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a sympathy with the heart; we see the effects and like. And the physicians are content to acknowpassions of the heart and spirits are notably dis- ledge, that herbs and drugs have divers parts; as closed by the pulse : and it is often tried, that that opium hath a stupefactive part, and a heating juices of stockgillyflowers, rose-campian, gar- part; the one moving sleep, the other a sweat lick, and other things, applied to the wrists, and following; and that rhubarb hath purging parts, renewed, have cured long agues. And I conceive, and astringent parts, &c. But this whole inquithat washing with certain liquors the palms of sition is weakly and negligently handled. And the hands doth much good : and they do well in for the more subtile differences of the minute parts, heats of agues, to hold in the hands eggs of alabas- and the posture of them in the body, which also ter and balls of crystal.
hath great effects, they are not at all touched : as Of these things we shall speak more, when we for the motions of the minute parts of bodies, which handle the title of sympathy and antipathy, in the do so great effects, they have not been observed proper place.
at all; because they are invisible, and incur not
to the eye; but yet they are to be deprehended Experiment solitary touching the secret processes of by experience : as Democritus said well, when nature.
they charged him to hold, that the world was 98. The knowledge of man hitherto hath been made of such little motes, as were seen in the determined by the view or sight; so that whatso- sun: “ Atomus,” saith he, “necessitate rationis ever is invisible, either in respect of the fineness et experientiæ esse convincitur; atomum enim neof the body itself, or the smallness of the parts, mo unquam vidit.” And therefore the tumult in or of the subtility of the motion, is little inquired. the parts of solid bodies, when they are compressAnd yet these be the things that govern nature ed, which is the cause of all flight of bodies principally; and without which you cannot make through the air, and of other mechanical motions, any true analysis and indication of the proceedings as hath been partly touched before, and shall be of nature. The spirits or pneumaticals, that are throughly handled in due place, is not seen at all. in all tangible bodies, are scarce known. Some- But nevertheless, if you know it not, or inquire it times they take them for “vacuum;" whereas not attentively and diligently, you shall never be they are the most active of bodies. Sometimes able to discern, and much less to produce, a numthey take them for air; from which they differ ex- ber of mechanical motions. Again, as to the moceedingly, as much as wine from water; and as tions corporal, within the inclosures of bodies, wood from earth. Sometimes they will have them whereby the effects, which were mentioned before, to be natural heat, or a portion of the element pass between the spirits and the tangible parts, of fire; whereas some of them are crude and cold. which are arefaction, colliquation, concoction, And sometimes they will have them to be the maturation, &c. they are not at all handled. But virtues and qualities of the tangible parts which they are put off by the names of virtues, and they see; whereas they are things by themselves. natures, and actions, and passions, and such other And then, when they come to plants and living logical words. creatures, they call them souls. And such superficial speculations they have; like prospectives, Experiment solitary touching the power of heat. that show things inward, when they are but paint- 99. It is certain, that of all powers in nature ings. Neither is this a question of words, but heat is the chief; both in the frame of nature, and infinitely material in nature. For spirits are in the works of art. Certain it is, likewise, that nothing else but a natural body rarified to a pro- the effects of heat are most advanced, when it portion, and included in the tangible parts of bo-worketh upon a body without loss or dissipation dies, as in an integument. And they be no less of the matter; for that ever betrayeth the account. differing one from the other than the dense or And therefore it is true, that the power of heat is tangible parts; and they are in all tangible bodies best perceived in distillations which are performed whatsoever, more or less; and they are never al- in close vessels and receptacles. But yet there most at rest; and from them, and their motions, is a higher degree; for howsoever distillations do principally proceed arefaction, colliquation, con- keep the body in cells and cloisters, without going coction, maturation, putrefaction, vivification, and abroad, yet