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TRACTS RELATING TO IRELAND.

CERTAIN CONSIDERATIONS

TOUCHING

THE PLANTATION IN IRELAND.

PRESENTED TO HIS MAJESTY, 1606.

TO THE KING.

It seemeth God hath reserved to your majesty's wherein likewise your majesty hath yet a fortune times two works, which amongst the works extraordinary, and differing from former examples of kings have the supreme pre-eminence; the in the same kind. For most part of unions and union, and the plantation of kingdoms. For plantations of kingdoms have been founded in although it be a great fortune for a king to deliver the effusion of blood : but your majesty shall or recover his kingdom from long continued build " in solo puro, et in area pura,” that shall calamities : yet, in the judgment of those that need no sacrifices expiatory for blood; and therehave distinguished of the degrees of sovereign fore, no doubt, under a higher and more assured honour, to be a founder of estates or kingdoms, blessing. Wherefore, as I adventured, when I excelleth all the rest. For, as in arts and sciences, was less known and less particularly bound to your to be the first inventor is more than to illustrate or majesty, than since by your undeserved favour I amplify: and as in the works of God, the creation have been, to write somewhat touching the union, is greater than the preservation; and as in the which your majesty was pleased graciously to works of nature, the birth and nativity is more accept, and which since I have to my power than the continuance: so in kingdoms, the first seconded by my travails, not only in discourse, foundation or plantation is of more noble dignity but in action: so I am thereby encouraged to do and merit than all that followeth. Of which the like, touching this matter of plantation; hoping foundations there being but two kinds; the first, that your majesty will, through the weakness of my that maketh one of more; and the second, that ability, discern the strength of my affection, and maketh one of none: the latter resembling the the honest and fervent desire I have to see your creation of the world, which way "de nihilo ad majesty's person, name, and times, blessed and quid :" and the former, the edification of the exalted above those of your royal progenitors. church, which was de multiplici ad simplex, vel And I was the rather invited this to do, by the ad unum:" it hath pleased the divine providence, remembrance, that when the lord chief justice in singular favour to your majesty, to put both deceased, Popham, served in the place wherein I these kinds of foundations or regenerations into now serve, and afterwards in the attorney's place; your hand: the one, in the union of the island of he laboured greatly in the last project, touching Britain; the other, in the plantation of great and the plantation of Munster: which, nevertheless, noble parts of the island of Ireland. Which as it seemeth, hath given more light by the errors enterprises being once happily accomplished, then thereof, what to avoid, than by the direction of the that which was uttered by one of the best orators, same, what to follow. in one of the worst verses, “ O fortunatam natam First, therefore, I will speak somewhat of the me consule Romam!” may be far more truly and excellency of the work, and then of the means to properly applied to your majesty's acts ; “natam compass and effect it. te rege Britanniam; natam Hiberniam.” For he For the excellency of the work, I will divide it spake improperly of deliverance and preservation; into four noble and worthy consequences that will but in these acts of yours it may be verified more follow thereupon. naturally. For indeed unions and plantations are The first of the four, is honour; whereof I have the very nativities of birth-days of kingdoms ; I spoken enough already, were it not that the harp of Ireland puts me in mind of that glorious emblem of foreigners, which the weakness of that kingor allegory, wherein the wisdom of antiquity did dom hath heretofore invited : wherein I shall not figure and shadow out works of this nature. need to fetch reasons afar off, either for the geneFor the poets feigned that Orpheus, by the virtue ral or particular. For the general, because noand sweetness of his harp, did call and assemble thing is more evident than that, which one of the the beasts and birds, of their natures wild and Romans said of Peloponnesus: “Testudo intra savage, to stand about him, as in a theatre; for- tegumen tuta est;" the tortoise is safe within her getting their affections of fierceness, of lust, and shell: but if she put forth any part of her body, of prey ; and listening to the tunes and harmonies then it endangereth not only the part which is so of the harp; and soon after called likewise the put forth, but all the rest. And so we see in stones and woods to remove, and stand in order armour, if any part be left naked, it puts in haabout him: which fable was anciently interpreted zard the whole person. And in the natural body of the reducing and plantation of kingdoms; of man, if there be any weak or affected part, it is when people of barbarous manners are brought to enough to draw rheums or malign humours unto give over and discontinue their customs of revenge it, to the interruption of the health of the whole and blood, and of dissolute life, and of theft, and body. of rapine; and to give ear to the wisdom of laws And for the particular, the example is too and governments; whereupon immediately fol- fresh, that the indisposition of that kingdom hath loweth the calling of stones for building and been a continual attractive of troubles and infestahabitation; and of trees for the seats of houses, tions upon this estate ; and though your majesty's orchards, enclosures, and the like. This work, greatness doth in some sort discharge this fear, therefore, of all other most memorable and honour- yet with your increase of power it cannot be, but able, your majesty hath now in hand; especially, envy is likewise increased. if your majesty join the harp of David, in cast- The fourth and last consequence is the great ing out the evil spirit of superstition, with the profit and strength which is like to redound to harp of Orpheus, in casting out desolation and your crown, by the working upon this unpolished barbarism.

