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leave the ordering of those household affairs to And now the prince groweth up fast to be a the whitestaffs, which are those honourable per- man, and is of a sweet and excellent disposition; sons, to whom it properly belongeth to be it would be an irreparable stain and dishonour answerable to the king for it; and to those other upon you, having that access unto him, if you officers of the green-cloth, who are subordinate to should mislead him, or suffer him to be misled by them, as a kind of council, and a court of justice any loose or flattering parasites; the whole king. also.

dom hath a deep interest in his virtuous educa6. Yet, for the green-cloth law, take it in the tion; and if you, keeping that distance which is largest sense, I have no opinion of it, farther ihan fit, do humbly interpose yourself, in such a case it is regulated by the just rules of the common he will one day give you thanks for it. laws of England.

12. Yet dice and cards may sometimes be used 7. Towards the support of his majesty's own for recreation, when field-sports cannot be had; table, and of the prince's, and of his necessary but not to use it as a mean to spend the time, officers, his majesty hath a good help by purvey- much less to misspend the thrift of the game ance, which justly is due unto him; and, if justly sters. used, is no great burden to the subject; but by Sir, I shall trouble you no longer; I have run the purveyors and other under officers is many over these things as I first propounded them; times abused. In many parts of the kingdom, I please you to make use of them, or any of them, think, it is already reduced to a certainty in as you shall see occasion; or to lay them by, as, money; and if it be indiferently and discreetly you shall think best, and to add to them, as you managed, it would be no hard matter to settle it daily may, out of your experience. 80 throughout the whole kingdom; yet to be I must be bold, again, to put you in mind of renewed from time to time : for that will be the your present condition; you are in the quality of best and safest, both for the king and people. a sentinel; if you sleer, or neglect your charge,

8. The king must be put in mind to preserve you are an undone man, and you may fall much the revenues of his crown, both certain and faster than you have risen. casual, without diminution, and to lay up treasure I have but one thing more to mind you of, in store against a time of extremity; empty which nearly concerns yourself; you serve a great coffers give an ill sound, and make the people and gracious master, and there is a most hopeful many times forget their duty, thinking that the young prince, whom you must not desert; it be king must be beholden to them for his supplies. hooves you to carry yourself wisely and evenly

9. I shall by no means think it fit, that he re- between them both : adore not so the rising son, ward any of his servants with the benefit of for- that you forget the father, who raised you to this feitures, either by fines in the court of Star height; nor be you so obsequious to the father, Chamber, or high commission courts, or other that you give just cause to the son to suspect that courts of justice, or that they should be farmed you neglect him; but carry yourself with that out, or bestowed upon any, so much as hy promise, judgment, as, if it be possible, may please and before judgment given; it would neither be pro- content them both; which, truly, I believe, will fitable nor honourable.

be no hard matter for you to do: so may you live 10. Besides matters of serious consideration, long beloved of both. in the courts of princes, there must be times for [If you find in these or any other your obserpastimes and disports: when there is a queen vations, which doubtless are much better than and ladies of honour attending her, there must these loose collections, any thing which you sometimes be masques, and revels, and interludes; would have either the father or the son to take to and when there is no queen, or princess, as now; heart, an admonition from a dead author, or a yet at festivals, and for entertainment of strangers, caveat from an impartial pen, whose aim neither or upon such occasions, they may be fit also: yet was nor can be taken to be at any particular by care would be taken, that in such cases they be design, will prevail more and take better impresset off more with wit and activity than with cost- sion than a downright advice; which perhaps 'y and wasteful expenses.

may be mistaken as if it were spoken magiste11. But for the king and prince, and the lords rially. and chivalry of the court, I rather commend, in Thus may you live long a happy instrument their turns and seasons, the riding of the great for your king and country; you shall not be a horse, the tilts, the barriers, tennis, and hunting, meteor or a blazing star, but “ stella fixa:" happy which are more for the health and strength of here and more happy hereafter, “ Deus manu sua those who exercise them, than in an effeminate te ducat:"] which is the hearty prayer of way to please themselves and others.

Your most obliged and devoted servant.