they give space unto bodies to turn most of the effects of nature: for, as we have into vapour; to return into liquor, and to separate figured them in our “Sapientia Veterum,” in the one part from another. So as nature doth expatifable of Proserpina, you shall in the infernal regi- ate, althongh it hath not full liberty: whereby the ment hear little doings of Pluto, but most of true and ultime operations of heat are not attained. Proserpina: for tangible parts in bodies are stupid But if bodies may be altered by heat, and yet no things; and the spirits do in effect all. As for such reciprocation of rarefaction, and of condensathe differences of tangible parts in bodies, the in- tion, and of separation, admitted, then it is like dustry of the chymist hath given some light, in that this Proteus of matter, being held by the discerning by their separations the oily, crude, sleeves, will turn and change into many metamorpure, inipure, fine, gross parts of bodies, and the phoses. Take therefore a square vessel of iron,
in form of a cube, and let it have good thick and we aim at the making of Paracelsus's pygmies,
Experiments in consort touching music. 102. The sounds that produce tones are ever Music, in the practice hath been well pursued, from such bodies as are in their parts and pores and in good variety; but in the theory, and espe- equal; as well as the sounds themselves are cially in the yielding of the causes of the practice, equal; and such are the percussions of metal, as very weakly; being reduced into certain mystical in bells; of glass, as in the filliping of a drinking subtilties of no use and not much truth. We glass; of air, as in men's voices whilst they sing, shall, therefore, after our manner, join the contem- in pipes, whistles, organs, stringed instruments, plative and active part together.
&c.; and of water, as in the nightingale pipes of 101. All sounds are either musical sounds, regals, or organs, and other hydraulics; which which we call tones; whereunto there may be the ancients had, and Nero did so much esteem, a harmony; which sounds are ever equal; as sing- but are now lost. And if any man think, that the ing, the sounds of stringed and wind instruments, string of the bow and the string of the viol are the ringing of bells, &c.; or immusical sounds, neither of them equal bodies, and yet produce which are ever unequal; such as are the voice in tones, he is in an error. For the sound is not speaking, all whisperings, all voices of beasts and created between the bow or “ plectrum" and the birds, except they be singing-birds, all percus- string; but between the string and the air; no sions of stones, wood, parchment, skins, as in more than it is between the finger or quill, and drums, and infinite others.
the string in other instruments. So there are, in
effect, but three percussions that create tones; | sound returneth after six or after twelve; so that percussions of metals, comprehending glass and the seventh or the thirteenth is not the matter, the like, percussions of air, and percussions of but the six or the twelfth; and the seventh and
the thirteenth are but the limits and boundaries 103. The diapason or eighth in music is the of the return. sweetest concord, insomuch as it is in effect a 107. The concords in music which are perfect unison; as we see in lutes that are strung in the or semiperfect, between the unison and the diapabase strings with two strings, one an eighth above son, are the fifth, which is the most perfect; the another; which make but as one sound. And third next: and the sixth, which is more harsh : every eighth note in ascent, as from eight to fifteen, and, as the ancients esteemed, and so do myself from fifteen to twenty-two, and so in infinitum," and some other yet, the fourth, which they call are but scales of diapason. The cause is dark, diatessaron. As for the tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, and bath not been rendered by any; and therefore and so in “infinitum,” they be but recurrences would be better contemplated. It seemeth that of the former, viz. of the third, the fifth, and the air, which is the subject of sounds, in sounds that sixth; being an eighth respectively from them. are not tones, which are all unequal, as hath been 108. For discords, the second and the seventh said, admitteth much variety; as we see in the are of all others the most odious in harmony, to voices of living creatures, and likewise in the the sense; whereof the one is next above the voices of several men, for we are capable to dis- unison, the other next under the diapason: which cern several men, by their voices, and in the may show that harmony requireth a competent conjugation of letters, whence articulate sounds distance of notes. proceed; which of all others are most various. 