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the raising of the price, whereas this is to go parts, it is supposed that all Spanish moneys, alone ; yet, nevertheless, it seemed the officers of which is the bulk of silver brought into this the mint were not unwilling to give way to some realm, would, by means of such a proclamation, abatement, although they presumed it would be come into the mint; which may be a thing of small effect, because that abatement would not considerable. be equivalent to that price which Spanish silver The fifth proposition was this: It was warbears with the goldsmith ; but yet it may be used ranted by the laws of Spain, to bring in silver for as an experiment of state, being recoverable at his . corn or victuals; it was propounded that his majesty's pleasure.

majesty would restrain exportation of corn “sub The third proposition is, concerning the ex- modo,” except they bring the silver which reportation of silver more than in former times, sulted thereof, unto his mint; that trade being wherein we fell first upon the trade into the commonly so beneficial, as the merchant may East Indies; concerning which it was materially, well endure the bringing of the silver to the in our opinions, answered by the merchants of mint, although it were at the charge of coinage, that company, that the silver which supplies that which it now beareth further, as incident to this trade, being generally Spanish moneys, would matter. There was revived by the merchants, not be brought in but for that trade, so that it sucks with some instance, the ancient proposition, conin as well as it draws forth. And, it was added, cerning the erection of granaries for foreign corn, likewise, that as long as the Low Countries forasmuch as, by that increase of trade in corn, maintained that trade in the Indies, it would the importation of silver would likewise be help little, though our trade were dissolved, multiplied. because that silver which is exported immedi- The sixth proposition was, That upon all ately by us to the Indies, would be drawn out of license of forbidden commodities, there shall this kingdom, for the Indies, immediately by the be a rate set of silver to be brought into the Dutch : and for the silver exported to the Levant, mint: which, nevertheless, may seem somewhat it was thought to be no great matter. As for hard, because it imposeth upon the subject that other exportation, we saw no remedy but the which causeth him to incur peril of confiscation execution of the laws, specially those of employ-in foreign parts. To trouble your lordships ment, being, by some mitigation, made agreeable further with discourses which we had of making to the times. And these three remedies are of foreign coins current, and of varying the king's that nature, as they serve to remove the causes standard to weight, upon the variations in other of this scarcity. There were other propositions states, and repressing surfeit of foreign commoof policies and means, directly to draw silver to dities, that our native commodities, surmounting the mint.

the foreign, may draw in treasure by way of The fourth point thereof, was this: It is agreed overplus; they be commonplaces so well known that the silver which hath heretofore fed the to your lordships, as it is enough to mention them mint, principally, hath been Spanish money. only. This now comes into the realm plentifully, but There is only one thing more, which is, to put not into the mint. It was propounded, in imita- your lordships in mind of the extreme excess in tion of some precedent in France, that his majesty the wasting of both metals, both of gold and would, by proclamation, restrain the coming in silver foliate, which turns the nature of these of this money “sub modo;" that is, that either it metals, which ought to be perdurable, and makes be brought to the mint, or otherwise to be but and them perishable, and, by consumption, must be a defaced, because that now it passeth in payments principal cause of scarcity in them both; which, in a kind of currency. To which it was colour- we conceive, may receive a speedy remedy by his ably objected, that this would be the way to have majesty's proclamation. none brought in at all, because the gain ceasing, Lastly, We are humble suitors to your lordthe importation would cease; but this objection ships, that for any of these propositions, that was well answered, that it is not gain altogether, your lordships should think fit to entertain in but a necessity of speedy payment, that causeth consultations, your lordships would be pleased the merchant to bring in silver to keep his credit, to hear them debated before yourselves, as being and to drive his trade: so that if the king keep matters of greater weight than we are able to his fourteen days' payment at the mint, as he judge of. And so, craving your lordships' pardon always hath done, and have, likewise, his ex- for troubling you so long, we commend your changers for those moneys, in some principal lordships to God's goodness.

HIS LORDSHIP'S SPEECH

IN THE PARLIAMENT,

BEING LORD CHANCELLOR,

TO

THE SPEAKER'S EXCUSE.