Mr Lords,

But, my lords, in this duel I find this Talbot, I brought before you the first sitting of this term that is now before you, but a coward; for he hath the cause of duels; but now this last sitting 1 given ground, he hath gone backward and fore "shall bring before you a cause concerning the ward; but in such a fashion, and with such greatest duel which is in the Christian world, interchange of repenting and relapsing, as I canthe duel and conflict between the lawful authority not tell whether it doth extenuate or aggravate of sovereign kings, which is God's ordinance for his offence. If he shall more publicly in the face the comfort of human society, and the swelling of the court fall and settle upon a right mind, I pride and usurpation of the see of Rome “in shall be glad of it; and he that would be against temporalibus,” tending altogether to anarchy and the king's mercy, I would he might need the confusion. Wherein if this pretence in the Pope king's mercy: but, nevertheless, the court will of Rome, by cartels to make sovereign princes as proceed by rules of justice. the banditti, and to proscribe their lives, and to The offence, therefore, wherewith I charge this expose their kingdoms to prey; if these pretences, Talbot, prisoner at the bar, is this in brief and in I say, and all persons that submit themselves effect: That he hath maintained, and maintaineth to that part of the Pope's power in the least de- under his hand, a power in the pope for deposing gree, be not by all possible severity repressed and murdering of kings. In what sort he doth and punished, the state of Christian kings will this, when I come to the proper and particular be no other than the ancient torment described by charge, I will deliver it in his own words, without the poets in the hell of the heathen; a man sit- pressing or straining. ting richly robed, solemnly attended, delicious But before I come to the particular charge of fare, &c., with a sword hanging over his head, this man, I cannot proceed so coldly; but I must hanging by a small thread, ready every moment express unto your lordships the extreme and imto be cut down by an accursing and accursed minent danger wherein our dear and dread sovehand. Surely I had thought they had been the reign is, and in him we all; nay, all princes of prerogatives of God alone, and of his secret both religions, for it is a common cause, do stand judgments : “Solvam cingula regum," I will at this day, by the spreading and enforcing of this loosen the girdles of kings; or again, “ He pour- furious and pernicious opinion of the pope's tenieth contempt upon princes ;" or, “I will give a poral power: which, though the modest sort would king in my wrath, and take him away again in blanch with the distinction of " in ordine ad spimy displeasure ;” and the like: but if these be ritualia,” yet that is but an elusion; for he that the claims of a mortal man, certainly they are but maketh the distinction, will also make the case. the mysteries of that person which "exalts him- This peril, though it be in itself notorious, yet, self above all that is called God, supra omne because there is a kind of dulness, and almost a quod dicitur Deus." Note it well, not above lethargy in this age, give me leave to set before God, though that in a sense be true, but above you two glasses, such as certainly the like never all that is called God; that is, lawful kings and met in one age; the glass of France, and the magistrates.

glass of England. In that of France the trage

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dies acted and executed in two immediate kings ; | been likewise equally sensible of every injury in the glass of England, the same, or more horri- that touched their temporals. ble, attempted likewise in a queen and king im- Thuanus reports in his story, that when the mediate, but ending in a happy deliverance. In realm of France was interdicted by the violent France, Henry III., in the face of his army, before proceedings of Pope Julius the Second, the king, the walls of Paris, stabbed by a wretched Jaco- otherwise noted for a moderate prince, caused bine friar. Henry IV., a prince that the French coins of gold to be stamped with his own image, do surname the Great, one that had been a saviour and this superscription, “Perdam nomen Babyand redeemer of his country from infinite calami-lonis e terra.” Of which Thuanus saith, himself ties, and a restorer of that monarchy to the ancient had seen divers pieces thereof. So as this Cathostate and splendour, and prince almost heroical, lic king was so much incensed at that time, in except it be in the point of revolt from religion, respect of the pope's usurpation, as he did apply at a time when he was as it were to mount on Babylon to Rome. Charles the Fifth, emperor, horseback for the commanding of the greatest who was accounted one of the pope's best sons, forces that of long time had been levied in France, yet proceeded in matter temporal towards Pope this king likewise stilettoed by a rascal votary, Clement with strange rigour : never regarding which had been enchanted and conjured for the the pontificality, but kept him prisoner thirteen purpose.