109. In harmony, if there be not a discord to But in the sounds which we call tones, that are the base, it doth not disturb the harmony, though ever equal, the air is not able to cast itself into there be a discord to the higher parts : so the any such variety; but is forced to recur into one discord be not of the two that are odious; and and the same posture or figure, only differing in therefore the ordinary consent of four parts congreatness and smallness. So we see figures may sisteth of an eighth, a fifth, and a third to the be made of lines, crooked and straight, in infinite base; but that fifth is a fourth to the treble, and variety, where there is inequality; but circles, the third is a sixth. And the cause is, for that or squares, or triangles equilateral, which are all the base striking more air, doth overcome and figures of equal lines, can differ but in greater or drown the treble, unless the discord be very odilesser,
ous; and so hideth a small imperfection. For 104. It is to be noted, the rather least any man we see, that in one of the lower strings of a lute, should think that there is any thing in this num- there soundeth not the sound of the treble, nor ber of eight, to create the diapason, that this any mixed sound, but only the sound of the base. computation of eight is a thing rather received, 110. We have no music of quarter-notes; and than any true computation. For a true computa- it may be they are not capable of harmony; for tion ought ever to be by distribution into equal we see the half-notes themselves do but interpose portions. Now there be intervenient in the rise sometimes. Nevertheless we have some slides of eight, in tones, two beemolls, or half notes: or relishes of the voice or strings, as it were so as if you divide the tones equally, the eight is continued without notes, from one tone to another, "but seven whole and equal notes; and if you sub- rising or falling, which are delightful. divide that into half notes, as it is in the stops of 111. The causes of that which is pleasing or a lute, it maketh the number of thirteen. ingrate to the hearing, may receive light by that
105. Yet this is true, that in the ordinary rises which is pleasing or ingrate to the sight. There and falls of the voice of man, not measuring the be two things pleasing to the sight, leaving tone by whole notes, and half-notes, which is pictures and shapes aside, which are but secondthe equal measure, there fall out to be two bee-ary objects; and please or displease but in memomolls, as hath been said, between the unison and ry; these two are colours and orders. The the diapason: and this varying is natural. For pleasing of colour symbolizeth with the pleasing if a man would endeavour to raise or fall his of any single tone to the ear; but the pleasing voice, still by half-notes, like the stops of a lute; of order doth symbolize with harmony. And or by whole notes alone without halves, as far as an therefore we see in garden-knots, and the frets eighth ; he will not be able to frame his voice of houses, and all equal and well answering unto it. Which showeth, that after every three figures, as globes, pyramids, cones, cylinders, &c. whole notes, nature requireth, for all harmonical how they please; whereas unequal figures are use, one half-note to be interposed.
but deformities. And both these pleasures, that 106. It is to be considered, that whatsoever of the eye, and that of the ear, are but the effects virtue is in numbers, for conducing to consent of of equality, good proportion, or correspondence: notes, is rather to be ascribed to the ante-number, so that, out of question, equality and correspond than to the entire number; as namely, that the ence are the causes of harmony. But to find the Vol. II.-4
proportion of thatcorrespondence is more abstruse; in themselves. But yet it hath been noted, that whereof notwithstanding we shall speak some though this variety of tunes doth dispose the what, when we handle tones, in the general in- spirits to variety of passions, conform unto them, quiry of sounds.
yet generally music feedeth that disposition of 112. Tones are not so apt altogether to procure the spirits, which it findeth. We see also, that sleep as some other sounds; as the wind, the several airs and tunes do please several nations purling of water, humming of bees, a sweet voice and persons, according to the sympathy they have of one that readeth, &c. The cause whereof is, with their spirits. for that tones, because they are equal and slide not, do more strike and erect the sense than the Experiments in consort touching sounds; and first other. And overmuch attention hindereth sleep. touching the nullity and entity of sounds.
