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larity, that the riches of any occasion, or the tide my letter, I do think much letting blood, in of any opportunity, can possibly minister or offer; declinatione morbi,” is against method of cure: and that is the causes of Ireland, if they be taken and that it will but induce necessity, and exaspeby the right handle. For if the wound be not rate despair: and percase discover the hollowness ripped up again, and come to a recrudency by of that which is done already, which now blazeth new foreign succours, I think that no physician to the best show. For laglia's and proscriptions will go on much with letting of blood, “ in decli- of two or three of the principal rebels, they are, no natione morbi ;” but will intend to purge and cor- doubt, " jure gentium,” lawful: in Italy usually roborate. To which purpose I send you mine practised upon the banditti; best in season when opinion, without labour of words, in the enclosed; a side goeth down: and may do good in two and sure I am, that if you shall enter into the kinds; the one, if they take effect: the other, in matter according to the vivacity of your own the distrust which may follow amongst the rebels spirit, nothing can make unto you a more gainful themselves. But of all other points, to my return. For you shall make the queen's felicity understanding, the most effectual is, the well complete, which now, as it is, is incomparable: expressing or impressing the design of this state, and for yourself, you shall show yourself as good upon that miserable and desolate kingdom; cona patriot as you are thought a politic, and make taining the same, between these two lists or the world perceive you have not less generous boundaries; the one, that the queen seeketh not ends, than dexterous delivery of yourself towards an extirpation of that people, but a reduction; your ends; and that you have as well true arts and that, now she hath chastised them by her and grounds of government, as the facility of royal power and arms, according to the necessity practice and negotiation; and that you are as of the occasion, her majesty taketh no pleasure in well seen in the periods and tides of estates, as esfusion of blood, or displanting of ancient generain your own circle and way : than the which, I tions. The other, that her majesty's princely care suppose, nothing can be a better addition and ac- is principally and intentionally bent upon the cumulation of honour unto you. This, I hope, I action of Ireland; and that she seeketh not so may in privateness write, either as a kinsman, much the ease of charge, as the royal performance that may be bold: or as a scholar, that hath liberty of the office of protection, and reclaim of those of discourse, without committing any absurdity. her subjects: and, in a word, that the case is But if it seemeth any error in me thus to intromit altered so far as may stand with the honour of the myself, I pray your honour to believe, I ever time past: which it is easy to reconcile, as in my loved her majesty and the state, and now love last note I showed. And, again, I do repeat, that yourself; and there is never any vehement love if her majesty's design be “ ex professo” to reduce without some absurdity, as the Spaniard well wild and barbarous people to civility and jussays: “ desuario con la calentura.” So, desiring tice, as well as to reduce rebels to obedience, it your honour's pardon, I ever continue.

inakes weakness turn Christianity, and conditions

graces; and so hath a fineness in turning utility CONSIDERATIONS TOUCHING THE QUEEN'S upon point of honour, which is agreeable to the SERVICE IN IRELAND. *

humour of these times. And, besides, if her

majesty shall suddenly abate the lists of her The reduction of that country, as well to civility forces, and shall do nothing to countervail it in and justice, as to obedience and peace, which point of reputation, of a politic proceeding, I things, as affairs now stand, I hold to be insepa- doubt things may too soon fall back into the state rable, consisteth in four points :

they were in. Next to this; adding reputation to 1. The extinguishing of the relics of the war. the cause, by imprinting an opinion of her majesty's 2. The recovery of the hearts of the people. care and intention upon this action, is the taking 3. The removing of the root and occasions of away of reputation from the contrary side, by new troubles.

cutting off the opinion and expectation of foreign 4. Plantations and buildings.

succours; to which purpose this enterprise of AlFor the first ; concerning the places and times, giers, if it hold according to the advertisement, and particularities of farther prosecution, in fact, I and if it be not wrapped up in the period of this leave it to the opinion of men of war; only the summer, seemeth to be an opportunity “cælitus difficulty is, to distinguish and discern the pro- demissa.” And to the same purpose nothing can positions, which shall be according to the ends be more fit than a treaty or a shadow of a treaty of the state here, that is, final and summary of a peace with Spain, which methinks should towards the extirpation of the troubles, from those, be in our power to fasten at least “ rumore which, though they pretend public ends, yet may tenus,” to the deluding of as wise people as refer indeed to the more private and compendious the Irish. Lastly, for this point; that which ends of the council there: or of the particular the ancients called “ potestas facta redeundi ad governors or captains. But still, as I touched in sanitatem ;” and which is but a mockery when * Resuscitatio, 264.

