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for we see, that the apprehension of the eye is which pass through the air, or other bodies, withquicker than that of the ear.
out any local motion of the air ; either at the first, 123. All eruptions of air, though small and or after. But you must attentively distinguish slight, give an entity of sound, which we call between the local motion of the air, which is but crackling, puffing, spitting, &c. as in bay-salt, “ vehiculum causæ," a carrier of the sounds, and and bay-leaves, cast into the fire; so in chestnuts, the sounds themselves, conveyed in the air. For when they leap forth of the ashes; so in green as to the former, we see manifestly that no sound wood laid upon the fire, especially root; so in is produced, no not by air itself against other air, candles, that spit flame if they be wet; so in rasp- as in organs, &c. but with a perceptible blast of ing, sneezing, &c. so in a rose leaf gathered to the air; and with some resistance of the air struck. gether into the fashion of a purse, and broken en. For even all speech, which is one of the upon the forehead, or back of the hand, as child- gentlest motions of the air, is with expulsion of a
little breath. And all pipes have a blast, as well
as a sound. We see also manifestly, that sounds Experiments in consort touching production, conser- are carried with wind : and therefore sounds will
vation, and delation of sounds; and the office of be heard further with the wind, than against the the air therein.
wind; and likewise do rise and fall with the in124. The cause given of sound, that it should tension or remission of the wind. But for the be an elision of the air, whereby if they mean impression of the sound, it is quite another thing, any thing, they mean a cutting or dividing, or else and is utterly without any local motion of the air, an attenuating of the air, is but a term of igno- perceptible; and in that resembleth the species rance; and the notion is but a catch of the wit visible: for after a man hath lured, or a bell is upon a few instances; as the manner is in the rung, we cannot discern any perceptible motion philosophy received. And it is common
non with at all in the air along as the sound goeth; but men, that if they have gotten a pretty expression only at the first. Neither doth the wind, as far by a word of art, that expression goeth current; as it carrieth a voice, with the motion thereof, conthough it be empty of matter. This conceit of found any of the delicate and articulate figurations elision appeareth most manifestly to be false, in of the air, in variety of words. And if a man that the sound of a bell, string, or the like, con- speak a good loudness against the flame of a tinueth melting some time after the percussion; candle, it will not make it tremble much; though but ceaseth straightways, if the bell, or string, be most when those letters are pronounced which touched and stayed: whereas, if it were the eli- contract the mouth; as F. S. V. and some others. sion of the air that made the sound, it could not But gentle breathing, or blowing without speakbe that the touch of the bell or string should ex- ing, will move the candle far more. And it is tinguish so suddenly that motion caused by the the more probable, that sound is without any local elision of the air. This appeareth yet more mani- motion of the air, because as it differeth from the festly by chiming with a hammer upon the out- sight, in that it needeth a local motion of the air side of a bell: for the sound will be according to at first; so it paralleleth in so many other things the inward concave of the bell; whereas the eli- with the sight, and radiation of things visible; sion or attenuation of the air cannot be but only which without all question induce no local mobetween the hammer and the outside of the bell. tion in the air, as hath been said. So again, if it were an elision, a broad hammer, 126. Nevertheless it is true, that upon the noise and a bodkin, struck upon metal, would give a of thunder, and great ordnance, glass windows diverse tone, as well as a diverse loudness: but will shake ; and fishes are thought to be frayed they do not so; for though the sound of the one with the motion caused by noise upon the water. be louder, and of the other softer, yet the tone is But these effects are from the local motion of the the same. Besides, in echoes, whereof some are as air, which is a concomitant of the sound, as hath loud as the original voice, there is no new elision, been said, and not from the sound. but a repercussion only. But that which con- 127. It hath been anciently reported, and is still vinceth it most of all is, that sounds are generated received, that extreme applauses and shouting of where there is no air at all. But these and the people assembled in great multitudes, have so like conceits, when men have cleared their under- rarified and broken the air that birds flying over standing by the light of experience, will scatter have fallen down, the air being not able to supand break up like a mist.