MR. SERJEANT RICHARDSON,

ferring it before other estates, it needs no answer; The king hath heard and observed your grave the schools may dispute it; but time hath tried it, and decent speech, tending to the excuse and and we find it to be the best. Other states have disablement of yourself for the place of speaker. curious frames, soon put out of order: and they In answer whereof, his majesty hath commanded that are made fit to last, are not commonly fit to me to say to you, that he doth in no sort admit of grow or spread : and, contrariwise, those that are the same.

made fit to spread and enlarge, are not fit to conFirst, Because if the party's own judgment tinue and endure. But monarchy is like a work should be admitted in case of elections, touching of nature, well composed both to grow and to conhimself, it would follow, that the most confident tinue. From this I

pass. and overweening persons would be received ; For the second part of your speech, wherein you and the most considerate men, and those that did with no less truth than affection acknowledge understand themselves best, would be rejected. the great felicity which we enjoy by his majes

Secondly, His majesty doth so much rely upon ty's reign and government, his majesty hath comthe wisdoms and discretions of those of the House manded me to say unto you, that praises and of Commons, that have chosen you with a una- thanksgivings he knoweth to be the true oblations nimous consent, that his majesty thinks not good of hearts and loving affections : but that which you to swerve from their opinion in that wherein offer him he will join with you, in offering it up to themselves are principally interested.

God, who is the author of all good ; who knoweth Thirdly, You have disabled yourself in so good also the uprightness of his heart; who he hopeth and decent a fashion, as the manner of your speech will continue and increase his blessings both hath destroyed the matter of it.

upon himself and his posterity, and likewise upon And, therefore, the king doth allow of the elec- his kingdoms and the generations of them. tion, and admit you for speaker.

But I for my part must say unto you, as the

Grecian orator said long since in the like case: TO THE SPEAKER'S ORATION.

6. Solus dignus harum rerum laudatur tempus ;"

Time is the only commender and encomiastic Mr. SPEAKER,

worthy of his majesty and his government. The king hath heard and observed your eloquent Why time? For that, in the revolution of so discourse, containing much good matter, and much many years and ages as have passed over this good will: wherein you must expect from me kingdom, notwithstanding, many noble and exsuch an answer only as is pertinent to the occa- cellent effects were never produced until his masion, and compassed by due respect of time. jesty's days, but have been reserved as proper

and I may divide that which you have said into four peculiar unto them. parts.

And because this is no part of a panegyric, but The first was a commendation, or laudative of merely story, and that they be so many articles monarchy.

of honour fit to be recorded, I will only mention The second was indeed a large field, containing them, extracting part of them out of that you, a thankful acknowledgment of his majesty's bene- Mr. Speaker, have said; they be in number fits, attributes, and acts of government.

eight. The third was some passages touching the insti- First, his majesty is the first, as you noted it tution and use of parliaments.

well, that hath laid “ lapis angularis," the corner The fourth and last was certain petitions to his stone of these two mighty kingdoms of England majesty on the behalf of the House and yourself

. and Scotland, and taken away the wall of sepaFor your commendation of monarchy, and pre-l ration: whereby his majesty is become the mo

narch of the most puissant and military nations of the only worthy commender of his majesty is the world; and, if one of the ancient wise men time: which hath so set off his majesty's merits was not deceived, iron commands gold.

by the shadow of comparison, as it passeth the Secondly, the plantation and reduction to civi- lustre or commendation of words. lity of Ireland, the second island of the ocean How then shall I conclude? Shall I say, 60 Atlantic, did by God's providence wait for his fortunatos nimium sua si bona norint ?" No, for majesty's times; being a work resembling indeed I see ye are happy in enjoying them, and happy the works of the ancient heroes: no new piece of again in knowing them. But I will conclude that kind in modern times.