the enemy is strong, or proud, but effectual in his declination; that is, a liberal proclama- | And the hesitation in this point, I think, hath been tion of grace and pardon to such as shall sub- a great casting back of the affairs there. Neither mit, and come in within a time prefixed, and if any English papist or recusant shall, for liberty of some farther reward, to such as shall bring of his conscience, transfer his person, family, others in; that one's sword may be sharpened by and fortunes thither; do I hold it a matter of another's, is a matter of good experience, and now, danger, but expedient to draw on undertaking, I think, will come in time. And percase, though and to further population. Neither if Rome will I wish the exclusions of such a pardon exceeding cozen itself, by conceiving it may be in some few, yet it will not be safe to continue some of degree to the like toleration in England, do I hold them in their strength, but to translate them and it a matter of any moment; but rather a good their generations into England : and give them mean to take off the fierceness and eagerness of Tecompense and satisfaction here for their posses- the humour of Rome, and to stay further excomsions there, as the King of Spain did, by divers munications or interdictions for Ireland. But families of Portugal. To the effecting of all the there would go hand in hand with this, some points aforesaid, and likewise those which fall course of advancing religion indeed, where the within the divisions following, nothing can be in people is capable thereof; as the sending over priority, either time or matter, better than the some good preachers, especially of that sort which sending of some commission of countenance, “ ad are vehement and zealous persuaders, and not res inspiciendas et componendas;" for it will be scholastical, to be resident in principal towns; a very significant demonstration of her majesty's endowing them with some stipends out of her care of that kingdom; a credence to any that shall majesty's revenues, as her majesty hath most come in and submit; a bridle to any that shall religiously and graciously done in Lancashire: have their fortunes there, and shall apply their and the recontinuing and replenishing the college propositions to private ends; and an evidence begun at Dublin, the placing of good men to be that her majesty, after arms laid down, speedily bishops in the sees there, and the taking care of pursueth a politic course, without neglect or the versions of Bibles and catechisms, and other respiration : and it hath been the wisdom of the books of instruction, into the Irish language; and best examples of government.

the like religious courses, both for the honour Towards the recovery of the hearts of the people, of God, and for the avoiding of scandal and there be but three things, " in natura rerum. insatisfaction here, by the show of a toleration of 1. Religion.

religion in some parts there. 2. Justice and protection.

For justice; the barbarism and desolation of 3. Obligation and reward.

the country considered, it is not possible they For religion, to speak first of piety, and then should find any sweetness at all of justice : if it of policy, all divines do agree, that if consciences should be, which hath been the error of times past, be to be enforced at all, wherein yet they differ, formal, and fetched far off from the state; because two things must precede their enforcement: the it will require running up and down from process; one, means of instruction; the other, time of and give occasion for polling and exactions by operation; neither of which they have yet had. fees, and many other delays and charges. And Besides, till they be more like reasonable men therefore there must be an interim in which the than they yet are, their society were rather justice must be only summary: the rather, because scandalous to the true religion, than otherwise; it is fit and safe for a time the country do as pearls cast before swine: for till they be participate of martial government; and, therefore, cleansed from their blood, incontinency, and I could wish in every principal town or place theft, which are now not the lapses of particular of habitation, there were a captain or governpersons, but the very laws of the nation, they are or; and a judge, such as recorders, and learned incompatible with religion reformed. For policy, stewards are here in corporations, who may have there is no doubt but to wrestle with them now, is a prerogative commission to hear and determine directly opposite to their reclaiming, and cannot secundum sanam discretionem ;” and as near as but continue their alienation of mind from this may be to the laws and customs of England; government. Besides, one of the principal and that by bill or plaint, without original writ; pretences, whereby the heads of the rebellion reserving from their sentence matter of freehold have prevailed both with the people, and with the and inheritance, to be determined by a superior foreigner, hath been the defence of the Catholic judge itinerant; and both sentences, as well religion: and it is this that likewise hath made of the bailiwick judge, as itinerant, to be rethe foreigner reciprocally more plausible with the versed, if cause be, before the council of the rebel. Therefore a toleration of religion, for a time, province to be established there with fit instrucnot definite, except it be in some principal towns tions. and precincts, after the manner of some French For obligation and reward; it is true, no doubt, edicts, seemeth to me to be a matter warrantable which was anciently said, that a state is contained by religion, and in policy of absolute necessity. I in two words, “ præmium” and “pæna;" and I

am persuaded, if a penny in the pound which hath surely, in mine opinion, either by agreeing with been spent in “pæna," for this kind of war is them; or by overruling them with a parliament but “pæna,” a chastisement of rebels, without in Ireland, which in this course of a politic profruit or emolument to this state, had been spent ceeding, infinite occasions will require speedily in “præmio," that is, in rewarding, things had to be held, it will be fit to supply fit qualified pernever grown to this extremity. But to speak sons or undertakers. The other, that it be not forwards. The keeping of the principal Irish left, as heretofore, to the pleasure of the underpersons in terms of contentment, and without takers and adventurers, where and how to build cause of particular complaint; and generally the and plant; but that they do it according to a precarrying of an even course between the English script or formulary. For, first, the places, both and Irish; whether it be in competition or maritime and inland, which are fittest for colonies whether it be in controversy, as if they were one or garrisons, as well for doubt of the foreigner, as nation, without that same partial course which for keeping the country in bridle, would be found, hath been held by the governors and counsellors surveyed, and resolved upon: and then that the there, that some have favoured the Irish, and some patentees be tied to build in those places only, contrary, is one of the best medicines of that and to fortify as shall be thought convenient. And, state. And as for other points of contentment, as lastly, it followeth of course, in countries of new the countenancing of their nobility as well in this populations, to invite and provoke inhabitants by court as there; the imparting of knighthood; the ample liberties and charters. care of education of their children, and the like points of comfort and allurement; they are things which fall into every man's consideration.

TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS. For the extripating of the seeds of troubles, I Sir, suppose the main roots are but three. The first,

I send you enclosed a warrant for my lady of the ambition and absoluteness of the chief of the Somerset's pardon, reformed in that main and families and septs.

The second, the licentious material point, of inserting a clause, [that she was idleness of their kernes and soldiers, that lie upon not a principal, but an accessary before the fact, the country, by cesses and such like oppressions. by the instigation of base persons.) Her friends And the third, the barbarous laws, customs, their think long to have it despatched, which I marvel brehon laws, habits of apparel, their poets or

not at, for that in matter of life moments are numheralds that enchant them in savage manners, and

bered. sundry other such dregs of barbarism and rebel

I do more and more take contentment in his lion, which by a number of politic statutes of majesty's choice of Sir Oliver St. John, for his Ireland, meet to be put in execution, are already deputy of Ireland, finding, upon divers conferforbidden; unto which such additions may be ences with him, his great sufficiency; and I hope made as the present time requireth. But the de- the good intelligence, which he purposeth to ducing of this branch requireth a more particular hold with me by advertisements from time to notice of the state and manners there, than falls time, shall work a good effect for his majesty's within my compass.

service. For plantations and buildings, I do find it

I am wonderful desirous to see that kingdom strange that in the last plot for the population of flourish, because it is the proper work and glory Munster, there were limitations how much in de- of his inajesty and his times.

And his majesty mesne, and how much in farm, and how much may be pleased to call to mind, that a good while in tenancy; again, how many buildings should since, when the great rent and divisions were in be erected, how many Irish in mixture should be the parliament of Ireland, I was no unfortunate admitted, and other things foreseen almost to remembrancer to his majesty's princely wisdom curiosity; but no restraint that they might not

in that business. God ever keep you and prosbuild “sparsim” at their pleasure ; nor any con- per you. dition that they should make places fortified and

Your true and most devoted defensible: which omission was a strange neglect

and bounden servant, and secureness, to my understanding. So as for

FR. Bacon. this last point of plantations and buildings, there

1 July, 1616.* be two considerations which I hold most inaterial; the one for quickening, the other for assuring. The first is, that choice be made of such persons

Sir, for the government of towns and places, and such I think I cannot do better service towards the undertakers be procured, as be men gracious and good estate of the kingdom of Ireland than to well beloved, and are like to be well followed. procure the king to be well served in the eminent Wherein for Munster, it may be, because it is not places of law and justice; I shall therefore name • res integra;” but that the former undertakers unto you for the attorney's place there, or for the stand interested, there will be some difficulty: but

* Stephens's Second Collection, p. 3.

TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS.

solicitor's place, if the new solicitor shall go up, | into matter of conscience. Also, that his majesty a gentleman of mine own breeding and framing, will, out of the depth of his excellent wisdom and Mr. Edward Wyrthington, of Gray's-Inn; he is providence, think, and, as it were, calculate with born to eight hundred pounds a year; he is the himself, whether time will make more for the eldest son of a most severe justicer, amongst the cause of religion in Ireland, and be still more and recusants of Lancashire, and a man most able more propitious; or whether deferring remedies for law and speech, and by me trained in the will not make the case more difficult. For, if king's causes. My lord deputy, by my descrip-time give his majesty advantage, what needeth tion, is much in love with the man. I hear my precipitation to extreme remedies ? But if time Lord of Canterbury, and Sir Thomas Laque, will make the case more desperate, then his should name one Sir John Beare, and some other majesty cannot begin too soon.

Now, in my mean men. This man I commend upon my opinion, time will open and facilitate things for credit, for the good of his majesty's service. God reformation of religion there, and not shut up and ever preserve and prosper you. I rest

lock out the same. For, first, the plantations Your most devoted

going on, and being principally of Protestants, and most bounden servant,

cannot but mate the other party in time; also his

FR, Bacon. nsajesty's care in placing good bishops and 2 July, 1616.

divines, in amplifying the college there, and in looking to the education of wards and the like;

as they are the most natural means, so are they TO SIR GEORGE VILLIERS, ABOUT IRISH AFFAIRS.

like to be the most effectual and happy for the SIR, Because I am uncertain whether his majesty poral sword; so that, I think, I may truly con

weeding out of popery, without using the temwill put to a point some resolutions touching clude, that the ripeness of time is not yet come. Ireland, now at Windsor; I thought it my duty to attend his majesty by my letter, and thereby this hazardous course of proceeding, to tender the

Therefore my advice in all humbleness is, that to supply my absence, for the renewing of some oath to the magistrates of towns, proceed not, but former commissions for Ireland, and the framing die by degrees. And yet, to preserve the author, of a new commission for the wards and the alienations, which appertain properly to me as his ity and reputation of the former council, I would

have somewhat done ; which is, that there be a majesty's attorney, and have been accordingly proceeding to seizure of liberties; but not by any referred by the lords. I will undertake that they act of power, but by “Quo warranto," or "Scire are prepared with a greater care, and better appli- facias;" which is a legal course; and will be the cation to his majesty's service in that kingdom, work of three or four terms; by which time the than heretofore they have been; and therefore of

matter will somewhat cool. that I say no more. And for the instructions of

But I would not, in any case, that the proceedthe new deputy, they have been set down by the ing should be with both the towns, which stand two secretaries, and read to the board; and being now in contempt, but with one of them only, things of an ordinary nature, I do not see but

choosing that which shall be thought most fit. they may pass.

For if his majesty proceed with both, then all the But there have been three propositions and

towns that are in the like case will think it a counsels which have been stirred, which seem to

common cause; and that it is but their case to me of very great importance; wherein I think

day, and their own to-morrow. But if his majesty myself bound to deliver to his majesty my advice and opinion, if they should now come in ques- not be so strong; for they will think it may be

proceed with one, the apprehension and terror will tion. The first is, touching the recusant magistrates this is the best advice that I can give to his ma

their case as well to be spared as prosecuted ; and of the towns of Ireland, and the commonalties

jesty in this strait; and of this opinion seemed themselves their electors, what shall be done?

my Jord chancellor to be. Which consultation ariseth from the late adver.

The second proposition is this: It may be his tisements of the two lords justices, upon the instance of the two towns, Limerick and kil majesty will be moved to reduce the number of

his council of Ireland, which is now almost fisty, kenny; in which advertisements they represent to twenty, or the like number; in respect the the danger only, without giving any light for the

greatness of the number doth both embase the remedy; rather warily for themselves, than agree. authority of the council, and divulge the busiably to their duties and places.

Nevertheless, I do hold this proposition to In this point I humbly pray his majesty to be rather specious and solemn, than needful at remember, that the refusal is not of the oath of this time; for certainly it will fill the state full of allegiance, which is not enacted in Ireland, but discontentment; which in a growing and unsetof the oath of supremacy, which culieth deeper tled estate ought not to be. • Stephena's Second Collection, p. 3.

This I could wish; that his majesty would

ness.

appoint a select number of counsellors there, , vince to another; whereupon it is supposed, that
which might deal in the improvement of his reve- many that are planted in house and lands, will
nue, being a thing not fit to pass through too rather lose their entertainment than remove; and
many hands, and that the said selected number thereby new men may have their pay, and yet.
should have days of sitting by themselves, at the old be mingled in the country for the strength
which the rest of the council should not be pre- thereof.
sent; which being once settled, then other prin- In this proposition two things may be feared ;,
cipal business of state may be handled at those the one, discontent of those that shall be put off;:
sittings, and so the rest begin to be disused, and the other, that the companies shall be stuffed
yet retain their countenance without murmur or with “Tirones," instead of “Veterani.” I wish
disgrace.

therefore that this proposition be well debated ere
The third proposition, as it is wound up, it be admitted. Thus having performed that
seemeth to be pretty, if it can keep promise; which duty binds me to do, I commend you to
for it is this, that a means may be found to rein- God's best preservation.
force his majesty's army there by 500 or 1000 Your most devoted and bounden servant,
men; and that without any penny increase of

FR. BACON. charge. And the means should be, that there Gorhambury, July 5, 1616. should be a commandment of a local removing, and transferring some companies from one pro

* Stephens's Second Collection, p. 5.

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