months in a pestilent prison; and was hardly In England, Queen Elizabeth, of blessed me- dissuaded by his council from having sent him mory, a queen comparable and to be ranked with captive into Spain; and made sport with the the greatest kings, oftentimes attempted by like threats of Frosberg the German, who wore a silk votaries, Sommervile, Parry, Savage, and others, rope under his cassock, which he would show in but still protected by the watchman that slum- all companies; telling them that he carried it to bereth not. Again, our excellent sovereign, King strangle the pope with his own hands. As for James, the sweetness and clemency of whose Philip the Fair, it is the ordinary example, how nature were enough to quench and mortify all ma- he brought Pope Boniface the Eighth to an ignolignity, and a king shielded and supported by pos- minious end, dying mad and enraged ; and how terity; yet this king in the chair of Majesty, his he styled his rescript to the pope's bull, whereby vine and olive branches about him, attended by he challenged his temporals, “ Sciat fatuitas veshis nobles and third estate in parliament ; ready, tra,” not your beatitude, but


stultitude; a in the twinkling of an eye, as if it had been a style worthy to be continued in the like cases; for particular doomsday, to have been brought to certainly that claim is mere folly and fury. As ashes, dispersed to the four winds. I noted the for native examples, here it is too long a field to last day, my lord chief justice, when he spake of enter into them. Never kings of any nation kept this powder treason, he laboured for words, though the partition-wall between temporal and spiritual they came from him with great efficacy, yet he better in times of greatest superstition : I report truly confessed, and so must all men, that that me to King Edward I., that set up so many treason is above the charge and report of any crosses, and yet crossed that part of the pope's words whatsoever.

jurisdiction, no man more strongly. But these Now, my lords, I cannot let pass, but in things have passed better pens and speeches : these glasses which I spake of, besides the here I end them. facts themselves and danger, to show you two But now to come to the particular charge of things; the one, the ways of God Almighty, this man, I must inform your lordships the occawhich turneth the sword of Rome upon the sion and nature of this offence: There hath been kings that are the vassals of Rome, and over published lately to the world a work of Suarez, them gives it power; but protecteth those kings a Portuguese, a professor in the university of which have not accepted the yoke of his tyran-Coimbra, a confident and daring writer, such a ny, from the effects of his malice; the other, one as Tully describes in derision; “nihil tam that, as I said at first, this is a common cause verens, quam ne dubitare aliqua de re videretur:" of princes; it involveth kings of both religions; one that fears nothing but this, lest he should and therefore his majesty did most worthily seem to doubt of any thing. A fellow that thinks and prudently ring out the alarm-bell, to awake with his magistrality and goosequill to give laws all other princes to think of it seriously, and and menages to crowns and sceptres. In this in time. But this is a miserable case the man's writing this doctrine of deposing or murwhile, that these Roman soldiers do either thrust dering kings, seems to come to a higher elevation the spear into the sides of God's anointed, or at than heretofore ; and it is more arted and posileast they crown them with thorns; that is, tived than in others. For in the passages which piercing and pricking cares and fears, that they your lordships shall hear read anon, I find three can never be quiet or secure of their lives or assertions which run not in the vulgar track, but states. And as this peril is common to princes are such as wherewith men's ears, as I suppose, of both religions, so princes of both religions have l are not much acquainted; whereof the first is, That the pope hath a superiority over kings, as doth concern matter of faith, the controversy subjects, to depose them; not only for spiritual growing upon exposition of Scriptures and councrimes, as heresy and schism, but for faults of a cils, wherein, being ignorant and not studied, I temporal nature; forasmuch as a tyrannical go- cannot take upon me to judge; but I do submit vernment tendeth ever to the destruction of souls. my opinion therein to the judgment of the Catholic So, by this position, kings of either religion are Roman church, as in all other points concerning alike comprehended, and none exempted. The faith I do. And for matter concerning my loyalty, second, that after a sentence given by the pope, I do acknowledge my sovereign liege lord, King this writer hath defined of a series, or succession, James, to be lawful and undoubted king of all the or substitution of hangmen, or “ bourreaux,” to kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland; be sure, lest an executioner should fail. For he and I will bear true faith and allegiance to his saith, That when a king is sentenced by the pope highness during my life. WILLIAM TALBOT. to deprivation or death, the executioner, who is first in place, is he to whom the pope shall com- My lords, upon these words I conceive Talbot mit the authority, which may be a foreign prince, hath committed a great offence, and such a one, it may be a particular subject, it may be general, as, if he had entered into a voluntary and malicious to the first undertaker. But if there be no direc- publication of the like writing, it would have tion or assignation in the sentence special or been too great an offence for the capacity of this general, then, “ de jure,” it appertains to the next court. But because it grew by a question asked successor, a natural and pious opinion; for com- by a council of estate, and so rather seemeth, in a monly they are sons, or brothers, or near of kin, favourable construction, to proceed from a kind all is one; so as the successor be apparent; and of submission to answer, than from any malicious also that he be a Catholic. But, if he be doubt- or insolent will; it was fit, according to the cleful, or that he be no Catholic, then it devolves to mency of these times, to proceed in this manner the commonalty of the kingdom; so as he will be before your lordships: and, yet, let the hearers sure to have it done by one minister or other. take these things right; for, certainly, if a man be The third is, he distinguisheth of two kinds of required by the council to deliver his opinion tyrants, a tyrant in title, and a tyrant in regi- whether King James be king or no? and he deliment; the tyrant in regiment cannot be resisted ver his opinion that he is not, this is high treason: or killed without a sentence precedent by the but, I do not say that these words amount to that; pope; but a tyrant in title may be killed by any and, therefore, let me open them truly to your private man whatsoever. By which doctrine he lordships, and therein open also the understanding hath put the judgment of kings' titles, which I of the offender himself, how far they reach. will undertake, are never so clean, but that some My lords, a man's allegiance must be independvain quarrel or exception may be made unto them, ent and certain, and not dependent and condiupon the fancy of every private man; and also tional. Elizabeth Barton, that was called the couples the judgment and execution together, that holy maid of Kent, affirmed, that if King Henry he may judge him by a blow, without any other VIII. did not take Catharine of Spain again to sentence.

