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those that are concurrent. A man would think into sharp vinegar, hath made a sudden recess of it should be otherwise; for that, when the acci- the spirits, and stanched blood. Thirdly, by the dent of sickness, and the natural disposition, do recess of the blood by sympathy. So it hath been second the one the other, the disease should be tried, that the part that bleedeth, being thrust into more forcible : and so, no ubt, it is, if you the body of a capon or sheep, new ript and bleedsuppose like quantity of matter. But that which ing, hath stanched blood, as it seemeth, sucking maketh good the aphorism is, because such dis- and drawing up, by similitude of substance, the eases do show a greater collection of matter, by blood it meeteth with, and so itself going back. that they are able to overcome those natural in- Fourthly, by custom and time; so the Prince of clinations to the contrary. And therefore in dis- Orange, in his first hurt by the Spanish boy, could eases of that kind, let the physician apply himself find no means to stanch the blood either by medimore to purgation than to alteration; because the cine or ligament: but was fain to have the orifice offence is in the quantity ; and the qualities are of the wound stopped by mens' thumbs, succeedrectified of themselves.

ing one another, for the space at the least of two

days; and at the last the blood by custom only Experiment solitary touching preparations before retired. There is a fifth way also in use, to let

purging, and settling of the body afterwards. blood in an adverse part, for a revulsion.

65. Physicians do wisely prescribe, that there be preparatives used before just purgations; for Experiment solitary touching change of aliments certain it is, that purgers do many times great

and medicines. hurt, if the body be not accommodated, both 67. It helpeth, both in medicine and aliment, before and after the purging. The hurt that they to change and not to continue the same medicine do, for want of preparation before purging, is by and aliment still. The cause is, for that nature, the sticking of the humours, and their not coming by continual use of any thing, groweth to a safair away, which causeth in the body great pertur- tiety and dullness, either of appetite or working. bations and ill accidents during the purging; And we see that assuetude of things hurtful doth and also the diminishing and dulling of the work- make them lose their force to hurt; as poison, ing of the medicine itself, that it purgeth not which with use some have brought themselves to sufficiently: therefore the work of preparation is brook. And therefore it is no marvel, though double; to make the humours fluid and mature, things helpful by custom lose their force to help: and to make the passages more open: for both I count intermission almost the same thing with those help to make the humours pass readily. change; for that that hath been intermitted is And for the former of these, syrups are most after a sort new. profitable: and for the latter, apozemes, or preparing broths; clysters also help, lest the medicine Experiment solitary touching diets. stop in the guts, and work gripingly. But it is 68. It is found by experience, that in diets of true, that bodies abounding with humours, and guaiacum, sarza, and the like, especially if they fat bodies, and open weather, are preparatives in be strict, the patient is more troubled in the beginthemselves; because they make the humours ning than after continuance; which hath made more fluid.

But let a physician beware, how he some of the more delicate sort of patients give purge after hard frosty weather, and in a lean them over in the midst; supposing that if those body, without preparation. For the hurt that diets trouble them so much at first, they shall not they may do after purging, it is caused by the be able to endure them to the end. But the cause lodging of some humours in ill places : for it is is, for that all those diets do dry up humours, certain, that there be humours, which somewhere rheums, and the like; and they cannot dry up placed in the body are quiet, and do little hurt; until they have first attenuated; and while the in other places, especially pass ges, do much humour is attenuated, it is more fluid than it was mischief. Therefore it is good, after purging, to before, and troubleth the body a great deal more, use apozemes and broths, not so much opening until it be dried up and consumed. And thereas those used before purging; but abstersive and fore patients must expect a due time, and not kick mundifying clysters also are good to conclude at them at the first. with, to draw away the relics of the humours, that may have descended to the lower region of the body. Experiments in consort touching the production of

cold. Experiment solitary touching stanching of blood. The producing of cold is a thing very worthy

66. Blood is stanched divers ways. First, by the inquisition; both for use and disclosure of astringents, and repercussive medicines. Second causes. For heat and cold are nature's two hands, ly, by drawing of the spirits and blood inwards, whereby she chiefly worketh; and heat we have which is done by cold, as iron or a stone laid to in readiness, in respect of the fire; but for cold the neck doth stanch the bleeding of the nose; we must stay till it cometh, or seek it in deep also it hath been tried, that the testicles being put caves, or high mountains : and when all is done, we cannot obtain it in any great degree: for driving away of spirits such as have some degree furnaces of fire are far hotter than a summer's of heat: for the banishing of the heat must needs sun; but vaults or hills are not much colder than leave any body cold. This we see in the operaa winter's frost.