113. There be in music certain figures or tropes, Perspective hath been with some diligence almost agreeing with the figures of rhetoric, and inquired; and so hath the nature of sounds, in with the affections of the mind, and other senses. some sort, as far as concerneth music: but the First, the division and quavering, which please nature of sounds in general hath been superfici80 much in music, have an agreement with the ally observed. It is one of the ubtilest pieces glittering of light; as the moon-beams playing of nature. And besides, I practise, as I do upon a wave. Again, the falling from a discord advise; which is, after long inquiry of things to a concord, which maketh great sweetness in immersed in matter, to interpose some subject music, hath an agreement with the affections, which is immateriate, or less materiate; such as which are reintegrated to the better, after some this of sounds; to the end, that the intellect may dislikes; it agreeth also with the taste, which is be rectified, and become not partial. soon glutted with that which is sweet alone. 115. It is first to be considered, what great The sliding from the close or cadence hath an motions there are in nature, which pass without agreement with the figure in rhetoric, which sound or noise. The heavens turn about in a they call “ præter expectatum;" for there is a most rapid motion, without noise to us perceived ; pleasure even in being deceived. The reports, though in some dreams they have been said to and fuges, have an agreement with the figures in make an excellent music. So the motions of the rhetoric of repetition and traduction. The triplas, comets, and fiery meteors, as “stella cadens," and changing of times, have an agreement with &c., yield no noise. And if it be thought that the changes of motions; as when galliard time, it is the greatness of distance from us, whereby and measure time, are in the medley of one dance. the sound cannot be heard; we see that light
114. It hath been anciently held and observed, nings and coruscations, which are near at hand, that the sense of hearing, and the kinds of music, yield no sound neither: and yet in all these have most operation upon manners; as, to en- there is a percussion and division of the air, courage men, and make them warlike; to make The winds in the upper region, which move the them soft and effeminate; to make them grave; clouds above, which we call the rack, and are not to make them light; to make them gentle and perceived below, pass without noise. The lower inclined to pity, &c. The cause is, for that the winds, in a plain, except they be strong, make no sense of hearing striketh the spirits more immedi- noise; but amongst trees, the noise of such ately than the other senses; and more incorpore- winds will be perceived. And the winds, generally than the smelling; for the sight, taste, and ally, when they make a noise, do ever make it feeling, have their organs not of so present and unequally, rising and falling, and sometimes, immediate access to the spirits as the hearing when they are vehement, trembling at the height hath. And as for the smelling, which indeed of their blast. Rain or hail falling, though worketh also immediately upon the spirits, and vehemently, yieldeth no noise in passing through is forcible while the object remaineth, it is with the air, till it fall upon the ground, water, houses, a communication of the breath or vapour of the or the like. Water in a river, though a swift object odorate; but harmony entering easily, and stream, is not heard in the channel, but runneth mingling not at all, and coming with a manifest in silence, if it be of any depth; but the very motion, doth by custom of often affecting the stream upon shallows, of gravel or pebble, will spirits, and putting them into one kind of posture, be heard. And waters, when they beat upon the alter not a little the nature of the spirits, even shore, or are straitened, as in the falls of bridges, when the object is removed. And therefore we or are dashed against themselves, by winds, give see, that tunes and airs, even in their own nature, a roaring noise. Any piece of timber, or hard have in themselves some affinity with the affec- body, being thrust forwards by another body tions; as there be merry tunes, doleful tunes, contiguous, without knocking, giveth no noise. solemn tunes; tunes inclining men's minds to And so bodies in weighing one upon another, pity; warlike tunes, &c. So as it is no marvel though the upper body press the lower body is they alter the spirits, considering that tunes down, make no noise. So the motion in the have a predisposition to the motion of the spirits minute parts of any solid body, which is the
principal cause of violent motion, though un- as in blowing of the fire by bellows; greater observed, passeth without sound; for that sound than if the bellows should blow upon the air that is heard sometimes is produced only by the itself. And so likewise flame percussing the air breaking of the air, and not by the impulsion of strongly, as when flame suddenly taketh and the parts. So it is manifest, that where the openeth, giveth a noise; so great flames, while anterior body giveth way, as fast as the posterior the one impelleth the other, give a bellowing cometh on, it maketh no noise, be the motion sound. never so great or swift.
