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absured himself that his army would have been protest before God, until he came into Ireland, quickly increased by all sorts of discontented other than I might conceive, that he was of an people.

ambitious and discontented mind. But when I He did confess before his going, That he was lay at the castle of Thomas Lee, called Reban, in assured that many of the rebels would be advised Ireland, grievously hurt, and doubted of my life, by him, but named none in particular.

he came to visit me, and then began to acquaint

me with his intent. The examination of the Earl of SOUTHAMPTON after

[As he thus spake, the sheriff began to interhis arraignment; taken before the Earl of Nor- rupt him, and told him the hour was past. But TINGHAM, Lord High Admiral; Sir Robert

my Lord Gray, and Sir Walter Raleigh, captain Cecil, principal Secretary; and Mr. John Her- of the guard, called to the sheriff, and required BERT, second Secretary of Estate.

him not to interrupt him, but to suffer him quietly Sir Christopher Blunt being hurt, and lying to finish his prayers and confessions. Sir Chrisin the castle of Dublin, in a chamber which had topher Blunt said, Is Sir Walter Raleigh there! been mine, the Earl of Essex one day took me Those on the scaffold answered, Yea. To whom thither with him, where being none but we three, Sir Christopher Blunt spake on this manner :) he told us, He found it necessary for him to go Sir Walter Raleigh, I thank God that you are into England, and thought it fit to carry with him present: I had an infinite desire to speak with as much of the army as he could conveniently you, to ask you forgiveness ere I died, both for transport, to go on shore with him to Wales, and the wrong done you, and for my particular ill there to make good his landing with those, till he intent towards you: I beseech you forgive me. could send for more; not doubting but his army Sir Walter Raleigh answered, That he most would so increase in a small time, that he should willingly forgave him, and besought God to forbe able to march to London, and make his condi- give him, and to give him his divine comfort: tions as he desired.

protesting before the Lord, That whatsoever Sir To which project I answered, That I held it Christopher Blunt meant towards him, for his altogether unfit, as well in respect of his con- part he never had any ill intent towards him : and science to God, and his love to his country, as farther said to Sir Christopher Blunt, “I pray his duty to his sovereign, of which he, of all men, you without offence let me put you in mind that ought to have greatest regard, seeing her majesty's you have been esteemed, not only a principal profavours to him had been so extraordinary: where- voker and persuader of the Earl of Essex in all fore I could never give any consent unto it. Sir his undutiful courses, but especially an adviser Christopher Blunt joined with me in this opinion. in that which had been confessed of his purpose Exam. per NOTTINGHAM, Ro. Cecil,

to transport a great part of her majesty's army out J. HERBERT.

of Ireland into England, to land at Milford, and

thence to turn it against her sacred person. You The speech of Sir Christopher Blunt, at the time shall do well to tell the truth, and to satisfy the

of his death, as near as it could be remembered, world.” To which he answered thus: March 18, 1600.

Sir, if you will give me patience, I will deliver My lords, and you that be present, although I a truth, speaking now my last, in the presence must confess, that it were better fitting the little of God, in whose mercy I trust.

[And then he time I have to breathe, to bestow the same in directed himself to my Lord Gray and my Lord asking God forgiveness for my manifold and Compton, and the rest that sat on horseback near abominable sins, than to use any other discourse, the scaffold.] especially having both an imperfection of speech, When I was brought from Reban to Dublin, and, God knows, a weak memory, by reason of my and lodged in the castle, his lordship and the late grievous wound: yet, to satisfy all those that Earl of Southampton came to visit me; and to be are present, what course hath been held by me in short, he began thus plainly with me: That he this late enterprise, because I was said to be an intended to transport a choice part of the army instigator and setter on of the late earl, I will of Ireland into England, and land them in Wales, truly, and upon the peril of my soul, speak the at Milford or thereabouts ; and so securing his trath.

descent thereby, would gather such other forces It is true, that the first time that ever I under- as might enable him to march to London. To stood of any dangerous discontentment in my which, I protest before the Lord God, I maue this Lord of Essex, was about three years ago, at or the like answer: That I would that night con Wanstead, upon his coming one day from Green- sider of it; which I did. wich. At that time he spake many things unto And the next day the earls came again: I told me, but descended into no particulars, but in them, That such an enterprise, as it was most general terms.