this part with that saying, turned to the right Thirdly, This kingdom, now first in his ma- hand: “Si gratum dixeris, omnia dixeris." jesty's times, hath gotten a lot or portion in the Your gratitude contains in a word all that I can new world, by the plantation of Virginia and the say to you touching this parliament. Summer Islands. And certainly it is with the Touching the third point of your speech, conkingdoms on earth as it is in the kingdom of hea- cerning parliaments, I shall need to say little: for ven: sometimes a grain of mustard-seed proves a there was never that honour done to the institugreat tree. Who can tell ?

tion of parliament, that his majesty did it in his Fourthly, His majesty hath made that truth last speech, making it in effect the perfection of which was before titularly, in that he hath veri- monarchy; for that although monarchy was the fied the style of Defender of the Faith : wherein more ancient, and be independent, yet by the adhis majesty's pen hath been so happy, as, though vice and assistance of parliament it is the stronger the deaf adder will not hear, yet he is charmed and the surer built. that he doth not hiss. I mean in the graver sort And therefore I shall say no more of this point; of those that have answered his majesty's writ- but as you, Mr. Speaker, did well note, that when ings.

the king sits in parliament, and his prelates, Fifthly, It is most certain, that since the con- peers, and commons attend him, he is in the quest ye cannot assign twenty years, which is the exaltation of his orb; so I wish things may be so time that his majesty's reign now draws fast upon, carried, that he may be then in greatest serenity of inward and outward peace. Insomuch, as the and benignity of aspect; shining upon his people time of Queen Elizabeth, of happy memory, and both in glory and grace. Now you know well, always magnified for a peaceable reign, was · ne- that the shining of the sun fair upon the ground, vertheless interrupted the first twenty years with whereby all things exhilarate and do fructify, is a rebellion in England; and both first and last either hindered by clouds above or mists below; twenty years with rebellions in Ireland. And perhaps by brambles and briers that grow upon yet I know, that his majesty will make good both the ground itself. All which I hope at this time his words, as well that of “ Nemo me lacessit will be dispelled and removed. impune,” as that other of “ Beati pacifici."

I come now to the last part of your speech, Sixthly, That true and primitive office of kings, concerning the petitions : but before I deliver his which is, to sit in the gate and to judge the peo- majesty's answer respectively in particular, I am ple, was never performed in like perfection by to speak to you some few words in general ; any of the king's progenitors: whereby his ma- wherein, in effect, I shall but glean, his majesty jesty hath showed himself to be o lex loquens,” having so excellently and fully expressed bimand to sit upon the throne, not as a' dumb statue, self. but as a speaking oracle.

For that, that can be spoken pertinently, must Seventhly, For his majesty's mercy, as you be either touching the subject or matter of parlianoted it well, show me a time wherein a king of ment business; or of the manner and carriage of this realm hath reigned almost twenty years, as I the same; or, lastly, of the time, and the husbandsaid, in his white robes, without the blood of any ing and marshalling of time. peer of this kingdom: the axe turned once or For the inatters to be handled in parliament, twice towards a peer, but never struck.

they are either of church, state, laws, or grievances. Lastly, The flourishing of arts and sciences re- For the first two, concerning church or state, created by his majesty's countenance and bounty, ye have heard the king himself speak; and as the was never in that height, especially that art of Scripture saith, “ Who is he that in such things arts, divinity; for that we may truly to God's shall come after the king ?" For the other two, great glory confess, that since the primitive I shall say somewhat, but very shortly. times, there were never so many stars, for so the For laws, they are things proper for your own Scripture calleth them, in that firmament. element; and, therefore, therein ye are rather to

These things, Mr. Speaker, I have partly lead than to be led. Only it is not amiss to put you chosen out of your heap, and are so far from being in mind of two things; the one, that ye do not vulgar, as they are in effect singular and proper multiply or accumulate laws more than ye need. to his majesty and his times. So that I have There is a wise and learned civilian that applies made good, as I take it, my first assertion ; that the curse of the prophet, “Pluet super eos laqueos," to multiplicity of laws: for they do but ensnare sensible of forms than of matter; and is as far from and entangle the people. I wish rather, that ye enduring diminution of majesty, as from regard. should either revive good laws that are fallen and ing flattery or vainglory; and a king that underdiscontinued, or provide against the slack execu- standeth as well the pulse of the hearts of the tion of laws which are already in force; or meet people, as his own orb. And, therefore, both let with the subtile evasions from laws which time your grievances have a decent and reverend form and craft hath undermined, than to make “ novas and style; and, to use the words of former parcreaturas legum," laws upon a new mould. liaments, let them be “ tanquam gemitus co

The other point, touching laws, is, that ye busy lumbæ,” without pique or harshness: and, on not yourselves too much in private bills, except the other side, in that ye do for the king, let it it be in cases wherein the help and arm of ordinary have a niark of unity, alacrity, and affection; justice is too short.

which will be of this force, that whatsoever ye For grievances, his majesty hath with great do in substance, will be doubled in reputation grace and benignity opened himself. Neverthe-abroad, as in a crystal glass. less, the limitations, which may make up your For the time, if ever parliament was to be grievances not to beat the air only, but to sort to measured by the hour-glass, it is this; in regard à desired effect, are principally two. The one, of the instant occasion flying away irrecoverably. to use his majesty's term, that ye do not hunt Therefore, let your speeches in the House be the after grievances, such as may seem rather to be speeches of counsellors, and not of orators; let stirred here when ye are met, than to have your committees tend to despatch, not to dispute; sprung from the desires of the country: ye are to and so marshal the times as the public business, represent the people; ye are not to personate especially the proper business of the parliament, them.

be put first, and private bills be put last, as time The other, that ye do not heap up grievances, shall give leave, or within the spaces of the as if numbers should make a show where the public. weight is small; or, as if all things amiss, like For the four petitions, his majesty is pleased to Plato's commo

monwealth, should be remedied at grant them all as liberally as the ancient and true once. It is certain, that the best governments, custom of parliament doth warrant, and with the yea, and the best men, are like the best precious cautions that have ever gone with them; that is stones, wherein every flaw or icicle or grain are to say, That the privilege be not used for defraudseen and noted more than in those that are gene-ing of creditors, and defeating of ordinary justice: rally foul and corrupted.

that liberty of speech turn not into license, but be Therefore contain yourselves within that mode- joined with that gravity and discretion, as may ration as may appear to bend rather to the effectual taste of duty and love to your sovereign, reverence ease of the people, than to a discursive envy, or to your own assembly, and respect to the matters scandal upon the state.

ye handle: that your accesses be at such fit times, As for the manner of carriage of parliament as may stand best with his majesty's pleasure business, ye must know, that ye deal with a king and occasions : that mistakings and misunderthat hath been longer king than any of you have standings be rather avoided and prevented, as been parliament men; and a king that is no less much as may be, than salved or cleared.

A SPEECH IN PARLIAMENT,

39 OF ELIZABETH,

UPON THE MOTION OF SUBSIDY.

And please you, Mr. Speaker, I must consider mixture of this House doth so require it, that in the time which is spent; but yet so, as I must causes of this nature there be some speech and consider also the matter, which is great. This opinion, as well from persons of generality, as great cause was, at the first, so materially and by persons of authority, I will say somewhat, weightily propounded; and after, in such sort and not much: wherein it shall not be fit for me persuaded and enforced ; and by him that last to enter into, or to insist upon secrets, either of spake, so much time taken, and yet to good pur- her majesty's coffers, or of her council; but my pose; as I shall speak at a great disadvantage: speech must be of a more vulgar nature. but, because it hath been always used, and the I will not enter, Mr. Speaker, into a laudative

make any

speech of the high and singular benefits, which, ground for his hedge and ditch, to fortify and by her majesty's most politic and happy govern- defend the rest. Why, Mr. Speaker, the disputer ment, we receive, thereby to incite you to a will, if he be wise and cunning, grant somewhat retribution; partly, because no breath of man' that seemeth to make against him, because he will can set them forth worthily; and partly, because, keep himself within the strength of his opinion, and I know, her majesty, in her magnanimity, doth the better maintain the rest. But this place adverbestow her benefits like her freest patents, tiseth me not to handle the matter in a common- absque aliquo inde reddendo;' not looking for place. I will now deliver unto you that, which, any thing again, if it were in respect only of her upon a “probatum est,” hath wrought upon particular, but love and loyalty. Neither will I myself, knowing your affections to be like mine now, at this time, put the case of this realm of own. There hath fallen out, since the last parEngland too precisely; how it standeth with the liament, four accidents or occurrents of state; subject in point of payments to the crown: though things published and known to you all; by every I could make it appear by demonstration, what one whereof, it seemeth to me, in my vulgar opinion soever be conceived, that never subjects understanding, that the danger of this realm is were partakers of greater freedom and ease; and increased : which I speak not by way of apprethat whether you look abroad into other countries hending fear, for I know I speak to English at this present time, or look back to former times courages; but by way of pressing provision : for in this our own country, we shall find an exceed- I do find, Mr. Speaker, that when kingdoms and ing difference in matter of taxes; which, now, I states are entered into terms and resolutions of reserve to mention; not so much in doubt to hostility one against the other; yet they are many acquaint your ears with foreign strains, or to dig times restrained from their attempts by four up the sepulchres of buried and forgotten impo- impediments. sitions, which, in this case, as by way of com- The first is by this same “aliud agere;" when parison, it is necessary you understand; but they have their hands full of other matters, which because speech in the House is fit to persuade the they have embraced, and serveth for a diversion general point, and, particularly, is more proper of their hostile purposes. and seasonable for the committee: neither will I The next is, when they want the commodity observation upon

her majesty's manner or opportunity of some places of near approach. of expending and issuing treasure; being not The third, when they have conceived an appreupon excessive and exorbitant donatives, nor hension of the difficulty and churlishness of the upon sumptuous and unnecessary triumphs, enterprise, and that it is not prepared to their hand. buildings, or like magnificence; but upon the And the fourth is, when a state, through the preservation, protection, and honour of the realm: age of the monarch, groweth heavy and indisfor I dare not scan upon her majesty's actions, posed to actions of great peril and motion : and which it becometh me rather to admire in silence, this dull humour is not sharpened nor inflamed than to gloss or discourse upon them, though by any provocations or scorns. Now if it please with never so good a meaning. Sure I am, that you to examine, whether, by removing the the treasure that cometh from you to her majesty, impediments, in these four kinds, the danger is but as a vapour which riseth from the earth, be not grown so many degrees nearer us by and gathereth into a cloud, and stayeth not there accidents, as I said, fresh, and all dated since the long; but upon the same earth it falleth again: , last parliament. and what if some drops of this do fall upon Soon after the last parliament, you may be France or Flanders? It is like a sweet odour of pleased to remember how the French king revolted honour and reputation to our nation throughout from his religion; whereby every man of common the world. But I will only insist upon the understanding may infer, that the quarrel between natural and inviolate law of preservation. France and Spain is more reconcileable, and a

It is a truth, Mr. Speaker, and a familiar truth, greater inclination of affairs to a peace, than bethat safety and preservation is to be preferred fore: which supposed, it followeth, Spain shall before benefit or increase, inasmuch as those be more free to intend his malice against this counsels which tend to preservation, seem to be realm. attended with necessity: whereas those delibera- Since the last parliament, it is also notorious tions which tend to benefit, seem only accompa- in every man's knowledge and remembrance, that nied with persuasion. And it is ever gain and the Spaniards have possessed themselves of that no loss, when at the foot of the account there avenue and place of approach for England, which remains the purchase of safety. The prints of was never in the hands of any king of Spain bethis are everywhere to be found: the patient will fore; and that is Calais; which in true reason ever part with some of his blood to save and clear and consideration of estate of what value or serthe rest: the seafaring man will, in a storm, cast vice it is, I know not; but in common underover some of his goods to save and assure the standing, it is a knocking at our doors. rest: the husbandman will afford some foot of Since the last parliament also that ulcer of Ire

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