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turned his teeth upon Spain, yet, he was taken clasped Germany almost in his fist, he was order with before it came to that. Now, there is forced, in the end, to go from Isburg, and, as if it ascended to the papacy, a personage, that came in had been in a mask, by torchlight, and to quit by a chaste election, no ways obliged to the party every foot in Germany round that he had gotten; of the Spaniards: a man bred in ambassages and which, I oubt not, will be the hereditary issue affairs of state, that hath much of the prince, and of this late purchase of the Palatinate. And so I nothing of the friar; and one, that though he conclude the ground that I have to think that loves the chair of the papacy well, yet he loveth Spain will be no overmatch to Great Britain, if the carpet above the chair; that is, Italy, and the his majesty should enter into a war, out of expeliberties thereof well likewise.

rience, and records of time. Fourthly, in eighty-eight, the King of Denmark

For grounds of reason, they are many; I will was a stranger to England, and rather inclined to extract the principal, and open them briefly, and, Spain; now the king is incorporated to the blood as it were, in the bud. For situation, I pass it of England, and engaged in the quarrel of the over; though it be no small point: England, Palatinate. Then, also, Venice, Savoy, and the Scotland, Ireland, and our good confederates, the princes and cities of Germany, had but a dull fear United Provinces, lie all in a plump together, not of the greatness of Spain, upon a general appre- accessible but by sea, or, at least, by passing of hension only of the spreading and ambitious great rivers, which are natural fortifications. As designs of that nation : now that fear is sharpened for the dominions of Spain, they are so scattered, and pointed by the Spaniards’ late enterprises as it yieldeth great choice of the scenes of the upon the Valtoline, and the Palatinate, which war, and promiseth slow succours unto such part come nearer them.

as shall be attempted. There be three main parts Fifthly, and lastly, the Dutch, which is the of military puissance, men, money, and confedeSpaniards' perpetual duellist, hath now, at this rates. For men, there are to be considered valour present, five ships to one, and the like proportion and number. Of valour I speak not; take it in treasure and wealth, to that they had in eighty- from the witnesses that have been produced eight. Neither is it possible, whatsoever is given before: yet, the old observation is not untrue, out, that the coffers of Spain should now be fuller that the Spaniard's valour lieth in the eye of the than they were in eighty-eight; for, at that time, looker on; but the English valour lieth about the Spain had no other wars save those of the Low soldier's heart. A valour of glory, and a valour Countries, which were grown into an ordinary; of natural courage, are two things. But let that now they have had coupled therewith the extraor- pass, and let us speak of number: Spain is a dinary of the Valtoline, and the Palatinate. And nation thin sown of people; partly by reason of so I conclude my answer to the objection raised the sterility of the soil, and partly because their touching the difference of times; not entering natives are exhausted by so many employments into more secret passages of state, but keeping in such vast territories as they possess. So that that character of style whereof Seneca speaketh, it hath been accounted a kind of miracle, to see "plus significat quam loquitur."

ten or twelve thousand native Spaniards in an Here I would pass over from matter of experi- army. And it is certain, as we have touched it, a ence, were it not that I held it necessary to dis- little before, in passage, that the secret of the cover a wonderful erroneous observation that power of Spain consisteth in a veteran army, walketh about, and is commonly received, con- compounded of miscellany forces of all nations, trary to all the true account of time and experi- which for many years they have had on foot upon ence. It is, that the Spaniard, where he once one occasion or other: and if there should happen getteth in, will seldom or never be got out again. the misfortune of a battle, it would be a long work But, nothing is less true than this. Not long to draw on supplies. They tell a tale of a Spanish since they got footing at Brest, and some other ambassador that was brought to see the treasury parts in French Britain, and after quitted them. of St. Mark at Venice, and still he looked down to They had Calais, Ardes, and Amiens, and ren- the ground; and being asked, why he so looked dered them, or were beaten out. They had since down, said, “ he was looking to see whether their Marseilles, and fairly left it. They had the other treasure had any root, so that, if it were spent, it day the Valtoline, and now have put it in deposit. would grow again; as his master's had.” But, What they will do with Ormus, which the Persian howsoever it be of their treasure, certainly their hath taken from them, we shall see. So that, to forces have scarce any root; or, at least, such a speak truly of latter times, they have rather root as buddeth forth poorly and slowly. It is poached and offered at a number of enterprises, true they have the Walloons, who are tall solthan maintained any constantly ; quite contrary to diers, yet, that is but a spot of ground. But, on that idle tradition. In more ancient times, leaving the other side, there is not in the world again their purchases in Afric, which they after aban- such a spring and seminary of brave military peodoned, when their great Emperor Charles had ple, as in England, Scotland, Ireland, and the United Provinces : so as if wars should mow foreign forces, than they had in the years 1554 them down never so fast, yet, they may be sud- and 1553. At which time they contracted a league denly supplied, and come up again.