dangerous, so would it cost much blood, as I After which time he never brake with me in could not like of it; besides many hazards, which any matter tending to the alteration of the state, Il at this time I cannot remember unto you, neither will the time permit it. But I rather advised him to come to him, as well to deliver his knowledge of go over himself with a good train, and make sure those treasons, which he had formerly denied at of the court, and then make his own conditions. the bar, as also to recommend his humble and

And although it be true, that, as we all pro- earnest request, that her majesty would be pleased, tested in our examinations and arraignments, we out of her grace and favour, to suffer him to never resolved of doing hurt to her majesty's per- die privately in the Tower; he did marvellous. son, for in none of our consultations was there earnestly desire, that we would suffer him to set down any such purpose; yet, I knew, and speak unto Cuffe, his secretary: against whom must confess, if we had failed of our ends, we he vehemently complained unto us, to have been should, rather than have been disappointed, even a principal instigator to these violent courses have drawn blood from herself. From hencefor which he bad undertaken. Wherein he protested, ward he dealt no more with me herein, until he that he chiefly desired that he might make it apwas discharged of his keeper at Essex House. pear that he was not the only persuader of those And then he again asked mine advice, and dis- great offences which they had committed; but puted the matter with me; but resolved not. I that Blunt, Cuffe, Temple, besides those other went then into the country, and before he sent for persons who were at the private conspiracy at me, which was some ten days before his rebellion, Drury House, to which, though these three were I never heard more of the matter. And then he not called, yet, they were privy, had most maliwrote unto me to come up, upon pretence of mak- cious and bloody purposes to subvert the state and ing some assurances of land, and the like. I will government: which could not have been pre leave the rest unto my confessions, given to that vented, if his project had gone forward. honourable lord admiral, and worthy Mr. Secre- This request being granted him, and Cuffe tary, to whom I beseech you, Sir Walter Raleigh, brought before him, he there directly and vehe commend me; I can requite their favourable and mently charged him; and among other speeches charitable dealing with me, with naught else but used these words: “ Henry Cuffe, call to God my prayers for them. And I beseech God of his for mercy, and to the queen, and deserve it by mercy, to save and preserve the queen, who hath declaring truth. For 1, that must now prepare given comfort to my soul, in that I hear she hath for another world, have resolved to deal clearly forgiven me all, but the sentence of the law, with God and the world : and must needs say which I most worthily deserved, and do most this to you; You have been one of the chiefest willingly embrace; and hope that God will have instigators of me to all these my disloyal courses mercy and compassion on me, who have offended into which I have fallen.” him as many ways as ever sinful wretch did. I have led a life so far from his precepts, as no

Testified by Tho. EGERTON, C. S.

Tho. BUCKHURST, sinner more. God forgive it me, and forgive me

NOTTINGHAM, my wicked thoughts, my licentious life, and this

Ro. CECIL. right arm of mine, which, I fear me, hath drawn blood in this last action. And I beseech you all The Earl of Essex his confession to three ministers, bear witness, that I die a Catholic, yet so, as I

whose names are underwritten, the 25th of Feb hope to be saved only by the death and passion of Christ, and by his merits, not ascribing any thing to mine own works. And I trust you are

The late Earl of Essex thanked God most all good people, and your prayers may profit me. heartily, that he had given him a deeper insight Farewell, my worthy Lord Gray, and my Lord into his offence, being sorry he had so stood upon Compton, and to you all; God send you both to his justification at his arraignment, for he was live long in honour. I will desire to say a few since that become another man. prayers, and embrace my death most willingly.

He thanked God that his course was so preWith that he turned from the rail towards the vented: for if his project had taken effect, God executioner; and the minister offering to speak knows, said he, what harm it had wrought in the with him, he came again to the rail, and besought realm. that his conscience might not be troubled, for he He humbly thanked her majesty, that he should was resolved; which he desired for God's sake. die in so private a manner, lest the acclamation Whereupon commandment was given, that the of the people might have been a temptation unto minister should not interrupt him any farther. him. To which he added, that all popularity and After which he prepared himself to the block, trust in man' was vain; the experience whereof and so died very manfully and resolutely.

himself had felt.

He acknowledged, with thankfulness to God, An Abstract ut nf the Earl of Essex's confession that he was thus justly spewed out of the realm. under his own hund.

