, but it is not by diof the voice, as a ball, to and fro, like to reflections versity of mediums. in looking-glasses, where if you place one glass before and another behind, you shall see the glass Experiments in consort touching the consent and behind with the image, within the glass before;

dissent between visibles and audibles. and again, the glass before in that; and divers We have “ obiter,” for demonstration's sake, such super-reflections, till the “species speciei" | used in divers instances the examples of the sight at last die. For it is every return weaker and and things visible, to illustrate the nature of more shady. In like manner, the voice in that sounds: but we think good now to prosecute that chapel createth “speciem speciei,” and maketh comparison more fully. succeeding super-reflections; for it melteth by degrees, and every reflection is weaker than the Consent of visibles and audibles. former: so that if you speak three words, it will, 255. Both of them spread themselves in round, perhaps, some three times report you the whole and fill a whole floor or orb unto certain limits; three words; and then the two latter words for and are carried a great way: and do languish and some times; and then the last word alone for lessen by degrees, according to the distance of the Bome times, still fading and growing weaker. objects from the sensories. Vol. II.-6

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256. Both of them have the whole species in intentive and erect, insomuch as you contract your every small portion of the air, or medium, so as eye when you would see sharply; and erect your the species do pass through small crannies without ear when you would hear attentively; which in confusion: as we see ordinarily in levels, as to beasts that have ears movable is most manifest. : the eye; and in crannies or chinks, as to the 267. The beams of light, when they are multisound.

plied and conglomerate, generate heat, which is a 257. Both of them are of a sudden and easy different action from the action of sight: and the generation and delation: and likewise perish multiplication and coglomeration of sounds doth swiftly and suddenly; as if you remove the light, generate an extreme rarefaction of the air; which or touch the bodies that give the sound.

is an action materiate, differing from the action 258. Both of them do receive and carry ex- of sound; if it be true, which iş anciently reportquisite and accurate differences; as of colours, ed, that birds with great shouts have fallen figures, motions, distances, in visibles ; and of down. articulate voices, tones, songs, and quaverings, in audibles.

Dissents of visibles and audibles. 259. Both of them, in their virtue and working, 268. The species of visibles seem to be emisdo not appear to admit any corporal substance into sions of beams from the objects seen, almost like their mediums, or the orb of their virtue ; neither odours, save that they are more incorporeal : but again to rise or stir any evident local motion in the species of audibles seem to participate more their mediums as they pass; but only to carry with local motion, like percussions, or imprescertain spiritual species ; the perfect knowledge sions made upon the air. So that whereas all of the cause whereof, being hitherto scarcely at- bodies do seem to work in two manners, either by tained, we shall search and handle in due place. the communication of their natures or by the im,

260. Both of them seem not to generate or pressions and signatures of their motions; the produce any other effect in nature, but such as diffusion of species visible seemeth to participate appertaineth to their proper objects and senses, more of the former operation, and the species auand are otherwise barren.

dible of the latter. 261. But both of them, in their own proper 269. The species of audibles seem to be caraction, do work three manifest effects. The first, ried more manifestly through the air than the spein that the stronger species drowneth the lesser; cies of visibles : for I conceive that a contrary as the light of the sun, the light of a glow-worm; strong wind will not much hinder the sight of the report of an ordnance, the voice: The second, visibles, as it will do the hearing of sounds. in that an object of surcharge or excess destroyeth 270. There is one difference above all other ben the sense; as the light of the sun the eye; a tween visibles and audibles, that is the most reviolent sound near the ear the hearing: The third, markable, as that whereupon many smaller differin that both of them will be reverberate; as in ences do depend : namely, that visibles, except mirrors, and in echoes.

lights, are carried in right lines, and audibles in 262. Neither of them doth destroy or hinder arcuate lines. Hence it cometh to pass, that vithe species of the other, although they encounter sibles do not intermingle and confound one another, in the same medium, as light or colour hinder not as hath been said before, but sounds do. Hence sound, nor "e contra."

it cometh, that the solidity of bodies doth not 263. Both of them effect the sense in living much hinder the sight, so that the bodies be clear, creatures, and yield objects of pleasure and dis- and the pores in a right line, as in glass, crystal, like: yet nevertheless the objects of them do also, diamonds, water, &c. but a thin scarf or handker if it be well observed, affect and work upon dead chief, though they be bodies nothing so solid, hin things; namely, such as have some conformity der the sight; whereas, contrariwise, these porous with the organs of the two senses, as visibles work bodies do not much hinder the hearing, but solid upon a looking-glass, which is like the pupil of bodies do almost stop it, or at the least attenuate the eye: and audibles upon the places of echo, it. Hence also it cometh, that to the reflection which resemble in some sort the cavern and of visibles small glasses suffice; but to the restructure of the ear.

verberation of audibles are required greater spaces, 264. Both of them do diversely work, as they as hath likewise been said before. have their medium diversely disposed. So a 271. Visibles are seen further off than sounds trembling medium, as smoke, maketh the object are heard, allowing nevertheless the rate of their seem to tremble, and a rising or falling medium, bigness, for otherwise a great sound will be heard as winds, maketh the sounds to rise or fall. further off than a small body seen.

265. To both, the medium, which is the most 272. Visibles require, generally, some distance propitious and conducible, is air, for glass or between the object and the eye, to be better seen; water, &c. are not comparable.

whereas in audibles, the nearer the approach of 266. In both of them, where the object is fine the sound is to the sense, the better. But in this and accurate, it conduceth much to have the sense there may be a double error. The one, because to

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