with Henry the Second, the French king, upon For money, no doubt it is the principal part of the same articles, against Charles the Fifth, who the greatness of Spain; for by that they maintain had impatronized himself of a great part of Ger. their veteran army: and Spain is the only state of many, through the discord of the German princes, Europe that is a money grower. But in this part, which himself had sown and fomented: which of all others, is most to be considered, the ticklish league at that time did the deed, and drave out all and brittle state of the greatness of Spain. Their the Spaniards out of that part of Germany; and greatness consisteth in their treasure, their trea- reintegrated that nation in their ancient liberty sure in their Indies, and their Indies, if it be well and honour. For the West Indies, though Spain weighed, are indeed but an accession to such as hath had yet not much actual disturbance there, are masters by sea. So as this axle-tree, where except it have been from England ; yet, neverthe upon their greatness turneth, is soon cut in two less, I see all princes lay a kind of claim unto by any that shall be stronger than they by sea. them; accounting the title of Spain but as a mo Herein, therefore, I refer myself to the opinions nopoly of those large countries, wherein they of all men, enemies, or whomsoever, whether that have in great part but an imaginary possession. the maritime forces of Great Britain, and the For Afric upon the west, the Moors of Valentia United Provinces, be not able to beat the Spa- expulsed, and their allies, do yet hang as a cloud niard at sea ? For, if that be so, the links of that or storm over Spain. Gabor on the east is like an chain whereby they hold their greatness are dis-anniversary wind, that riseth every year upon the solved. Now, if it be said, that, admit the case party of Austria. And Persia hath entered into of Spain to be such as we have made it, yet, we hostility with Spain, and giveth them the first ought to descend into our own case, which we blow by taking of Ormus.

It is within every shall find, perhaps, not to be in state, for trea- man's observation, also, that Venice doth think sure, to enter into a war with Spain. To which, their state almost on fire, if the Spaniards hold I answer, I know no such thing; the mint beateth the Valtoline. That Savoy hath learned by fresh well; and the pulses of the people's hearts beat experience, that alliance with Spain is no security well. But there is another point that taketh against the ambition of Spain; and that of Bava away quite this objection : for whereas wars are ria hath likewise been taught, that merit and generally causes of poverty or consumption; on service doth oblige the Spaniard but from day to the contrary part, the special nature of this war day. Neither do I say for all this, but that Spain with Spain, if it be made by sea, is like to be a may rectify much of this ill blood by their partilucrative and restorative war. So that, if we go cular and cunning negotiations : but yet there it roundly on at the first, the war in continuance is in the body, and may break out, no man knowwill find itself. And therefore you must make a eth when, into ill accidents: and at least it great difference between Hercules' labours by showeth plainly, that which serveth for our purland, and Jason's voyage by sea for the golden pose, that Spain is much destitute of assured and fleece.