120. There is a conceit runneth abroad, that 116. Air open, and at large maketh no noise, there should be a white powder, which will disexcept it be sharply percussed; as in the sound charge a piece without noise; which is a dangerous of a string, where air is percussed by a hard and experiment if it should be true: for it may cause stiff body, and with a sharp loose : for if the secret murders. But it seemeth to me impossible; string be not strained, it maketh no noise. But for if the air pent be driven forth, and strike the where the air is pent and straitened, there breath air open, it will certainly make a noise. As for or other blowing, which carry but a gentle per- the white powder, if any such thing be, that may cussion, suffice to create sound; as in pipes and extinguish or dead the noise, it is like to be a wind-instruments. But then you must note, that mixture of petre and sulphur, without coal. For in recorders, which go with a gentle breath, the petre alone will not take fire. And if any man concave of the pipe, were it not for the fipple that think that the sound may be extinguished or straiteneth the air, much more than the simple deaded by discharging the pent air, before it concave, would yield no sound. For as for other cometh to the mouth of the piece and to the open wind-instruments, they require a forcible breath ; air, that is not probable; for it will make more as trumpets, cornets, hunters' horns, &c., which divided sounds: as if you should make a crossappeareth by the blown cheeks of him that barrel hollow through the barrel of a piece, it windeth them. Organs also are blown with a may be it would give several sounds, both at the strong wind by the bellows. And note again, nose, and at the sides. But I conceive, that if it that some kind of wind-instruments are blown at were possible to bring to pass, that there should a small hole in the side, which straiteneth the be no air pent at the mouth of the piece, the breath at the first entrance; the rather, in respect bullet might fly with small or no noise. For of the traverse and stop above the hole, which first, it is certain, there is no noise in the percusperformeth the fipple's part; as it is seen in flutes sion of the flame upon the bullet. Next, the and fifes, which will not give sound by a blast at bullet, in piercing through the air, maketh no the end, as recorders, &c., do. Likewise in all noise as hath been said. And then, if there be whistling, you contract the mouth; and to make no pent air that striketh upon open air, there is it more sharp, men sometimes use their finger. no cause of noise; and yet the flying of the But in open air, if you throw a stone or a dart, bullet will not be stayed. For that motion, as they give no sound; no more do bullets, except hath been oft said, is in the parts of the bullet, they happen to be a little hollowed in the casting; and not in the air. So as trial must be made by which hollowness penneth the air: nor yet arrows, taking some small concave of metal, no more except they be rufled in their feathers, which than you mean to fill with powder, and laying likewise'penneth the air. As for small whistles the bullet in the mouth of it, half out into the or shepherds' oaten pipes, they give a sound be open air. cause of their extreme slenderness, whereby the 121. I heard it affirmed by a man that was a air is more pent than in a wider pipe. Again, great dealer in secrets, he was but vain, that there the voices of men and living creatures pass was a conspiracy, which himself hindered, to through the throat, which penneth the breath. have killed Queen Mary, sister to Queen Elizabeth, As for the Jews-harp, it is a sharp percussion; by a burning-glass, when she walked in St. and besides, hath the advantage of penning the James's park, from the leads of the house. But air in the mouth.
thus much, no doubt, is true; that if burning117. Solid hodies, if they be very softly per- glasses could be brought to a great strength, as cussed, give no sound; as when a man treadeth they talk generally of burning-glasses that are very softly upon boards. So chests or doors in able to burn a navy, the percussion of the air alone, fair weather, when they open easily, give no by such a burning-glass, would make no noise; sound. And cart-wheels squeak not when they no more than is found in coruscations and lightare liquored.
nings without thunders. 118. The flame of tapers or candles, though it 122. I suppose, that impression of the air with be a swist motion and breaketh the air, yet passeth sounds asketh a time to be conveyed to the sense, without sound. Air in ovens, though, no doubt, as well as the impressing of species visible; or it doth, as it were, boil and dilate itself, and is lelse they will not be heard. And therefore, as repercussed; yet it is without noise.
the bullet moveth so swift that it is invisible; so 119. Flaine percussed by air giveth a noise; the same swistness of motion maketh it inaudible: