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Before which time, also, there had been by good | him about the certainty of his reward. Andradas diligence intercepted other letters, whereby the having received those instructions, and being fursaid Andrada advertised Mendoza, that he had nished with money, by Lopez's procurement, won Dr. Lopez to the king's service: but Lopez from Don Antonio, about whose service his. having understanding thereof, and finding means employment was believed to be, went over to to have secret conference with Andrada before his Calais, where he remained to be near unto Eng. examination, persuaded with him to take the land and Flanders, having a boy that ordinarily matter upon himself, as if he had invented that passed to and fro between him and Lopez: by advertisement touching Lopez, only to procure whom he did also, the better to colour his employe, himself credit with Mendoza; and to make him ment, write to Lopez intelligence, as it was conceive well of his industry and service. And agreed he should between him and Lopez; who to move him hereunto, Lopez set before Andrada, bade him send such news as he should take up in that if he did excuse him, he should have credit the streets. From Calais he writeth to Count de to work his delivery: whereas, if he did impeach Fuentes of Lopez's promise and demands. Upon him, he was not like to find any other means of the receipt of which letters, after some time taken favour. By which subtle persuasion Andrada, to advertise this proposition into Spain, and to when he came to be examined, answered accord- receive direction thereupon, the Count de Fuentes ing to the direction and lessoning which Lopez associated with Stephano Ibarra, secretary of the had given him. And having thus acquitted him-council of the wars in the Low Countries, calleth, self of this suspicion, became suitor for Andrada's to him one Manuel Louis Tinoco, a Portuguese, delivery, craftily suggesting, that he was to do who had also followed King Antonio, and of some notable service to Don Antonio; in which whose good devotion he had had experience, in his suit he accordingly prevailed. When Lopez that he had conveyed unto him two several had thus got Andrada out of prison, he was suf- packets, wherewith he was trusted by the King fered to go out of the realm into Spain; in pre- Antonio for France. Of this Louis the first tence, as was said, to do some service to Don received a corporal oath, with solemn ceremony, Antonio; but, in truth, to continue Lopez's nego- taking his hands between their hands, that he tiation and intelligences with the King of Spain, should keep secret that which should be imparted. which he handled so well, as at his return hither, to him, and never reveal the same, though he for the comforting of the said Lopez, he brought should be apprehended and questioned here. to him from the king, besides thanks and words This done, they acquaint him with the letters of of encouragement, and an abrazo, which is the Andrada, with whom they charge him to confer compliment of favour, a very good jewel, gar- at Calais in his way, and to pass to Lopez into nished with sundry stones of good value. This England, addressing him farther to Stephano jewel, when Lopez had accepted, he cunningly Ferrera de Gama, and signifying unto the said. cast with himself, that if he should offer it to her Lopez withal, as from the king, that he gave no majesty first, he was assured she would not take great credence to Andrada, as a person too slight it: next, that thereby he should lay her asleep, to be used in a cause of so great weight: and and make her secure of him for greater matters, therefore marvelled much that he heard nothing according to the saying, “ Fraus sibi fidem in from Ferrera of this matter, from whom he had in parvis præstruit ut in magnis opprimat;” which former time been advertised in generality of Loaccordingly he did, with protestations of his fide- pez's good affection to do him service. This lity: and her majesty, as a princess of magnani- Ferrera had been sometimes a man of great liveli-mity, not apt to fear or suspicion, returned it to hood and wealth in Portugal, which he did forego him with gracious words.

in adhering to Don Antonio, and appeareth to be After Lopez had thus abused her majesty, and a man of capacity and practice; but hath some had these trials of the fidelity of Andrada, they years since been secretly won to the service of the fell in conference, the matter being first moved by King of Spain, not travelling, nevertheless, to and Andrada, as he that came freshly out of Spain, fro, but residing as his lieger in England. touching the empoisoning of the queen: which Manuel Louis, despatched with these instruc-Lopez, who saw that matter of intelligence, with- tions, and with all affectionate commendations out some such particular service, would draw no from the count to Lopez, and with letters to Ferrera, great reward from the King of Spain; such as a took his journey first to Calais, where he conman that was not needy, but wealthy as he was, ferred with Andrada; of whom receiving more could find any taste in, assented unto. And to ample information, together with a short ticket that purpose procured again this Andrada to be of credence to Lopez, that he was a person whom sent over, as well to advertise and assure this he might trust without scruple, came over into matter to the King of Spain and his ministers, England, and first repaired to Ferrera, and namely, to the Count de Fuentes, assistant to the acquainted him with the state of the business, general of the King of Spain's forces in the Low who had before that time given some light unto Countries, as also to capitulate and contract with Lopez, that he was not a stranger unto the prac