his wife within a twelvemonth, he should be no Your lordships see what monstrous opinions king: and this was treason. For though this these are, and how both these beasts, the beast act be contingent and future, yet the preparing of with seven heads, and the beast with many heads, the treason is present. pope and people, are at once let in, and set upon And, in like manner, if a man should voluntathe sacred persons of kings.

rily publish or maintain, that whensoever a bull Now, to go on with the narrative; there was of deprivation shall come forth against the king, an extract made of certain sentences and portions that from thenceforth he is no longer king; this of this book, being of this nature that I have set is of like nature. But with this I do not charge forth, by a great prelate and counsellor, upon a you neither; but this is the true latitude of your just occasion; and there being some hollowness words, That if the doctrine touching the killing and hesitation in these matters, wherein it is a of kings be matter of faith, then you submit thing impious to doubt, discovered and perceived yourself to the judgment of the Catholic Roman in Talbot; he was asked his opinion concerning church: so as now, to do you right, your allethese assertions, in the presence of the best; and giance doth not depend simply upon a sentence afterwards they were delivered to him, that upon of the pope's deprivation against the king; but advice, and . sedato animo,” he might declare upon another point also, if these doctrines be himself. Whereupon, under his hand, he sub- already, or shall be declared to be matter of scribes thus :

faith. But, my lords, there is little won in this:

there may be some difference to the guilt of the May it please your honourable good lordships : party, but there is little to the danger of the Concerning this doctrine of Suarez, I do perceive, king. For the same Pope of Rome may, with by what I have read in this book, that the same the same breath, declare both. So as still, upon

the matter, the king is made but tenant at will murder. But, to conclude, Talbot, I will do you of his life and kingdom; and the allegiance of this right, and I will not be reserved in this, but his subjects is pinned upon the pope's acts. to declare that that is true; that you came afterAnd, certainly, it is time to stop the current of wards to a better mind; wherein if you had been this opinion of acknowledgment of the pope's constant, the king, out of his great goodness, power “ in temporalibus;" or else it will sap and was resolved not to have proceeded with you in supplant the seat of kings. And let it not be course of justice; but then again you started mistaken, that Mr. 'Talbot's offence should be no aside like a broken bow. So that by your variety more than the refusing the oath of allegiance. and vacillation you lost the acceptable time of For it is one thing to be silent, and another thing the first grace, which was not to have conto affirm. As for the point of matter of faith, vented you. or not of faith, to tell your lordships plain, it Nay, I will go farther with you: your last subwould astonish a man to see the gulf of this im- mission I conceive to be satisfactory and complied belief. Is nothing excepted from it? If a plete; but then it was too late; the king's honour man should ask Mr. Talbot, Whether he do con- was upon it; it was published and a day apdemn murder, or adultery, or rape, or the doctrine pointed for hearing; yet what preparation that of Mahomet, or of Arius, instead of Suarez ? may be to the second grace of pardon, that I Must the answer be with this exception, that if know not: but I know my lords, out of their the question concern matter of faith, as no accustomed favour, will admit you not only to question it doth, for the moral law is matter of your defence concerning that that hath been faith, that therein he will submit himself to charged; but to extenuate your fault by any what the church shall determine? And, no submission that now God shall put into your doubt, the murder of princes is more than simple mind to make.

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