port them. And it is believed by some, that 125. It is certain, that sound is not produced at great ringing of bells in populous cities hath the first, but with some local motion of the air, or chased away thunder; and also dissipated pestiflame, or some other medium; nor yet without lent air: all which may be also from the concussome resistance, either in the air or the body per- sion of the air, and not from the sound. cussed. For if there be a mere yielding or ces- 128. A very great sound, near hand, hath sion, it produceth no sound; as hath been said. strucken many deaf; and at the instant they have And therein sounds differ from light and colours, found, as it were, the breaking of a skin or parchment in their ear: and myself standing near one pair of tongs some depth within the water, and that lured loud and shrill, had suddenly an you shall hear the sound of the tongs well and not offence, as if somewhat had broken or been dislo- much diminished; and yet there is no air at all cated in my ear; and immediately after a loud present. ringing, not an ordinary singing or hissing, but 134. Take one vessel of silver, and another of far louder and differing, so as I feared some deaf-wood, and fill each of them full of water, and then ness. But after some half quarter of an hour it knap the tongs together, as before, about a handvanished. This effect may be truly referred unto ful from the bottom, and you shall find the sound the sound : for as is commonly received, an over- much more resounding from the vessel of silver potent object doth destroy the sense; and spiritual than from that of wood : and yet if there be no species, both visible and audible, will work upon water in the vessel, so that you knap the tongs in the sensories, though they move not any other body. the air, you shall find no difference between the
129. In delation of sounds, the enclosure of them silver and the wooden vessel. Whereby, beside preserveth them, and causeth them to be heard the main point of creating sound without air, you further. And we find in rolls of parchment or may collect two things: the one, that the sound trunks, the mouth being laid to the one end of the communicateth with the bottom of the vessel; the roll of parchment or trunk, and the ear to the other, other, that such a communication passeth far better the sound is heard much farther than in the open through water than air. air. The cause is, for that the sound spendeth, 135. Strike any hard bodies together in the and is dissipated in the open air; but in such midst of a flame; and you shall hear the sound concaves it is conserved and contracted. So also with little difference from the sound in the air. in a piece of ordnance, if you speak in the touch- 136. The pneumatical part which is in all tanbole, and another lay his ear to the mouth of the gible bodies, and hath some affinity with the air, piece, the sound passeth and is far better heard performeth, in some degree, the parts of the air; than in the open air.
as when you knock upon an empty barrel, the 130. It is further to be considered, how it sound is in part created by the air on the outside; proveth and worketh when the sound is not en- and in part by the air in the inside: for the sound closed all the length of its way, but passeth partly will be greater or lesser as the barrel is more through open air; as where you speak some dis- empty or more full; but yet the sound participattance from a trunk; or where the ear is some distance eth also with the spirit in the wood through which from the trunk at the other end; or where both it passeth, from the outside to the inside: and so mouth and ear are distant from the trunk. And it cometh to pass in the chiming of bells on the it is tried, that in a long trunk of some eight outside; where also the sound passeth to the inor ten foot, the sound is holpen, though both the side: and a number of other like instances, wheremouth and the ear be a handful or more from the of we shall speak more when we handle the comends of the trunk; and somewhat more holpen, munication of sounds. when the ear of the hearer is near, than when the 137. It were extreme grossness to think, as we mouth of the speaker. And it is certain, that the have partly touched before, that the sound in voice is better heard in a chamber from abroad, strings is made or produced between the hand than abroad from within the chamber.
and the string, or the quill and the string, or the 131. As the enclosure that is round about and bow and the string, for those are but “ vehicula entire, preserveth the sound; so doth a semi-con- motus,” passages to the creation of the sound, the cave, though in a less degree. And therefore, if sound being produced between the string and the you divide a trunk, or a cane into two, and one air; and that not by any impulsion of the air from speak at the one end, and you lay your ear at the the first motion of the string; but by the return other, it will carry the voice farther than in the or result of the string, which was strained by the air at large. Nay further, if it be not a full semi-touch, to his former place: which motion of result concave, but if you do the like upon the mast of a is quick and sharp; whereas the first motion is ship, or a long pole, or a piece of ordnance, though soft and dull. So the bow tortureth the string one speak upon the surface of the ordnance, and continually, and thereby holdeth it in a continual not at any of the bores, the voice will be heard trepidation. farther than in the air at large.