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tice between him and Andrada, wherewith, indeed, touched before, as many starting holes and evaAndrada had in a sort acquainted him. And now, sions as he could devise, if any of these matters upon this new despatch and knowledge given to should come to light. And first he took his time Lopez of the choice of Ferrera to continue that to cast forth some general words afar off to her which Andrada had begun; he, to conform him- majesty, as asking her the question, Whether a self the better to the satisfaction of the King of deceiver might not be deceived? Whereof, her Spain, and his ministers abroad, was content majesty not imagining these words tended to such more fully to communicate with Ferrera, with end, as to warrant him colourably in this wretched whom, from that time forward, he meant singly conspiracy, but otherwise, of her own natural disand apertly to deal ; and therefore cunningly for- position bent to integrity and sincerity, uttered bore to speak with Manuel Louis himself; but dislike and disallowance. Next, he thought he concluded that Ferrera should be his only trunk, had wrought a great mystery in demanding the and all his dealings should pass through his precise sum of 50,000 crowns, agreeing just with hand, thinking thereby to have gone invisible. the sum of assignation or donation from Don An

Whereupon, he cast with himself, that it was tonio; idly, and in that grossly imagining, that, not safe to use the mediation of Manuel Louis, if afterwards he should accept the same sum, he who had been made privy to the matter, as some might excuse it, as made good by the King of base carrier of letters; which letters also should Spain, in regard he desisted to follow and favour be written in a cipher, not of alphabet, but of Don Antonio; whereupon the King of Spain was words; such as might, if they were opened, im- in honour tied not to see him a loser. Thirdly, in port no vehement suspicion. And, therefore, his conferences with Ferrera, when he was apManuel Louis was sent back with a short answer, posed upon the particular manner how he would and Lopez purveyed himself of a base fellow, a poison her majesty, he purposely named unto Portuguese called Gomez d'Avila, dwelling hard him a syrup, knowing that her majesty never by Lopez's house, to convey his letters. After useth syrup; and therefore thinking that would this messenger provided, it was agreed between prove a high point for his justification, if things Lopez and Ferrera, that letters should be sent to should come in any question. the Count de Fuentes, and Secretary Juarra, But all this while desirous after his prey, which written and signed by Ferrera, for Lopez caute- he had in hope devoured, he did instantly imporlously did forbear to write himself, but directed tune Ferrera for the answering of his last deand indeed dictated word by word by Lopez spatch, finding the delay strange, and reiterating himself. The contents thereof were, that Lopez the protestations of his readiness to do the serwas ready to execute that service to the king, vice, if he were assured of his money. which before had been treated, but required for his Now before the return of Gomez d'Avila into recompense the sum of 50,000 crowns, and as- England, this Stephen Ferrera was discovered to surance for the same.

have intelligence with the enemy; but so as the These letters were written obscurely, as was particular of his traffic and overtures appeared not, touched, in terms of merchandise; to which only it seemed there was great account made of obscurity when Ferrera excepted, Lopez answered, that he managed : and thereupon he was committhey knew his meaning by that which had passed ted to prison. Soon after arrived Gomez d'Avila, before. Ferrera wrote also to Manuel Louis, but and brought letters only from Manuel Louis, by charged this Gomez to deliver the same letters the name of Francisco de Thores; because, as it unto him in the presence of Juarra; as also the seemeth, the great persons on the other side had letter to Juarra in the presence of Manuel Louis. a contrary disposition to Lopez, and liked not to And these letters were delivered to Gomez d'Avila write by so base a messenger, but continued their to be carried to Brussels, and a passport procured, course to trust and employ Manuel Louis himself, and his charges defrayed by Lopez. And Fer- who in likelihood was retained till they might rera, the more to approve his industry, writ let- receive a full conclusion from Spain; which was ters two several times, the one conveyed by not till about two months after. This Gomez Emanuel Pallacios, with the privity of Lopez, to was apprehended at his landing, and about him Christophero Moro, a principal counsellor of the were found the letters aforesaid, written in jargon, King of Spain, in Spain; signifying that Lopez or verbal cipher, but yet somewhat suspicious, in was won to the King of Spain, and that he was these words : “This bearer will tell you the price ready to receive his commandment; and received in which your pearls are esteemed, and in what a letter from the same Christophero Moro, in resolution we rest about a little musk and amber, answer to one of these, which he showed unto which I am determined to buy." Which words Lopez. In the mean time Lopez, though a man, the said Manuel Louis afterward voluntarily conin semblance, of a heavy wit, yet indeed subtle fessed to be deciphered in this sort; That by the of himself, as one trained in practice, and besides allowance of the pearls he meant, that the Count as wily as fear and covetousness could make de Fuentes, and the secretary, did gladly accept him, thought to provide for himself, as was partly the offer of Lopez to poison the queen, signified