tion of opium and stupefactives upon the spirits 69. The first means of producing cold, is that of living creatures: and it were not amiss to try which nature presenteth us withal: namely, the opium, by laying it upon the top of a weatherexpiring of cold out of the inward parts of the glass, to see whether it will contract the air; but earth in winter, when the sun hath no power to i doubt it will not succeed; for besides that the overcome it; the earth being, as hath been noted virtue of opium will hardly penetrate through by some, - primum frigidum." This hath been such a body as glass, I conceive that opium, and asserted, as well by ancient as by modern philoso- the like, make the spirits fly rather by malignity, phers: it was the tenet of Parmenides. It was than by cold. the opinion of the author of the discourse in Plu

75. Seventhly, the same effect must follow tarch, for I take it that book was not Plutarch's upon the exhaling or drawing out of the warm own, “ De primo frigido." It was the opinion of spirits, that doth upon the flight of the spirits. Telesius, who hath renewed the philosophy of There is an opinion that the moon is magnetical Parmenides, and is the best of the novelists. of heat, as the sun is of cold and moisture: it

70. The second cause of cold is the contact of were not amiss therefore to try it, with warm cold bodies; for cold is active and transitive into waters; the one exposed to the beams of the bodies adjacent, as well as heat: which is seen moon, the other with some screen betwixt the in those things that are touched with snow or beams of the moon and the water, as we use to cold water. And therefore, whosoever will be an the sun for shade: and to see whether the former inquirer into nature, let him resort to a conserva- will cool sooner. And it were also good to tory of snow and ice, such as they use for delicacy inquire, what other means there may be to draw to cool wine in summer; which is a poor and forth the exile heat which is in the air; for that contemptible use, in respect of other uses, that may be a secret of great power to produce cold may be made of such conservatories.

weather. 71. The third cause is the primary nature of all tangible bodies: for it is well to be noted, that Experiments in consort, touching the version and all things whatsoever, tangible, are of themselves transmutation of air into water. cold; except they have an accessary heat by fire, We have formerly set down the means of turnlife, or motion : for even the spirit of wine, oring air into water, in the experiment 27. But chemical oils, which are so hot in operation, are because it is “magnale naturæ,” and tendeth to to the first touch cold; and air itself compressed, the subduing of a very great effect, and is also and condensed a little by blowing, is cold. of manifold use, we will add some instances in

72. The fourth canse is the density of the body; consort that give light thereunto. for all dense bodies are colder than most other 76. It is reported by some of the ancients, that bodies, as metals, stone, glass, and they are longer sailors have used, every night, to hang fleeces of in heating than softer bodies. And it is certain, wool on the sides of their ships, the wool towards that earth, dense, tangible, hold all of the nature the water; and that they have crushed fresh of cold. The cause is, for that all matters tangi- water out of them, in the morning for their use. ble being cold, it must needs follow, that where And thus much we have tried, that a quantity of the matter is most congregate, the cold is the wool tied loose together, being let down into a greater.

deep well, and hanging in the middle, some three 73. The fifth cause of cold, or rather of increase fathom from the water, for a night, in the winter and vehemency of cold, is a quick spirit enclosed time; increased in weight, as I now remember, in a cold body: as will appear to any that shall to a fifth part. attentively consider of nature in many instances. 77. It is reported by one of the ancients, that We see nitre, which hath a quick spirit, is cold; in Lydia, near Pergamus, there were certain more cold to the tongue than a stone; so water workmen in time of wars fled into caves; and is colder than oil, because it hath a quicker spirit: the mouth of the caves being stopped by the for all oil, though it hath the tangible parts bet- enemies, they were famished. But long time ter digested than water, yet hath it a duller spirit: after the dead bones were found; and some 80 snow is colder than water, because it hath vessels which they had carried with them; and more spirit within it: so we see that salt put to the vessels full of water; and that water thicker, ice, as in the producing of artificial ice, increaseth and more towards ice, than common water: which the activity of cold: so some “insecta,” which is a notable instance of condensation and indurahave spirit of life, as snakes and silk-worms, are tion by burial under earth, in caves, for long time: to the touch cold: so quicksilver is the coldest and of version also, as it should seem, of air into of metals, because it is fullest of spirit.