He publicly in his prayer and protestation, as Upon Saturday, the twenty-first of February, also privately, aggravated the detestation of his after the late Earl of Essex had desired us to offence; and especially in the hearing of them

ruary, 1600.

that were present at the execution, he exaggerated explained to us, that it was a leprosy that had in-
it with four epithets, desiring God to forgive him fected far and near.
his great, his bloody, his crying, and his infectious Thomas MONFORD, WILLIAM Barlow,
sin; which word “infectious" he privately had Abby Ashton, his chaplain.

ADVICE TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS,

AFTERWARDS DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM,

WHEN HE BECAME FAVOURITE TO KING JAMES ;

LECOXMENDINO MANY IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS BOW TO GOVERN HIMSEL)

IN THE STATION OF PRIME MINISTER.

WRITTEN BY BIR FRANCIS BACON, ON THE IMPORTUNITY OP HIS PATRON AND FRIEND.

NOBLE SIR,

You know, I am no courtier, nor versed in state What you requested of me by word, when I last affairs : my life hitherto hath rather been contemwaited on you, you have since renewed by your plative than active ; I have rather studied books letters. Your requests are commands unto me: than men; I can but guess, at the most, at these and yet the matter is of that nature, that I find things in which you desire to be advised; nevermyself very unable to serve you therein as you theless, to show my obedience, though with the desire. It hath pleased the king to cast an extra- hazard of my discretion, I shall yield unto you. ordinary eye of favour upon you, and you express Sir, in the first place, I shall be bold to put you yourself very desirous to win upon the judgment in mind of the present condition you are in. You of your master, and not upon his affections only. are not only a courtier, but a bed-chamber man, I do very much commend your noble ambition and so are in the eye and ear of your master; but herein; for favour so bottomed is like to be last- you are also a favourite ; the favourite of the time, ing; whereas, if it be built upon the sandy foun- and so are in his bosom also. The world hath so dation of personal respects only, it cannot be voted you, and doth so esteem of you ; for kings long-lived.

and great princes, even the wisest of them, have had (* My lord, when the blessing of God, to whom, their friends, their favourites, their privadoes, in in the first place, I know you ascribe your prefer- all ages; for they have their affections as well as ment, and the king's favour, purchased by your other men. Of these they make several uses; noble parts, promising as much as can be expected sometimes to communicate and debate their from a gentleman, had brought you to this high thoughts with them, and to ripen their judgments pitch of honour, to be in the eye and ear, and even thereby; and sometimes to ease their cares by imin the bosom of your gracious master : and you parting them; and sometimes to interpose them had found by experience the trouble of all men's between themselves and the envy or malice of their confluence, and for all matters, to yourself, as a people; for kings cannot err; that must be dismediator between them and their sovereign you charged upon the shoulders of their ministers; and were pleased to lay this command upon me; first, they who are nearest unto them must be content in general, to give you my poor advice for your to bear the greatest load. [Remember then what carriage in so eminent a place, and of so much your true condition is. The king himself is above danger, if not wisely discharged. Next, in particu- the reach of his people, but cannot be above their lar, by what means to give despatches to suitors of censures ; and you are his shadow, if either he all sorts, for the king's best service, the suitors' commit an error, and is loath to avow it, but excuses satisfaction, and your own ease. I humbly return it upon his ministers, of which you are first in the you mine opinion in both these, such as a her- eye; or you commit the fault, or have willingly mit, rather than a courtier can render.]

permitted it, and must suffer for it; and so perYet in this you have erred, in applying your- haps you may be offered a sacrifice to appease the self to me, the most unworthy of your servants, to multitude.] But truly, sir, I do not believe or give assistance upon so weighty a subject. suspect that you are chosen to this eminency out

* What is found in crotchets is borrowed from the original of the last of these considerations; for yon serve edition, published in 410, 1661.

such a master, who by his wisdom and goodness

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is as free from the malice or envy of his sub- soon find the throng of suitors attend you; for no jects, as, I think, I may truly say, ever any king man, almost, who hath to do with the king, will was, who hath sat upon his throne before him. think himself safe, unless you be his good angel, But am confident his majesty hath cast his eyes and guide him; or at least that you be not a “maupon you, as finding you to be such as you should lus genius” against him : so that, in respect of the be, or hoping to make you to be such as he would king your master, you must be very wary that have you to be ; for this I may say, without flat- you give him true information; and if the matter tery, your outside promiseth as much as can be concern him in his government, that you do not expected from a gentleman; but be it in the one flatter him: if you do, you are as great a traitor respect or other, it belongeth to you to take care of to him in the court of heaven, as he that draws yourself, and to know well what the name of fa- his sword against him: and in respect of the vourite signifies. If you be chosen upon the for- suitors which shall attend you, there is nothing mer respects, you have reason to take care of your will bring you more honour and more ease, than actions and deportment, out of your gratitude for to do them what right in justice you may, and the king's sake; but if out of the latter, you ought with as much speed as you may: for, believe it, to take the greater care for your own sake. sir, next to the obtaining of the suit, a speedy and

You are as a new-risen star, and the eyes of all gentle denial, when the case will not bear it, is men are upon you; let not your own negligence the most acceptable to suitors: they will gain by make you fall like a meteor.

their despatch ; whereas else they shall spend [Remember well the great trust you have un- their time and money in attending, and you will dertaken; you are as a continual sentinel, always gain, in the ease you will find in being rid of to stand upon your watch to give him true intel- their importunity. But if they obtain what they ligence. If you flatter him, you betray him; if reasonably desired, they will be doubly bound to you conceal the truth of those things from him you for your favour; “Bis dat qui cito dat,” it which concern his justice or his honour, although multiplies the courtesy, to do it with good words not the safety of his person, you are as danger- and speedily. ous a traitor to his state, as he that riseth in arms That you may be able to do this with the best against him. A false friend is more dangerous advantage, my humble advice is this; when suitthan an open enemy: kings are styled gods upon ors come unto you, set apart a certain hour in a earth, not absolute, but “Dixi, Dii estis ;” and day to give them audience: if the business be the next words are, "sed moriemini sicut homi- light and easy, it may by word only be delivered, nes ;" they shall die like men, and then all their and in a word be answered ; but if it be either of thoughts perish. They cannot possibly see all weight or of difficulty, direct the suitor to commit things with their owneyes, nor hear all things with it to writing, if it be not so already, and then their own ears; they must commit many great trusts direct him to attend for his answer at a set time to their ministers. Kings must be answerable to to be appointed, which would constantly be God Almighty, to whom they are but vassals, for observed, unless some matter of great moment their actions, and for their negligent omissions : do interrupt it. When you have received the but the ministers to kings, whose eyes, ears, and petitions, and it will please the petitioners well, hands they are, must be answerable to God and to have access unto you to deliver them into your man for the breach of their duties, in violation of own hand, let your secretary first read them, and their trusts, whereby they betray them. Opinion draw lines under the material parts thereof; for is a master wheel in these cases: that courtier who the matter, for the most part, lies in a narrow obtained a boon of the emperor, that he might every room. The petitions being thus prepared, do morning at his coming into his presence humbly you constantly set apart an hour in a day to whisper him in the ear and say nothing, asked no peruse those petitions; and after you have ranked unprofitable suit for himself: but such a fancy them into several files, according to the subject raised only by opinion cannot be long-lived, unless matter, make choice of two or three friends, the man have solid worth to uphold it; otherwise, whose judgments and fidelities you believe you when once discovered it vanisheth suddenly. But may trust in a business of that nature; and rewhen a favourite in court shall be raised upon the commend it to one or more of them, to inform you foundation of merits, and together with the care of of their opinions, and of their reasons for or doing good service to the king, shall give good de- against the granting of it. And if the matter be spatches to the suitors, then can he not choose of great weight indeed, then it would not be but prosper.]

amiss to send several copies of the same petition to The contemplation then of your present condi- several of your friends, the one not knowing what tion must necessarily prepare you for action: the other doth, and desire them to return their what time can be well spared from your atten- answers to you by a certain time, to be prefixed, dance on your master, will be taken up by suit- in writing; so shall you receive an impartial ors, whom you cannot avoid nor decline without answer, and by comparing the one with the other, reproach. For if you do not already, you will las out of “responsa prudentium," you shall both discern the abilit es and faithfulness of your are inconsistent with the truth of religion profriends, and be able to give a judgment thereupon fessed and protested by the Church of England, as an oracle. But by no means trust to your own whence we are called Protestants; and the Anajudgment alone; for no man is omniscient: nor baptists, and separatists, and sectaries on the trust only to your servants, who may mislead you other hand, whose tenents are full of schism, and or misinform you ; by which they may perhaps inconsistent with monarchy: for the regulating gain a few crowns, but the reproach will lie upon of either, there needs no other coercion than the yourself, if it be not rightly carried.