by Ferrera's letter: and for the provision of amber | confessions appear expressed in their own natural and musk, it was meant that the count looked language, testified and subscribed with their own shortly for a resolution from the King of Spain hands; and in open assembly, at the arraignment concerning a matter of importance, which was of Lopez in the Guildhall, were by them confor burning of the Queen's ships; and another firmed and avouched to Lopez his face; and point tending to the satisfaction of their vindictive therewithal are extant, undefaced, the original humour.

letters from Count de Fuentes, Secretary Juarra, But while the sense of this former letter rested and the rest. ambiguous, and that no direct particular was con- And Lopez himself, at his first apprehension fessed by Ferrera, nor sufficient light given to and examination, did indeed deny, and deny with ground any rigorous examination of him, cometh deep and terrible oaths and execrations, the very over Manuel Louis with the resolution from conferences and treaties with Ferrera, or Andrada, Spain; who first understanding of Ferrera's re- about the empoisonment. And being demanded, straint, and therefore doubting how far things if they were proved against him what he would were discovered, to shadow the matter, like a say ? he answered, That he would yield himself cunning companion, gave advertisement of an guilty of the fact intended. Nevertheless, being intent he had to do service, and hereupon obtained afterwards confronted by Ferrera, who constantly a passport: but after his coming in, he made no maintained to him all that he had said, reducing haste to reveal any thing, but thought to dally him to the times and places of the said conferand abuse in some other sort. And while the ences, he confessed the matter, as by his confeslight was thus in the clouds, there was also inter- sion in writing, signed with his own hand, cepted a little ticket which Ferrera in prison had appeareth. But then he fell to that slender eva. found means to write, in care to conceal Lopez, sion, as his last refuge, that he meant only to and to keep him out of danger, to give a caveat of cozen the King of Spain of the money: and in staying all farther answers and advertisements in that he continued at his arraignment, when, notthese causes. Whereupon, Lopez was first called withstanding, at the first he did retract his own in question.

confession: and yet being asked, whether he was But, in conclusion, this matter being with all drawn, either by means of torture, or promise of assiduity and policy more and more pierced and life, to make the same confession ? he did openly mined into, first, there was won from Manuel testify that no such means were used towards him. Louis his letters from the Count de Fuentes and But the falsehood of this excuse, being an alleSecretary Juarra to Ferrera, in both which mention gation that any traitor may use and provide for is made of the queen's death ; in that of the himself, is convicted by three notable proofs. count's, under the term of a commission; and in The first, that he never opened this matter, neither that of the secretary's, under the term of the great unto her majesty, unto whom he had ordinary service, whereof should arise a universal benefit access, nor to any counsellor of state, to have to the whole world. Also, the letters of credit permission to toll on, and inveigle these parties written by Gonsalo Gomez, one to Pedro de Car- with whom he did treat, if it had been thought so rera, and the other to Juan Pallacio, to take up a convenient; wherein, percase, he had opportunity sum of money by Manuel Louis, by the foresaid to have done some good service, for the farther false name of Fr. de Thores; letters so large, and discovery of their secret machinations against her in a manner without limitation, as any sum by majesty's life. The second, that he came too virtue thereof might be taken up: which letters late to this shift; having first bewrayed his guilty were delivered to Louis by the Count de Fuentes's conscience, in denying those treaties and confer. own hands, with directions to show them to ences till they were evidently and manifestly Lopez for his assurance; a matter of God's secret proved to his face. The third, that in conferring working in staying the same, for thereupon rested with Ferrera about the manner of his assurance, only the execution of the fact of Lopez. Upon he thought it better to have the money in the so narrow a point consisted the safety of her ma- hands of such merchants as he should name in jesty's life, already sold by avarice to malice and Antwerp, than to have it brought into England ; ambition, but extraordinarily preserved by that declaring his purpose to be, after the faci done, watchman which never slumbereth. This same speedily to fly to Antwerp, and there to tarry Manuel Louis, and Stephen Ferrera also, whereof some time, and so to convey himself to Constanthe one managed the matter abroad, and the other tinople; where it is affirmed, that Don Salomon, resided here to give correspondence, never meet- a Jew in good credit, is Lopez his near kinsman, ing after Manuel had returned, severally examined and that he is greatly favoured by the said Don without torture or threatening, did in the end Salomon: whereby it is evident that Lopez had voluntarily and clearly confess the matters above- cast his reckonings upon the supposition of the mentioned, and in their confessions fully consent fact done. and concur, not only in substance, but in all Thus may appear, both how justly this Lopez* points, particularities, and circumstances; which