water; if any of those vessels were empty. Try 74. The sixth cause of cold is the chasing and therefore a small bladder hung in snow, and the

like in nitre, and the like in quicksilver: and if the vapour, and so turneth it back, and thickeneth you find the bladders fallen or shrunk, you may it into dew. We see also, that breathing upon a be sure the air is condensed by the cold of those glass, or smooth body, giveth a dew; and in bodies, as it would be in a cave under earth. frosty mornings, such as we call rime frosts,

78. It is reported of very good credit, that in you shall find drops of dew upon the inside of the East Indies, if you set a tub of water open glass windows; and the frost itself upon the in a room where cloves are kept, it will be drawn ground is but a version or condensation of the dry in twenty-four hours; though it stand at some moist vapours of the night, into a watery subdistance from the cloves. In the country, they stance: dews likewise, and rain, are but the reuse many times in deceit, when their wool is new turns of moist vapours condensed; the dew, by shorn, to set some pails of water by in the same the cold only of the sun's departure, which is room, to increase the weight of the wool. But the gentler cold; rains, by the cold of that which it may be, that the heat of the wool, remaining they call the middle region of the air; which is from the body of the sheep, or the heat gathered the more violent cold. by the lying close of the wool, helpeth to draw the 82. It is very probable, as hath been touched, watery vapour: but that is nothing to the version. that that which will turn water into ice, will like

79. It is reported also credibly, that wool new wise turn air some degree nearer unto water. shorn, being laid casually upon a vessel of ver- Therefore try the experiment of the artificial juice, after some time, had drunk up a great part turning water into ice, whereof we shall speak of the verjuice, though the vessel were whole in another place, with air in place of water, and without any flaw, and had not the bung-hole the ice about it. And although it be a greater open. In this instance, there is upon the by, to alteration to turn air into water, than water into be noted, the percolation or suing of the verjuice ice; yet there is this hope, that by continuing through the wood; for verjuice of itself would the air longer time, the effect will follow: for never have passed through the wood : so as, it that artificial conversion of water into ice is the seemeth, it must be first in a kind of vapour be work of a few hours; and this of air may be fore it pass.

tried by a month's space or the like. 80. It is especially to be noted, that the cause that doth facilitate the version of air into water, Experiments in consort touching induration of when the air is not in gross, but subtilly mingled

bodies. with tangible bodies, is, as hath been partly Induration, or lapidification of substances more touched before, for that tangible bodies have an soft, is likewise another degree of condensation; antipathy with air; and if they find any liquid and is a great alteration in nature. The effecting body that is more dense near them, they will and accelerating thereof is very worthy to be draw it: and after they have drawn it, they will inquired. It is effected by three means.

The condense it more, and in effect incorporate it; for first is by cold; whose property is to condense we see that a sponge, or wool, or sugar, or a and constipate, as hath been said. The second woollen cloth, being put but in part in water or is by heat; which is not proper but by consewine, will draw the liquor higher, and beyond quence; for the heat doth attenuate; and by the place where the water or wine cometh. We attenuation doth send forth the spirit and moister see also, that wood, lute strings, and the like, do part of a body; and upon that, the more gross of swell in moist seasons; as appeareth by the the tangible parts do contract and sear themselves breaking of the strings, the hard turning of the together; both to avoid “ vacuum," as they call pegs, and the hard drawing forth of boxes, and it, and also to munite themselves against the opening of wainscot doors: which is a kind of force of the fire, which they have suffered. And infusion: and is much like to an infusion in the third is by assimilation; when a hard body water, which will make wood to swell; as we assimilateth a soft, being contiguous to it. see in the filling of the chops of bowls, by laying The examples of induration, taking them prothem in water. But for that part of these experi- miscuously, are many: as the generation of stones ments which concerneth attraction, we will within the earth, which at the first are but rude reserve it to the proper title of attraction. earth or clay: and so of minerals, which come,

81. There is also a version of air into water no doubt, at first of juices concrete, which afterseen in the sweating of marbles and other stones; wards indurate: and so of porcelain, which is an and of wainscot before, and in moist weather. artificial cement, buried in the earth a long time; This must be, either by some moisture the body and so the making of brick and tile: also the yieldeth, or else by the moist air thickened against making of glass of a certain sand and brakethe hard body. But it is plain, that it is the roots, and some other matters; also the exudalatter; for that we see wood painted with oil- tions of rock-diamonds and crystal, which harden colour, will sooner gather drops in a moist night, with time; also the induration of bead-amber, than wood alone, which is caused by the smooth-which at first is a soft substance; as appeareth ness and closeness, which letteth in no part of by the flies and spiders which are found in it; and many more: but we will speak of them | enter, then long seething will rather soften than distinctly.

indurate them; as hath been tried in eggs, &c. 83. For indurations by cold, there be few trials therefore softer bodies must be put into bottles of it; for we have no strong or intense cold here hung into water seething with the mouths open on the surface of the earth, so near the beams of above the water, that no water may get in; for by the sun, and the heavens. The likeliest trial is this means the virtual heat of the water will enter; by snow and ice; for as snow and ice, especially and such a heat, as will not make the body adust or being holpen and their cold activated by nitre or fragile; but the substance of the water will be shut salt, will turn water into ice, and that in a few out. This experiment we made; and it sorted thus. hours; so it may be, it will turn wood or stiff It was tried with a piece of freestone, and with clay into stone, in longer time. Put therefore pewter, put into the water at large. The freeinto a conserving pit of snow and ice, adding stone we found received in some water; for it was some quantity of salt and nitre, a piece of wood, or softer and easier to scrape than a piece of the same a piece of tough clay, and let it lie a month or more. stone kept dry. But the pewter, into which no

84. Another trial is by metalline waters, which water could enter, became more white, and like have virtual cold in them. Put therefore wood or to silver, and less flexible by much. There were clay into smith's water, or other metalline water, also put into an earthen bottle, placed as before, and try whether it will not harden in some rea- a good pellet of clay, a piece of cheese, a piece of sonable time. But I understand it of metalline chalk, and a piece of freestone. The clay came waters that come by washing or quenching; and forth almost of the hardness of stone; the cheese pot of strong waters that come by dissolution; for likewise very hard, and not well to be cut; the they are too corrosive to consolidate.

chalk and the freestone much harder than they 85. It is already found that there are some na- were. The colour of the clay inclined not a whit tural spring waters, that will inlapidate wood; so to the colour of brick, but rather to white, as in that you shall see one piece of wood, whereof the ordinary drying by the sun. Note, that all the part above the water shall continue wood; and former trials were made by a boiling upon a good the part under water shall be turned into a kind hot fire, renewing the water as it consumed, with of gravelly stone. It is likely those waters are other hot water; but the boiling was but for of some metalline mixture; but there would be twelve hours only; and it is like that the experimore particular inquiry made of them. It is cer- ment would have been effectual, if the boiling tain, that an egg was found, having lain many had been for two or three days, as we prescribed years in the bottom of a moat, where the earth had before. somewhat overgrown it; and this egg was come 89. As touching assimilation, for this is a deto the hardness of a stone, and had the colours of gree of assimilation, even in inanimate bodies we the white and yolk perfect, and the shell shining see examples of it in some stones in clay-grounds, in small grains like sugar or alabaster.

lying near to the top of the earth, where pebble 86. Another experience there is of induration is; in which you may manifestly see divers pebby cold, which is already found; which is, that bles gathered together, and crust of cement or metals themselves are hardened by often heating stone between them, as hard as the pebbles themand quenching in cold water; for cold ever work- selves; and it were good to make a trial of pureth most potently upon heat precedent.

pose, by taking clay, and putting in it divers peb87. For induration by heat, it must be consi- ble stones, thick set, to see whether in continudered, that heat, by the exhaling of the moister ance of time, it will not be harder than other clay parts, doth either harden the body, as in bricks, of the same lump, in which no pebbles are set. tiles, &c., or if the heat be more fierce, maketh the We see also in ruins of old walls, especially togrosser part itself run and melt; as in the making wards the bottom, the mortar will become as hard of ordinary glass; and in the vitrification of earth, as the brick; we see also, that the wood on the as we see in the inner parts of furnaces, and in sides of vessels of wine, gathereth a crust of tartar, the vitrification of brick, and of metals. And in harder than the wood itself; and scales likewise the former of these, which is the hardening by grow to the teeth, harder than the teeth themselves. baking without melting, the heat hath these de- 90. Most of all, induration by assimilation apgrees ; first, it indurateth, and then maketh fra- peareth in the bodies of trees and living creagile; and lastly it doth incinerate and calcinate. tures : for no nourishment that the tree receiveth,