confident confederates. And, therefore, I will: For confederates ; I will not take upon me the conclude this part with the speech of a counsellor knowledge, how the princes, states, and councils of state in Spain at this day, which was not withof Europe, at this day, stand affected towards out salt: he said to his master, the King of Spain Spain; for that trencheth into the secret occur- that now is, upon occasion; “Sir, I will tell your rents of the present time, wherewith, in all this majesty thus much for your comfort; your majesty treatise, I have forborne to meddle. But to speak hath but two enemies, whereof the one is all the of that which lieth open and in view ; I see much world, and the other is your own ministers." matter of quarrel and jealousy, but little of amity And thus I end the second main part I propounded and trust towards Spain, almost in all other to speak of; which was, the balancing of the estates. I see France is in competition with them forces between the king's majesty and the King for three noble portions of their monarchy, Na- of Spain, if a war must follow. varre, Naples, and Milan; and now freshly in difference with them about the Valtoline. I see once in thirty or forty years cometh a pope, that THE FIRST COPY OF MY DISCOURSE TOUCHING casteth his eye upon the kingdom of Naples, to

THE SAFETY OF THE QUEEN'S PERSON.* recover it to the church; as it was in the minds These be the principal remedies, I could think of Julius the Second, Paul the Fourth, and Six- of, for extirpating the principal cause of those contus the Fifth. As for that great body of Germany, spiracies, by the breaking the nest of those fugiI see they have greater reason to confederate tive traitors, and the filling them full of terror, themselves with the Kings of France, and Great despair, jealousy, and revolt. And it is true, I Britain, or Denmark, for the liberty of the Ger- thought of some other remedies, which, because man nation, and for the expulsion of Spanish and From the original in the Lambeth Library.

in mine own conceit I did not so well allow, Itain, do carefully and sufficiently provide and take therefore do forbear to express. And so likewise order that her majesty receive good intelligence; I have thought, and thought again, of the means so yet, under correction, methinks it is not done to stop and divert as well the attempts of violence with that glory and note to the world, which was as poison, in the performance and execution. But in Mr. Secretary Walsingham’s* time: and in not knowing how my travel may be accepted, this case, as was said, “ opinio veritate major." being the unwarranted wishes of a private man, The second remedy I deliver with less assuI leave; humbly praying her majesty's pardon, rance, as that which is more removed from the if in the zeal of my simplicity I have roved at compass of mine understanding : and that is, to things above my aim.

treat and negotiate with the King of Spain, or Archduke Ernest, who resides in the place

where these conspiracies are most forged, upon THE FRAGMENTS OF A DISCOURSE, TOUCHING the point of the law of nations, upon which kind

INTELLIGENCE, AND THE SAFETY OF THE of points princes' enemies may with honour negoQUEEN'S PERSON.

tiate, viz., that, contrary to the same law of The first remedy, in my poor opinion, is that nations, and the sacred dignity of kings, and the against which, as I conceive, least exception can honour of arms, certain of her majesty's subjects, be taken, as a thing without controversy, honour- if it be not thought meet to impeach any of his able and politic; and that is reputation of good ministers, refuged in his dominions, have conintelligence. I say not only good intelligence, spired and practised assassination against her mabut the reputation and fame thereof. For I see, jesty's person. that where booths are set for watching thievish places, there is no more robbing: and though no secretary of state appears to be chiefly done by Mr. Robert

• Who died April 6, 1590. Aner his death the business of doubt the watchmen many times are asleep, or Cecil, who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth ai Theobald's, away; yet that is more than the thief knoweth ; about the beginning of June, 1591, and in August following 80 as the empty booth is strength and safeguard

orn of the privy council; but not actually appointed secre.

tary of state till July 5, 1596. enough. So, likewise, if there be sownan opinion Ernest, Archduke of Austria, son of the Emperor Maxiabroad, that her majesty hath much secret intelli-milian 11., and governor of the Low Countries, upon which gence, and that all is full of spies and false breth- government he entered in June, 1591; but held it only a short

time, dying February 11/21 following. It was probably in ren; the fugitives will grow into such a mutual pursuance of the advice of Mr. Francis Bacon in this paper, jealousy and suspicion one of another, as they will that Queen Elizabeth sent to the Archduke in 1591, to comnot have the confidence to conspire together, not plain of the designs which had been formed against her life knowing whom to trust; and thinking all prac- Spanish ministers concerned in governing the Low Countries tice bootless, as that which is assured to be dis- after the death of Alexander, Duke of Parma, in December, covered. And to this purpose, to speak reverently, signify those facts to the King of Spain, in order that he might

1592, and by the English fugitives there ; and to desire him to as becometh me, as I do not doubt but those vindicate his own character, by punishing his ministers, and honourable counsellors, to whom it doth apper- delivering up to her such figitives as were parties in such

designs. Camdeni Annales Eliz. Reginæ, p. 625. Edit. Lugo . From the original in the Lambeth Library. duni Bat. 1625. BIRCH.