* Lopez was executed 7th June, 1591.

is condemned for the highest treason that can be that he will indeed preserve that instrument imagined ; and, how, by God's marvellous good- which he hath magnified. But the corruptions of ness, her majesty hath been preserved. And, these times are wonderful, when that wars, which surely, if a man do truly consider, it is hard to are the highest trials of right between princes, say, whether God hath done greater things by her that acknowledge no superior jurisdiction, and majesty or for her: if you observe on the one side, ought to be prosecuted with all honour, shall be how God hath ordained her government to break stained and infamed with such foul and inhuman and cross the unjust ambition of the two mighty practices. Wherein if so great a king hath been potentates, the King of Spain and the Bishop of named, the rule of the civil law, which is a rule Rome, never so straitly between themselves com- of common reason, must be remembered ; « Frustra bined : and, on the other side, how mightily God legis auxilium implorat, qui in legem committit.” hath protected her, both against foreign invasion He that hath sought to violate the majesty royal, and inward troubles, and singularly against the in the highest degree, cannot claim the pre-emimany secret conspiracies that have been made nence thereof to be exempted from just imputaagainst her life; thereby declaring to the worlaltion.

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-Fortunatos nimium sua si bona norint.

The greatness of kingdoms and dominions in than they are, but rather, as by an instrument of bulk and territory doth fall under measure and art, helping the sense to take a true magnitude demonstration that cannot err: but the just mea- and dimension: therefore, I will use no hidden sure and estimate of the forces and power of an order, which is fitter for insinuations than sound estate is a matter, than the which there is nothing proofs, but a clear and open order. First, by among civil affairs more subject to error, nor confuting the errors, or rather correcting the that error more subject to perilous consequence. excesses of certain immoderate opinions, which For hence may proceed many inconsiderate ascribe too much to some points of greatness, attempts, and insolent provocations in states which are not so essential, and by reducing those that have too high an imagination of their own points to a true value and estimation; then by forces: and hence may proceed, on the other propounding and confirming those other points of side, a toleration of many fair grievances and greatness which are more solid and principal, indignities, and a loss of many opportunities, in though in popular discourse less observed : and states that are not sensible enough of their own incidently by making a brief application, in both strength. Therefore, that it may the better appear these parts, of the general principles and positions what greatness your majesty hath obtained of of policy unto the state and condition of these God, and what greatness this island hath obtained your kingdoms. Of these the former part will by you, and what greatness it is, that by the gra- branch itself into these articles. cious pleasure of Almighty God you shall leave First, That in the measuring or balancing of and transmit to your children and generations as greatness, there is commonly too much the first founder; I have thought good, as far as I ascribed to largeness of territory. can comprehend, to make a true survey and repre- Secondly, That there is too much ascribed to sentation of the greatness of this your kingdom treasure or riches. of Britain; being for mine own part persuaded, Thirdly, That there is too much ascribed to the that the supposed prediction, 66 Video solem fruitfulness of the soil, or affluence of comorientem in occidente," may be no less a true modities. vision applied to Britain, than to any other king- And, fourthly, That there is too much ascribed to dom of Europe; and being out of doubt that none the strength and fortification of towns or holds. of the great monarchies, which in the memory of The latter will fall into this distribution: times have risen in the habitable world, had so First, That true greatness doth require a fit situfair seeds and beginnings as hath this your estate ation of the place or region. and kingdom, whatsoever the event shall be, Secondly, That true greatness consisteth essenwhich must depend upon the dispensation of tially in population and breed of men. God's will and providence, and his blessing upon Thirdly, That it consisteth also in the valour your descendants. And because I have no pur- and military disposition of the people it pose vainly or assentatorily to represent this breedeth : and in this, that they make profesgreatness, as in water, which shows things bigger sion of arms.

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