due execution of the laws already established by For the facilitating of your despatches, my parliament.) advice is farther, that you divide all the petitions, 3. For the discipline of the Church of England and the matters therein contained, under several by bishops, &c., I will not positively say, as heads: which, I conceive, may be fitly ranked some do, that it is “jure divino;" but this I say into these eight sorts.

and think “ex animo," that it is the nearest to I. Matters that concern religion, and the church apostolical truth; and confidently I shall say, it and churchmen.

is fittest for monarchy of all others. I will use II. Matters concerning justice, and the laws, no other authority to you, than that excellent proand the professors thereof.

clamation set out by the king himself in the first III. Councillors, and the council table, and year of his reign, and annexed before the book of the great offices and officers of the kingdom. Common Prayer, which I desire you to read; and

IV. Foreign negotiations and embassies. if at any time there shall be the least motion

V. Peace and war, both foreign and civil, and made for innovation, to put the king in mind to in that the navy and forts, and what belongs to read it himself: it is most dangerous in a state, them.

to give ear to the least alteration in government. VI. Trade at home and abroad.

[If any attempt be made to alter the discipline VII. Colonies, or foreign plantations. of our church, although it be not an essential part VIII. The court and curiality.

of our religion, yet, it is so necessary not to be And whatsoever will not fall naturally under rashly altered, as the very substance of religion one of these heads, believe me, sir, will not be will be interested in it: therefore, I desire you, worthy of your thoughts, in this capacity, we now before any attempt be made of an innovation by speak of. And of these sorts, I warrant you, you your means, or by any intercession to your maswill find enough to keep you in business. ter, that you will first read over, and his majesty

call to mind that wise and weighty proclamation, I begin with the first, which concerns religion. which himself penned, and caused to be published

1. In the first place, be you yourself rightly in the first year of his reign, and is prefixed in persuaded and settled in the true Protestant reli- print before the book of Common Prayer, of that gion, professed by the Church of England; which impression, in which you will find so prudent, so doubtless is as sound and orthodox in the doctrine weighty reasons, not to hearken to innovations, thereof, as any Christian church in the world. as will fully satisfy you, that it is dangerous to

[For religion, if any thing be offered to you give the least ear to such innovators; but it is touching it, or touching the church, or church- desperate to be misled by them: and to settle men, or church government, rely not only upon your judgment, mark but the admonition of the yourself, but take the opinion of some grave and wisest of men, King Solomon, Prov. xxiv. 21. eminent divines, especially such as are sad and “My son, fear God and the king, and meddle not discreet men, and exemplary for their lives.) with those who are given to change.”]

2. In this you need not be a monitor to your 4. Take heed, I beseech you, that you be not gracious master the king: the chiefest of his im- an instrument to countenance the Romish Cathoperial titles is, to be The Defender of the Faith, lics. I cannot flatter, the world believes that and his learning is eminent, not only above other some near in blood to you are too much of that princes, but above other men; be but his scholar, persuasion; you must use them with fit respects, and you are safe in that.

according to the bonds of nature; but you are of [If any question be moved concerning the doc- kin, and so a friend to their persons, not to their trine of the Church of England expressed in the errors. thirty-nine articles, give not the least ear to the 5. The archbishops and bishops, next under movers thereof: that is so soundly and so ortho- the king, have the government of the church and doxly settled, as cannot be questioned without ecclesiastical affairs: be not you the mean to extreme danger to the honour and stability of our prefer any to those places for any by-respects; religion; which hath been sealed with the blood but only for their learning, gravity, and worth: of so many martyrs and confessors, as are famous their lives and doctrine ought to be exemplary. through the Christian world. The enemies and 6. For deans, and canons

or prebends of underminers thereof are the Romish Catholic, so cathedral churches; in their first institution they styling themselves, on the one hand, whose tenets I were of great use in the church; they were not Vol. II.-48

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