The King of Spain having found, by the violence or poison. A matter which might be enterprise - of 88, the difficulty of an invasion proved to be not only against all Christianity and of England, and having also since that time religion, but against nature, the law of nations, embraced the matters of France, being a design the honour of arms, the civil law, the rules of a more easy nature, and better prepared to his of morality and policy; finally, to be the most hand, hath of necessity for a time laid aside the condemned, barbarous, and ferine act that can be prosecution of his attempts against this realm, by imagined ; yea, supposing the quarrels and hostiopen forces, as knowing his means unable to lity between the princes to be never so declared wield both actions at once, as well that of England and so mortal, yet, were it not that it would be a as that of France; and, therefore, casting at the very reproach unto the age, that the matter should fairest, hath, in a manner, bent his whole strength be once disputed or called in question, it could upon France, making, in the mean time, only a never be defended. And, therefore, I leave it to defensive war upon the Low Countries. But the censure which Titus Livius giveth in the like finding again, that the supports and aids which case upon Perseus, the last King of the Macedons, her majesty hath continued to the French king, afterwards overthrown, taken with his children, are a principal impediment and retardation to his and led in triumph by the Romans; “Quem non prevailing there according to his ends, he hath, justum bellum gerere regio animo, sed per omnia now of late, by all means, projected to trouble the clandestina grassari scelera, latrociniorum ac vewaters here, and to cut us out some work at home, neficiorum, cernebant." that by practice, without diverting and employing But to proceed: certain it is, that even about any great forces, he might, nevertheless, divert this present time there have been suborned and our succours from France.

sent into this realm divers persons, some English, According to which purpose, he first proved to some Irish, corrupted by money and promises, and move some innovation in Scotland, not so much in resolved and conjured by priests in confession, to hope to alienate the king from the amity of her have executed that most wretched and horrible majesty, as practising to make a party there fact; of which number certain have been taken, against the king himself, whereby he should be and some have suffered, and some are spared compelled to use her majesty's forces for his because they have with great sorrow confessed assistance. Then he solicited a subject within these attempts, and detested their suborners. this realm, being a person of great nobility, to And if I should conjecture what the reason is, why rise in arms and levy war against her majesty; this cursed enterprise was at this time so hotly, which practice was by the same nobleman loyally and with such diligence pursued, I take it to be and prudently revealed. And, lastly, rather, as it chiefly because the matters of France were ripe, is to be thought, by the instigation of our traitor- and the King of Spain made himself ready to ous fugitives in foreign parts, and the corrupter unmask himself, and to reap that in France, which sort of his counsellors and ministers, than of his he had been long in sowing, in regard that, there own nature and inclination, either of himself, or being like to be a divulsion in the league by the his said counsellors and ministers using his reconciliation of some of the heads to the king, the name, have descended to a course against all more passionate sort, being destituted by their honour, all society and humanity, odious to God associates, were like to cast themselves wholly and man, detested by the heathens themselves, into the King of Spain's arnis, and to dismember which is, to take away the life of her majesty, some important piece of that crown; though now (which God have in his precious custody!) by upon this fresh accident of receiving the king into Paris, it is to be thought that both the worst | world. For some of her majesty's council long affected of the league will submit themselves upon since entered into consideration, that the retinue any tolerable conditions to their natural king, of King Antonio, I mean some of them, were not thus advanced in strength and reputation; and the unlike to hatch these kinds of treasons, in regard King of Spain will take a second advice ere he they were needy strangers, entered into despair embark himself too far in any new attempt against of their master's fortune, and like enough to France. But, taking the affairs as they then stood aspire to make their peace at home, by some such before this accident unexpected, especially of wicked services as these; and therefore grew to the council of Spain, during this his supposed have an extraordinary vigilant eye upon them: harvest in France, his council had reason to wish which prudent and discreet presumption, or conthat there were no disturbance from hence, where jecture, joined with some advertisements of espials they make account that if her majesty were re- abroad, and some other industry, was the first moved, upon whose person God continue his cause, next under the great benediction of God, extraordinary watch and providence! here would which giveth unto princes zealous counsellors, be nothing but confusion, which they do not and giveth to counsellors policy, and discerning doubt but, with some no great treasure, and forces thoughts, of the revealing and discovering of from without, may be nourished till they can these treasons, which were contrived in order and more fully intend the ruin of this state, according form, as hereafter is set down. to their ancient malice.