83. But if you desire to make an induration or that the living creature receiveth, is so hard with toughness, and less fragility, a middle way as wood, bone, or horn, &c. but is indurated after would be taken, which is that which Aristotle by assimilation. bath well noted; but would be thoroughly verified. It is to decoct bodies in water for two or Experiment solitary touching the version of water three days; but they must be such bodies into

into air. which the water will not enter; as stone and metal ; 91. The eye of the understanding is like the or if they be bodies into which the water will eye of the sense: for as you may see great objects through small crannies, or levels; 80 you penurious colour, and where moisture is scant. may see great axioms of nature through small and So blue violets, and other flowers, if they be contemptible instances. The speedy depredation starved, turn pale and white : birds and horses, of air upon watery moisture, and version of the by age or scars turn white : and the hoar hairs • same into air, appeareth in nothing more visible, of men come by the same reason. And therefore, than in the sudden discharge or vanishing of a in birds, it is very likely, that the feathers that little cloud of breath or vapour from glass, or the come first, will be many times of divers colours, blade of a sword, or any such polished body, such according to the nature of the bird, for that the as doth not at all detain or imbibe the moisture; skin is more porous; but when the skin is more for the mistiness scattereth and breaketh up sud- shut and close, the feathers will come white. denly. But the like cloud, if it were oily or fatty, This is a good experiment, not only for the prowill not discharge; not because it sticketh faster; ducing of birds and beasts of strange colours; but but because air preyeth upon water; and fame also for the disclosure of the nature of colours and fire upon oil; and therefore to take out a spot themselves: which of them require a finer poroof grease they use a coal upon brown paper; be- sity, and which a grosser. cause fire worketh upon grease or oil, as air doth upon water. And we see paper oiled, or wood Experiment solitary touching the nourishment of oiled, or the like, last long moist; but wet with living creatures before they be brought forth. water, dry, or putrify sooner. The cause is, for 94. It is a work of providence, that hath been that air meddleth little with the moisture of oil. truly observed by some, that the yolk of the egg

conduceth little to the generation of the bird, but Experiment solitary touching the force of union. only to the nourishment of the same; for if a

92. There is an admirable demonstration in the chicken be opened, when it is new hatched, you same trifling instance of the little cloud upon glass, shall find much of the yolk remaining. And it is or gems, or blades of swords, of the force of union, needful, that birds that are shaped without the even in the least quantities, and weakest bodies, female's womb have in the egg, as well matter of how much it conduceth to preservation of the pre- nourishment, as matter of generation for the body. sent form and the resisting of a new. For mark For after the egg is laid, and severed from the well the discharge of that cloud; and you shall body of the hen, it hath no more nourishment see it ever break up, first in the skirts, and last in from the hen, but only a quickening heat when the midst. We see likewise, that much water she sitteth. But beasts and men need not the draweth forth the juice of the body infused; but matter of nourishment within themselves, because little water is imbibed by the body: and this is a they are shaped within the womb of the female, principal cause, why in operation upon bodies for and are nourished continually from her body. their version or alteration, the trial in great quantities doth not answer the trial in small; and so Experiments in consort touching sympathy and an deceiveth many; for that, I say, the greater body

tipathy for medicinal use. resisteth more any alteration of form, and requireth 95. It is an inveterate and received opinion, that far greater strength in the active body that should cantharides applied to any part of the body, touch subdue it.

the bladder and exulcerate it, if they stay on long.

It is likewise received, that a kind of stone, which Experiment solitary touching the producing of they bring out of the West Indies, hath a peculiar

feathers and hairs of divers colours. force to move gravel, and to dissolve the stone ; in93. We have spoken before in the fifth instance, somuch, as laid but to the wrist, it hath so forcibly of the cause of orient colours in birds; which is by sent down gravel, as men have been glad to remove the fineness of the strainer : we will now endea-l it, it was so violent. vour to reduce the same axiom to a work. For 96. It is received, and confirmed by daily expethis writing of our “Sylva Sylvarum” is, to rience, that the soles of the feet have great affinity speak properly, not natural history, but a high kind with the head and mouth of the stomach ; as we of natural magic. For it is not a description only see going wet-shod, to those that use it not, afof nature, but a breaking of nature into great and fecteth both : applications of hot powders to the strange works. Try therefore the anointing over | feet attenuate first, and after dry the rheum: and of pigeons, or some other birds, when they are therefore a physician that would be mystical, prebut in their down; or of whelps, cutting their scribeth, for the cure of the rheum, that a man hair as short as may be; or of some other heast: should walk continually upon a camomile alley; with some ointment that is not hurtful to the flesh, meaning, that he should put camomile within his. and that will harden and stick very close; and socks. Likewise pigeons bleeding, applied to the see whether it will not alter the colours of the fea- soles of the feet ease the head : and soporiferous thers or hair. It is received, that the pulling off medicines applied unto them, provoke sleep. the first feathers of birds clean, will make the new 97. It seemeth, that as the feet have a symcome forth white: and it is certain that white is a pathy with the head, so the wrists and hands have

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