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double species, it is true; but if it giveth a treble, Experiments in consort touching the more treble or more, it is false.

and the more base tones, or musical sounds. 172. Waters, in the noise they make as they 178. It is evident, that the percussion of the run, represent to the ear a trembling noise; and greater quantity of air causeth the baser sound; in regals, where they have a pipe they call the and the less quantity the more treble sound. nightingale-pipe, which containeth water, the The percussion of the greater quantity of air is sound hath a continual trembling: and children produced by the greatness of the body percussing; have also little things they call cocks, which have by the latitude of the concave by which the sound water in them; and when they blow or whistle passeth; and by the longitude of the same conin them, they yield a trembling noise; which trem-cave. Therefore we see that a base string is bling of water hath an affinity with the letter L. greater than a treble; a base pipe hath a greater All which inequalities of trepidation are rather bore than a treble; and in pipes, and the like, the pleasant than otherwise.

lower the note-holes be, and the further off from 173. All base notes, or very treble notes, give the mouth of the pipe, the more base sound they an asper sound; for that the base striketh more yield; and the nearer the mouth, the more treble. air than it can well strike equally: and the tre- Nay more, if you strike an entire body, as an ble cutteth the air so sharp, as it returneth too swift andiron of brass, at the top, it maketh a more to make the sound equal: and therefore a mean or treble sound; and at the bottom a baser. tenor is the sweetest part.

179. It is also evident, that the sharper or 174. We know nothing that can at pleasure quicker percussion of air causeth the more treble make a musical or immusical sound by voluntary sound; and the slower or heavier, the more base motion, but the voice of man and birds. The sound. So we see in strings; the more they are cause is, no doubt, in the weasond or windpipe, wound up and strained, and thereby give a more which we call “aspera arteria,” which, being quick start-back, the more treble is the sound; well extended, gathereth equality; as a bladder and the slacker they are, or less wound up, the that is wrinkled, if it be extended, becometh baser is the sound. And therefore, a bigger string smooth. The extension is always more in tones more strained, and a lesser string less strained, than in speech: therefore the inward voice or may fall into the same tone. whisper can never give a tone. And in singing, 180. Children, women, eunuchs, have more there is, manifestly, a greater working and labour small and shrill voices than men. The reason of the throat than in speaking; as appeareth in is, not for that men have greater heat, which may the thrusting out or drawing in of the chin, when make the voice stronger, for the strength of a we sing.

voice or sound doth make a difference in the loud175. The humming of bees is an unequal ness or softness, but not in the tone, but from the buzzing, and is conceived by some of the dilatation of the organ; which, it is true, is likeancients not to come forth at their mouth, but to wise caused by heat. But the cause of changing be an inward sound; but, it may be, it is neither; the voice at the years of uberty is more obscure. but from the motion of their wings: for it is not It seemeth to be, for that when much of the heard but when they stir.

moisture of the body, which did before irrigate 176. All metals quenched in water give a sibi- the parts, is drawn down to the spermatical lation or hissing sound, which hath an affinity vessels, it leaveth the body more hot than it was; with the letter Z, notwithstanding the sound be whence cometh the dilatation of the pipes: for we created between the water or vapour, and the air. see plainly all effects of heats do then come on; Seething also, if there be but small store of water as pilosity, more roughness of the skin, hardness in a vessel, giveth a hissing sound; but boiling of the flesh, &c. in a full vessel giveth a bubbling sound, drawing 181. The industry of the musician hath prosomewhat near to the cocks used by children. duced two other means of straining or intension

177. Trial would be made, whether the in- of strings, besides their winding up. The one equality or interchange of the medium will not is the stopping of the string with the finger; as produce an inequality of sound; as if three bells in the necks of lutes, viols, &c. The other is were made one within another, and air betwixt the shortness of the string, as in harps, virginals, each; and then the uttermost bell were chimed &c. Both these have one and the same reason; with a hammer, how the sound would differ from for they cause the string to give a quicker start. a simple bell. So likewise take a plate of brass 182. In the straining of a string, the further it and a plank of wood, and join them close together, is strained, the less superstraining goeth to a note; and knock upon one of them, and see if they do for it requireth good winding of a string before not give an unequal sound. So make two or it will make any note at all: and in the stops of three partitions of wood in a hogshead, with holes lutes, &c., the higher they go, the less distance or knots in them; and mark the difference of their is between the frets. sound from the sound of a hogshead without such 183. If you fill a drinking-glass with water, partitions.