132. It would be tried, how, and with what Experiments in consort touching the magnitude and proportion of disadvantage the voice will be car
exility and damps of sounds. ried in a horn, which is a line arched; or in a 138. Take a trunk, and let one whistle at the trumpet, which is a line retorted; or in some pipe one end, and hold your ear at the other, and you that were sinuous.
shall find the sound strike so sharp as you can 133. It is certain, howsoever it cross the receiv- scarce endure it. The cause is, for that sound ed opinion, that sounds may be created without diffuseth itself in round, and so spendeth itself; air, though air be the most favourable deferent of but if the sound, which would scatter in open air, sounds. Take a vessel of water, and knap a be made to go all into a canal, it must needs give
more narrow to more
greater force to the sound. And so you may note, do give a far greater sound, by reason of the knot, that enclosures do not only preserve sound, but and board, and concave underneath, than if there also increase and sharpen it.
were nothing but only the flat of a board, without 139. A hunter's horn being greater at one end that hollow and knot, to let in the upper air into than at the other, doth increase the sound more the lower. The cause is the communication of than if the horn were all of an equal bore. The the upper air with the lower, and penning of both cause is, for that the air and sound being first con- from expense or dispersing. tracted at the lesser end, and afterwards having 146. An Irish harp hath open air on both sides more room to spread at the greater end, to dilate of the strings: and it hath the concave or belly themselves; and in coming out strike more air; not along the strings, but at the end of the strings. whereby the sound is the greater and baser. And It maketh a more resounding sound than a bandoeven hunter's horns, which are sometimes made ra, orpharion, or citter, which have likewise wire straight, and not oblique, are ever greater at the strings. I judge the cause to be, for that open air lower end. It would be tried also in pipes, being on both sides helpeth, so that there be a concave; made far larger at the lower end; or being made which is therefore best placed at the end. with a belly towards the lower end, and then issu- 147. In a virginal, when the lid is down, it ing into a straight concave again.
maketh a more exile sound than when the lid is 140. There is in St. James's fields a conduit open. The cause is, for that all shutting in of of brick, unto which joineth a low vault; and at air, where there is no competent vent, dampeth the end of that a round house of stone; and in the the sound: which maintaineth likewise the former brick conduit there is a window; and in the round instance; for the belly of the lute or viol doth house a slit or rift of some little breadth : 'if you pen the air somewhat. cry out in the rist, it will make a fearful roaring 148. There is a church at Gloucester, and, as at the window. The cause is the same with the I have heard, the like is in some other places, former; for that all concaves, that proceed from where if you speak against a wall softly, another
do amplify the sound shall hear your voice better a good way off, than at the coming out.
near at hand. Inquire more particularly of the frame 141. Hawks' bells, that have holes in the sides, of that place. I suppose there is some vault, or give a greater ring, than if the pellet did strike hollow, or aisle, behind the wall, and some passage upon brass in the open air. The cause is the to it towards the farther end of that wall against same with the first instance of the trunk; namely, which you speak; so as the voice of him that for that the sound enclosed with the sides of the speaketh slideth along the wall, and then entereth bell cometh forth at the holes unspent and more at some passage, and communicateth with the strong.
air of the hollow; for it is preserved somewhat 142. In drums, the closeness round about, that by the plain wall; but that is too weak to give a preserveth the sound from dispersing, maketh the sound audible, till it hath communicated with the noise come forth at the drum-hole far more loud back air. and strong than if you should strike upon the like 149. Strike upon a bow-string, and lay the skin extended in the open air. The cause is the horn of the bow near your ear, and it will increase same with the two precedent.
the sound, and make a degree of a tone. The 143. Sounds are better heard, and farther off, cause is, for that the sensory, by reason of the in an evening or in the night, than at the noon or close holding, is percussed before the air dispersin the day. The cause is, for that in the day, eth. The like is, if you hold the horn betwixt when the air is more thin, no doubt, the sound your teeth: but that is a plain delation of the pierceth better; but when the air is more thick, sound from the teeth to the instrument of hearing; as in the night, the sound spendeth and spreadeth for there is a great intercourse between those two abroad less: and so it is a degree of enclosure. parts; as appeareth by this, that a harsh grating As for the night, it is true also that the general tune setteth the teeth on edge. The like falleth silence helpeth.
out, if the horn of the bow be put upon the 144. There be two kinds of reflections of sound ; temples; but that is but the slide of the sound the one at distance, which is the echo; wherein from thence to the ear. the original is heard distinctly, and the reflection 150. If you take a rod of iron or brass, and also distinctly; of which we shall speak hereafter: hold the one end to your ear, and strike upon the the other in concurrence; when the sound reflect- other, it maketh a far greater sound than the like ing, the reflection being near at hand, returneth stroke upon the rod, made not so contiguous to the immediately upon the original, and so iterateth it ear. By which, and by some other instances that not, but amplifieth it. Therefore we see, that have been partly touched, it should appear, that music upon the water soundeth more; and so sounds do not only slide upon the surface of a likewise music is better in chambers wainscotted smooth body, but do also communicate with the than hanged.
spirits, that are in the pores of the body. 145. The strings of a lute, or viol, or virginals, 151. I remember in Trinity College in Cam
bridge, there was an upper chamber, which being name aloud, that all the shore rang of it; and thought weak in the roof, it was supported by a that Hylas from within the water answered his pillar of iron of the bigness of one's arm in the master, but, that which is to the present purpose, midst of the chamber; which if you had struck, with so small and exile a voice, as Hercules it would make a little flat noise in the room thought he had been three miles off, when the where it was struck, but it would make a great fountain, indeed, was fast by. bomb in the chamber beneath.
156. In lutes and instruments of strings, if you 152. The sound which is made by buckets in stop a string high, whereby it hath less scope a well, when they touch upon the water, or when tremble, the sound is more treble, but yet more they strike upon the side of the well, or when dead. two buckets dash the one against the other, these 157. Take two saucers, and strike the edge of sounds are deeper and fuller than if the like per- the one against the bottom of the other, within a cussion were made in the open air. The cause pail of water; and you shall find, that as you put is the penning and enclosure of the air in the the saucers lower and lower, the sound groweth concave of the well.
more flat; even while part of the saucer is above 153. Barrels placed in a room under the floor the water; but that flatness of sound is joined of a chamber make all noises in the same chamber with a harshness of sound; which no doubt is more full and resounding.
caused by the inequality of the sound which So that there be five ways, in general, of ma- cometh from the part of the saucer under water, joration of sounds: enclosure simple; enclosure and from the part above. But when the saucer with dilatation; communication; reflection con- is wholly under water, the sound becometh more current; and approach to the sensory.
clear, but far more low, and as if the sound came 154. For exility of the voice or other sounds; from afar off. it is certain that the voice doth pass through solid 158. A soft body dampeth the sound much and hard bodies if they be not too thick: and more than a hard; as if a bell hath cloth or silk through water, which is likewise very close wrapped about it, it deadeth the sound more than body, and such a one as letteth not in air. But if it were wood. And therefore in clericals the then the voice, or other sound, is reduced by such keys are lined; and in colleges they use to line passage to a great weakness or exility. If there-tablemen. fore you stop the holes of a hawk's bell, it will 159. Trial was made in a recorder after these make no ring, but a flat noise or rattle. And so several manners. The bottom of it was set doth the “aëtites” or eagle-stone, which hath a against the palm of the hand; stopped with wax little stone within it.
round about; set against a damask cushion; 155. And as for water, it is a certain trial: let thrust into sand; into ashes; into water, half an a man go into a bath, and take a pail, and turn inch under the water; close to the bottom of a the bottom upwards, and carry the mouth of it silver basin; and still the tone remained: but even, down to the level of the water, and so press the bottom of it was set against a woollen carpet; it down under the water some handful and a half, a lining of plush ; a lock of wool, though loosely still keeping it even that it may not tilt on either put in; against snow; and the sound of it was side, and so the air get out: then let him that is quite deaded, and but breath. in the bath dive with his head so far under water, 160. Iron hot produceth not so full a sound as as he may put his head into the pail, and there when it is cold, for while it is hot, it appeareth will come as much air bubbling forth as will to be more soft and less resounding. So likewise make room for his head. Then let him speak, warm water, when it falleth, maketh not so full a and any that shall stand without shall hear his sound as cold, and I conceive it is softer, and voice plainly; but yet made extreme sharp and nearer the nature of oil, for it is more slippery, as exile, like the voice of puppets: but yet the may be perceived in that it scoureth better. articulate sounds of the words will not be con- 161. Let there be a recorder made with two founded. Note, that it may be much more hand- fipples, at each end one : the trunk of it of the somely done, if the pail be put over the man's length of two recorders, and the holes answerable head above the water, and then he cower down, towards each end, and let two play the same legand the pail be pressed down with him. Note, that son upon it as in unison; and let it be noted a man must kneel or sit, that he may be lower whether the sound be confounded, or amplified, than the water. A man would think that the or dulled. So likewise let a cross be made of Sicilian poet had knowledge of this experiment; two trunks, throughout, hollow, and let two for he said, that Hercules's page, Hylas, went speak, or sing, the one long ways, the other trawith a water-pot to fill it at a pleasant fountain verse; and let two hear at the opposite ends, and that was near the shore, and that the nymph of note whether the sound be confounded, amplified, the fountain fell in love with the boy, and pulled or dulled. Which two instances will also give him under water, keeping him alive; and that light to the mixture of sounds, whereof we shall Hercules missing his page, called him by his speak hereafter.