This Lopez, of nation a Portuguese, and susBut howsoever that be, amongst the number of pected to be in sect secretly a Jew, though here these execrable undertakers, there was none so he conformed himself to the rites of the Christian much built and relied upon by the great ones of religion, for a long time professed physic in this the other side, as was this physician, Lopez; por, land, by occasion whereof, being withal a man indeed, none so dangerous : whether you consider very observant and officious, and of a pleasing and the aptness of the instrument, or the subtlety and appliable behaviour; in that regard, rather than secrecy of those that practised with him, or the for any great learning in his faculty, he grew shift and evasion which he had provided for a known and favoured in court, and was some years colour of his doings, if they should happen to since sworn physician of her majesty's housecome into question. For, first, whereas others hold; and by her majesty's bounty, of whom he were to find and encounter infinite difficulties, in had received divers gifts of good commodity, was the very obtaining of an opportunity to execute grown to good estate of wealth. this horrible act; and, besides, cannot but see This man had insinuated himself greatly, in present and most assured death before their eyes, regard he was of the same nation, with the King and therefore must be, as it were, damnable vota- Antonio, whose causes he pretended to solicit at ries if they undertake it: this man, in regard of the court: especially while he supposed there his faculty, and of his private access to her ma- was any appearance of his fortune; of whom also jesty, had both means to perpetrate, and means he had obtained, as one that referred all his doings to conceal, whereby he might reap the fruit of his to gain, an assignation of 50,000 crowns to be wicked treason without evident peril. And for his levied in Portugal. But being a person wholly complices that practised with him, being Portu- of a corrupt and mercenary nature, and finding his guese, and of the retinue of King Antonio, the hopes cold from that part; he cast his eyes upon King of Spain's mortal enemy, they were men a more able paymaster, and secretly made offer therehy freed and discharged from suspicion, and long since of his service to the King of Spain: might send letters and receive letters out of Spain and accordingly gave sundry intelligences of that without jealousy; as those which were thought which passed here, and imported most for the to entertain intelligences there for the good of King of Spain to know, having no small means, in their master. And, for the evasion and mask that regard of his continual attendance at court, nearLopez had prepared for this treason, if it had not ness and access, to learn many particulars of been searched and sifted to the bottom, it was, great weight: which intelligences he maintained that he did intend but to cozen the King of Spain, with Bernardine Mendoza, Antonio Vega, Rodewithout ill meaning; somewhat in the nature of rigo Marquez, and divers others. that stratagem which Parry, a most cunning and In the conveyance of which his intelligences, artificial traitor, had provided for himself. and in the making known of his disposition to do

Nevertheless, this matter, by the great good- the King of Spain service, he had, amongst others, ness of God, falling into good hands, of those one Manuel Andrada, a Portuguese, revolted from honourable and sufficient persons which dealt Don Antonio to the King of Spain; one that was therein, was by their great and worthy industry discovered to have practised the death of the said so handled and followed, as this Proteus of a dis- Don Antonio, and to have betrayed him to Berguised and transformed treason did at last appear nardine Mendoza. This man coming hither, was, in his own likeness and colours, which were as for the same, his practice appearing by letters foul and monstrous as have been known in the intercepted, apprehended and committed to prison. Vol. II.-28


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