especially one sharp below and wide above, and VOL. II.-5

fillip upon the brim or outside; and after empty | ancients, that an empty barrel knocked upon with part of the water, and so more and more, and still the finger, giveth a diapason to the sound of the try the tone by fillipping; you shall find the tone like barrel full; but how that should be, I do not fall and be more base, as the glass is more well understand; for that the knocking of a barrel, empty.

full or empty, doth scarce give any tone.

187. There is required some sensible difference Experiments in consort touching the proportion of in the proportion of creating a note, towards the treble and base tones.

sound itself, which is passive: and that it be not The just and measured proportion of the air too near, but at a distance. For in a recorder, the percussed, towards the baseness or trebleness of three uppermost holes yield one tone; which is a tones, is one of the greatest secrets in the con- note lower than the tone of the first three. And templation of sounds. For it discovereth the the like, no doubt, is required in the winding or true coincidence of tones into diapasons; which stopping of strings. is the return of the same sound. And so of the concords and discords between the unison and Experiments in consort touching exterior and in diapason, which we have touched before in the

terior sounds. experiments of music; but think fit to resume it There is another difference of sounds, which here as a principal part of our inquiry touching we will call exterior and interior. It is not soft the nature of sounds. It may be found out in the nor loud: nor it is not base nor treble: nor

it is proportion of the winding of strings; in the pro- not musical nor in musical: though it be true, portion of the distance of frets, and in the pro- that there can be no tone in an interior sound; portion of the concave of pipes, &c., but most but on the other side, in an exterior sound there commodiously in the last of these.

may be both musical and immusical. We shall 184. Try therefore the winding of a string therefore enumerate them, rather than precisely once about, as soon as it is brought to that exten- distinguish them; though, to make some adumsion as will give a tone; and then of twice about, bration of what we mean, the interior is rather and thrice about, &c., and mark the scale or an impulsion or contusion of the air, than an difference of the rise of the tone: whereby you elision or section of the same: so as the percusshall discover, in one, two effects; both the pro- sion of the one towards the other differeth, as a portion of the sound towards the dimension of blow differeth from a cut. the winding; and the proportion likewise of the 188. In speech of man, the whispering, which sound towards the string, as it is more or less they call • susurrus" in Latin, whether it be louder strained. But note that to measure this, the way or softer, is an interior sound; but the speaking will be, to take the length in a right line of the out is an exterior sound; and therefore you can string, upon any winding about of the peg. never make a tone nor sing in whispering; but in

185. As for the stops, you are to take the num- speech you may: so breathing, or blowing by the ber of frets; and principally the length of the line, mouth, bellows, or wind, though loud, is an inte from the first stop of the string, unto such a stop rior sound; but the blowing through a pipe or as shall produce a diapason to the former stop concave, though soft, is an exterior. So likewise upon the same string.

the greatest winds, if they have no coarctation, 186. But it will best, as it is said, appear in or blow not hollow, give an interior sound; the the bores of wind instruments: and therefore whistling or hollow wind yieldeth a singing, or cause some half dozen pipes to be made, in exterior sound; the former being pent by some length and all things else alike, with a single, other body; the latter being pent in by its own double, and so on to a sextuple bore; and so mark density: and therefore we see, that when the wind what fall of tone every one giveth. But still in bloweth hollow, it is a sign of rain. The flame, these three last instances, you must diligently as it moveth within in itself or is blown by a belobserve, what length of string, or distance of lows, giveth a murmur or interior sound. stop, or concave of air, maketh what rise of 189. There is no hard body, but struck against sound. As in the last of these, which, as we another hard body, will yield an exterior sound; said, is that which giveth the aptest demonstra- greater or lesser : insomuch as if the percussion tion, you must set down what increase of concave be over-soft, it may induce a nullity of sound; but goeth to the making of a note higher; and what never an interior sound; as when one treadeth so of two notes; and what of three notes; and so softly that he is not heard. up to the diapason: for then the great secret of 190. Where the air is the percutient, pent or not numbers and proportions will appear. It is not pent, against a hard body, it never giveth an exteunlike that those that make recorders, &c., know rior sound; as if you blow strongly with a bellows this already: for that they make them in sets: against a wall. and likewise bell-founders, in fitting the tune of 191. Sounds, both exterior and interior, may be their bells. So that inquiry may save trial. made as well by suction as by emission of the Surely it hath been observed by one of the breath; as in whistling or breathing.

as

Experiments in consort touching articulation of will refer them over, and place them amongst the sounds.

experiments of speech. The Hebrews have been 192. It is evident, and it is one of the strangest diligent in it, and have assigned which letters are secrets in sounds, that the whole sound is not in labial, which dental, which guttural, &c. As for the whole air only; but the whole sound is also the Latins and Grecians, they have distinguished in every small part of the air. So that all the between semi-vowels and mutes; and in mutes curious diversity of articulate sounds, of the voice between mutæ tenues, mediæ,” and “ aspiratæ;" of man or birds, will enter at a small cranny incon- not amiss, but yet not diligently enough. For the fused.

special strokes and motions that create those 193. The unequal agitation of the winds and sounds, they have little inquired : as, that the the like, though they be material to the carriage letters B, P, F, M, are not expressed, but with of the sounds farther or less way; yet they do the contracting or shutting of the mouth; that the not confound the articulation of them at all, letters N and B cannot be pronounced but that within that distance that they can be heard ; the letter N will turn into M; as “ hecatonba" though it may be, they make them to be heard less will be « hecatomba.” That Mand T cannot be way than in a still : as hath been partly touched. pronounced together, but P will come between;

194. Over great distance confoundeth the arti- “ emtus” is pronounced "emptus;" and a culation of sounds; as we see, that you may hear number of the like. So that if you inquire to the the sound of a preacher's voice, or the like, when full, you will find, that to the making of the whole you cannot distinguish what he saith. And one alphabet there will be fewer simple motions rearticulate sound will confound another, as when quired than there are letters. many speak at once.

199. The lungs are the most spungy part of 195. In the experiment of speaking under the body; and therefore ablest to contract and water, when the voice is reduced to such an dilate itself: and where it contracteth itself, it exextreme exility, yet the articulate sounds, which pelleth the air; which, through the artery, throat, are the words, are not confounded, as hath been and mouth, maketh the voice: but yet articulation said.

is not made but with the help of the tongue, palate, 196. I conceive, that an extreme small or an and the rest of those they call instruments of extreme great sound cannot be articulate ; but that voice. the articulation requireth a mediocrity of sound : 200. There is found a similitude between the for that the extreme small sound confoundeth the sound that is made by inanimate bodies, or by aniarticulation by contracting; and the great sound mate bodies that have no voice articulate, and by dispersing: and although, as was formerly said, divers letters of articulate voices: and commonly a sound articulate, already created, will be con- men have given such names to those sounds as tracted into a small cranny; yet the first articula- do allude unto the articulate letters; as trembling tion requireth more dimension.

of water hath resemblance with the letter Li 197. It hath been observed, that in a room, or quenching of hot metals with the letter 2 ; snarlin a chapel, vaulted below and vaulted likewise in ing of dogs with the letter R; the noise of screechthe roof, a preacher cannot be heard so well as in owls with the letter Sh ; voice of cats with the the like places, not so vaulted. The cause is, for diphthong Eu ; voice of cuckoos with the diphthat the subsequent words come on before the pre- thong Ou ; sounds of strings with the letter Ngi cedent words vanish: and therefore the articulate so that if a man, for curiosity or strangeness' sake, Bounds are more confused, though the gross of the would make a puppet or other dead body to prosound be greater.

nounce a word, let him consider, on the one part, 198. The motions of the tongue, lips, throat, the motion of the instruments of voice; and on the palate, &c., which go to the making of the several other part, the like sounds made in inanimate alphabetical letters, are worthy inquiry, and per- bodies; and what conformity there is causeth tinent to the present inquisition of sounds: but the similitude of sounds; and by that he may because they are subtle, and long to describe, wel minister light to that effect.

CENTURY III.

Experiments in consort touching the motion of 206. But to make an exact trial of it, let a man

sounds, in what lines they are circular, oblique, stand in a chamber not much above the ground, straight, upwards, downwards, forwards, back- and speak out at the window, through a trunk, to wards.

one standing on the ground, as softly as he can, 201. All sounds whatsoever move round; that the other laying his ear close to the trunk; then is to say, on all sides : upwards, downwards, “ via versa,” let the other speak below, keeping forwards, and backwards. This appeareth in all the same proportion of softness; and let him in instances.

the chamber lay his ear to the trunk: and this 202. Sounds do not require to be conveyed to may be the aptest means to make a judgment, the sense in a right line, as visibles do, but may whether sounds descend or ascend better. be arched; though it be true they move strongest in a right line; which nevertheless is not caused Experiments in consort touching the lasting and by the rightness of the line, but by the shortness perishing of sounds; and touching the time they. of the distance; " linea recta brevissima.” And require to their generation or delation. therefore we see if a wall be between, and you 207. After that sound is created, which is in speak on the one side, you hear it on the other; a moment, we find it continueth some small time, which is not because the sound passeth through melting by little and little. In this there is a the wall, but archeth over the wall.

wonderful error amongst men, who take this to 203. If the sound be stopped and repercussed, be a continuance of the first sound; whereas, in it cometh about on the other side in an oblique truth, it is a renovation, and not a continuance; line. So, if in a coach one side of the boot be for the body percussed hath, by reason of the down, and the other up, and a beggar beg on the percussion, a trepidation wrought in the minuteclose side; you will think that he were on the parts, and so reneweth the percussion of the air. open side. So likewise, if a bell or clock be, for This appeareth manifestly, because that the meltexample, on the north side of a chamber, and the ing sound of a bell, or of a string strucken, which window of that chamber be upon the south; he is thought to be a continuance, ceaseth as soon as that is in the chamber will think the sound came the bell or string are touched. As in a virginal, from the south.

as soon as ever the jack falleth, and toucheth the 204. Sounds, though they spread round, so that string, the sound ceaseth ; and in a bell, after you: there is an orb or spherical area of the sound, yet have chimed upon it, if you touch the bell the they move strongest, and go farthest in the fore- sound ceaseth. And in this you must distinguish lines, from the first local impulsion of the air. that there are two trepidations : the one manifest And therefore, in preaching, you shall hear the and local; as of the bell when it is pensile: the preacher's voice better before the pulpit than be- other secret, of the minute parts; such as is dehind it, or on the sides, though it stand open. scribed in the ninth instance. But it is true, that So a harquebuss, or ordnance, will be farther the local helpeth the secret greatly. We see heard forwards from the mouth of the piece, than likewise that in pipes, and other wind instrubackwards, or on the sides.

ments, the sound lasteth no longer than the breath 205. It may be doubted, that sounds do move bloweth. It is true, that in organs there is a better downwards than upwards. Pulpits are confused murmur for a while after you have placed high above the people. And when the played; but that is but while the bellows are in ancient generals spake to their armies, they had falling. ever a mount of turf cast up, whereupon they 208. It is certain, that in the noise of great stood; but this may be imputed to the stops and ordnance, where many are shot off together, the obstacles which the voice meeteth with, when one sound will be carried, at the least, twenty miles speaketh upon the level. But there seemeth to upon the land, and much farther upon the water. be more in it; for it may be that spiritual species, But then it will come to the ear, not in the instant both of things visible and sounds, do move better of the shooting off, but it will come an hour or downwards than upwards. It is a strange thing, more later. This must needs be a continuance that to men standing below on the ground, those of the first sound; for there is no trepidation that be on the top of Paul's seem much less than which should renew it. And the touching of the they are, and cannot be known; but to men ordnance would not extinguish the sound the above, those below seem nothing so much lessen- sooner: so that in great sounds the continuance ed, and may be known: yet it is true, that all is more than momentary. things to them above seem also somewhat con- 209. To try exactly the time wherein sound tracted, and better collected into figures: as knots is delated, let a man stand in a steeple, and have in gardens show best from an upper window or with him a taper; and let some veil be put before terrace.

the taper; and let another man stand in a field a mile off. Then let him in the steeple strike the touch of the sides. Take therefore a hawk's bell; and in the same instant withdraw the veil; bell, the holes stopped up, and hang it by a thread and so let him in the field tell by his pulse what within a bottle glass, and stop the mouth of the distance of time there is between the light seen, glass very close with wax; and then shake the and the sound heard: for it is certain that the glass, and see whether the bell give any sound delation of light is in an instant. This may be at all, or how weak: but note, that you must tried in far greater distances, allowing greater instead of the thread take a wire; or else let the lights and sounds.

glass have a great belly; lest when you shake 210. It is generally known and observed that the bell, it dash upon the sides of the glass. light and the object of sight move swifter than 214. It is plain, that a very long and downright sound : for we see the flash of a piece is seen arch for the sound to pass, will extinguish the sooner than the noise is heard. And in hewing sound quite; so that that sound, which would be wood, if one be some distance off, he shall see heard over a wall, will not be heard over a church; the arm lifted up for a second stroke, before he nor that sound, which will be heard if you stand hear the noise of the first. And the greater the some distance from the wall, will be heard if you distance, the greater is the prevention: as we see stand close under the wall. in thunder which is far off, where the lightning 215. Soft and foraminous bodies, in the first precedeth the crack a good space.

creation of the sound, will dead it: for the strik211. Colours, when they represent themselves ing against cloth or fur will make little sound; to the eye, fade not, nor melt not by degrees, but as hath been said : but in the passage of the sound, appear still in the same strength; but sounds they will admit it better than harder bodies; as melt and vanish by little and little. The cause is, we see, that curtains and hangings will not stay for that colours participate nothing with the mo- the sound much; but glass windows, if they be tion of the air, but sounds do. And it is a plain very close, will check a sound more than the like argument, that sound participateth of some local thickness of cloth. We see also in the rumbling motion of the air, as a cause “sine qua non,” in of the belly, how easily the sound passeth through that it perisheth so suddenly; for in every section the guts and skin. or impulsion of the air, the air doth suddenly re- 216. It is worthy the inquiry, whether great store and reunite itself; which the water also sounds, as of ordnance or bells, become not more doth, but nothing so swiftly.

weak and exile when they pass through small

crannies. For the subtilties of articulate sounds, Experiments in consort touching the passage and it may be, may pass through small crannies not interceptions of sounds.

confused, but the magnitude of the sound, perhaps, In the trials of the passage, or not passage of not so well. sounds, you must take heed you mistake not the passing by the sides of a body for the passing Experiments in consort touching the medium of through a body; and therefore you must make

sounds. the intercepting body very close; for sounds will 217. The mediums of sounds are air, soft and pass through a small chink.

porous bodies, also water. And hard bodies refuse 212. Where sound passeth through a hard or not altogether to be mediums of sounds. But all close body, as through water; through a wall; of them are dull and unapt deferents, except the through metal, as in hawks' bells stopped, &c., the air. hard or close body must be but thin and small; for 218. In air, the thinner or drier air carrieth not else it deadeth and extinguisheth the sound utter- the sound so well as the more dense; as appeareth ly. And therefore in the experiment in speaking in night sounds and evening sounds, and sounds in air under water, the voice must not be very in moist weather and southern winds. The readeep within the water; for then the sound pierceth son is already mentioned in the title of majoration not. So if you speak on the farther side of a of sounds; being for that thin air is better pierced ; close wall, if the wall be very thick, you shall but thick air preserveth the sound better from not be heard; and if there were a hogshead waste: let further trial be made by hollowing in empty, whereof the sides were some two foot mists and gentle showers; for it may be that will thick, and the bunghole stopped; I conceive the somewhat dead the sound. resounding sound, by the communication of the 219. How far forth flame may be a medium of outward air with the air within, would be little sounds, especially of such sounds as are created or none : but only you shall hear the noise of the by air, and not betwixt hard bodies, let it be tried outward knock as if the vessel were full. in speaking where a bonfire is between; but then

213. It is certain that in the passage of sounds you must allow for some disturbance the noise through hard bodies the spirit or pneumatical that the flame itself maketh. part of the body itself doth co-operate; but much 220. Whether any other liquors, being made better when the sides of that hard body are struck, mediums, cause a diversity of sound from water, than when the percussion is only within, without it may be tried : as by the knapping of the tongs;

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