162. A bellows blown in at the hole of a drum, (more treble and more base, according unto the and the drum then strucken, maketh the sound concave on the inside, though the percussion be a little flatter, but no other apparent alteration. only on the outside. The cause is manifest: partly for that it hindereth 167. When the sound is created between the the issue of the sound, and partly for that it blast of the mouth and the air of the pipe, it hath maketh the air, being blown together, less mov- nevertheless some communication with the matter able.
of the sides of the pipe, and the spirits in them
contained; for in a pipe, or trumpet, of wood, and Experiments in consort touching the loudness or soft- brass, the sound will be diverse; so if the pipe
ness of sounds, and their carriage at longer or be covered with cloth or silk: it will give a diverse shorter distance.
sound from that it would do of itself; so if the 163. The loudness and softness of sounds is a pipe be a little wet on the inside, it will make a thing distinct from the magnitude and exility of differing sound from the same pipe dry. sounds; for a base string, though softly strucken, 168. That sound made within water doth comgiveth the greater sound; but a treble string, if municate better with a hard body through water, hard strucken, will be heard much farther off. than made in air it doth with air. “Vide experiAnd the cause is, for that the base string striketh mentum 134." more air, and the treble less air, but with a sharper percussion.
Experiments in consort touching equality and in164. It is therefore the strength of the percus
equality of sounds. sion, that is a principal cause of the loudness or We have spoken before, in the inquisition softness of sounds; as in knocking harder or touching music, of musical sounds, whereunto softer, winding of a horn stronger or weaker, ring- there may be a concord or discord in two parts ; ing of a hand-bell harder or softer, &c. And the which sounds we call tones; and likewise of imstrength of this percussion consisteth as much or musical sounds; and have given the cause, that more in the hardness of the body percussed, as the tone proceedeth of equality, and the other of in the force of the body percussing : for if you inequality. And we have also expressed there, strike against a cloth, it will give a less sound, what are the equal bodies that give tones, and if against wood, a greater, if against metal yet a what are the unequal that give none. But now greater; and in metals, if you strike against gold, we shall speak of such inequality of sounds as which is the more pliant, it giveth the flatter proceedeth not from the nature of the bodies thembound; if against silver or brass, the more ring- selves, but as accidental ; either from the roughing sound. As for air, where it is strongly pent, ness or obliquity of the passage, or from the dou. it matcheth a hard body. And therefore we see bling of the percutient, or from the trepidation of in discharging of a piece, what a great noise it the motion. maketh. We see also, that the charge with bul. 169. A bell, if it have a rift in it, whereby the let, or with paper wet and hard stopped, or with sound hath not a clear passage, giveth a hoarse powder alone, rammed in hard, maketh no great and jarring sound : so the voice of man, when by difference in the loudness of the report.
cold taken the weasond groweth rugged, and, as 165. The sharpness or quickness of the per- we call it, furred, becometh hoarse. And in cussion is great cause of the loudness, as well these two instances the sounds are ingrate, beas the strength; as in a whip or wand, if you cause they are merely unequal : but if they be strike the air with it; the sharper and quicker unequal in equality, then the sound is grateful. you strike it, the louder sound it giveth. And in but purling. playing upon the lute or virginals, the quick 170. All instruments that have either returns, stroke or touch is a great life to the sound. The as trumpets; or flexions, as cornets; or are drawn cause is, for that the quick striking cutteth the up, and put from, as sackbuts; have a purling air speedily; whereas the soft striking doth rather sound; but the recorder, or flute, that have none beat than cut.
of these inequalities, give a clear sound. Never
theless, the recorder itself, or pipe, moistened a Experiments in consort touching the communication little in the inside, soundeth more solemnly, and of sounds.
with a little purling or hissing. Again, a wreathed The communication of sounds, as in bellies string, such as are in the base strings of banof lutes, empty vessels, &c., hath been touched doras, giveth also a purling sound. “ obiter,” in the majoration of sounds; but it is fit 171. But a lutestring, if it be merely unequal also to make a title of it apart.
in its parts, giveth a harsh and untunable sound: 166. The experiment for greatest demonstration which strings we call false, being bigger in one of communication of sounds, is the chiming of place than in other; and therefore wire strings. bells; where, if you strike with a hammer upon are never false. We see also, that when we try the upper part, and then upon the midst, and then a false lutestring, we use to extend it hard between upon the lower, you shall find the sound to be the fingers, and to fillip it; and if it giveth a