part thereof: whereof your majesty, being in the The second consequence of this enterprise is, strength of your years, is like, by the good pleathe avoiding of an inconvenience, which commonly sures of Almighty God, to receive more than the attendeth upon happy times, and is an evil effect first-fruits ; and your posterity a growing and of a good cause. The revolution of this present springing vein of riches and power. For this age seemeth to incline to peace, almost generally island being another Britain, as Britain was said in these parts; and your majesty's most Christian to be another world, is endowed with so many dowand virtuous affections do promise the same moreries of nature, considering the fruitfulness of the especially to these your kingdoms. An effect of soil, the ports, the rivers, the fishings, the quarries, peace in fruitful kingdoms, where the stock of the woods, and other materials; and especially the people, receiving no consumption nor diminution race and ration of men, valiant, hard, and by war, doth continually multiply and increase, active, as it is not easy, no, not upon the conmust in the end be a surcharge or overflow of tinent, to find such confluence of commodities, if people, more than the territories can well maintain; the hand of man did join with the hand of nature. which many times insinuating a general necessity So, then, for the excellency of the work, in point and want of means into all estates, doth turn of honour, policy, safety, and utility, here I external peace into internal troubles and seditions. cease. Now what an excellent diversion of this incon- For the means to effect this work, I know your venience is ministered, by God's providence, to majesty shall not want the information of persons your majesty, in this plantation of Ireland ; expert and industrious, which have served you wherein so znany families may receive sustentation there, and know the region : nor the advice of a and fortunes; and the discharge of them also out grave and prudent council of estate here; which of England and Scotland may prevent many seeds knew the pulses of the hearts of people, and the of future perturbations: so that it is, as if a man ways and passages of conducting great actions ; were troubled for the avoidance of water from the besides that which is above all, which is that place where he hath built his house, and after- fountain of wisdom and universality which is in wards should advise with himself to cast those yourself; yet, notwithstanding, in a thing of so waters, and to turn them into fair pools or streams, public a nature, it is not amiss for your majesty to for pleasure, provision, or use. So shall your hear variety of opinion : for, as Demosthenes saith majesty in this work have a double commodity, in well, the good fortune of a prince or state doth the avoidance of people here, and in making use sometimes put a good motion into a fool's mouth. of them there.

I do think therefore the means of accomplishThe third consequence is the great safety that ing this work consisteth of two principal parts. is like to grow to your majesty's estate in general The first, the invitation and encouragement of unby this act: in discomfiting all hostile attempts | dertakers; the second, the order and policy of the project itself. For as in all engines of the hand foundation made upon matter of pleasure, otherthere is somewhat that giveth the motion and wise than that the very general desire of novelty force, and the rest serveth to guide and govern and experiment in some stirring natures may the same : so it is in these enterprises or engines work somewhat; and therefore it is the other two of estate. As for the former of these, there is no points, of honour and profit, whereupon we are doubt, but next unto the providence and finger of wholly to rest. God, which writeth these virtues and excellent For honour or countenance, if I shall mention desires in the tables of your majesty's heart; your to your majesty, whether in wisdom you shall authority and affection is “primos motor” in this think convenient, the better to express your affeccause; and therefore the more strongly and fully tion to the enterprise, and for a pledge thereof, to your majesty shall declare yourself in it, the more add the earldom of Ulster to the prince's titles, I shall you quicken and animate the whole proceed- shall but learn it out of the practice of King ing. For this is an action, which is as the wor- Edward I., who first used the like course, as a thiness of it doth bear it, so the nature of it re- mean the better to restrain the country of Wales : quireth it to be carried in some height of reputation, and, I take it, the Prince of Spain hath the addiand fit, in mine opinion, for pulpits and parlia- tion of a province in the kingdom of Naples: and ments, and all places to ring and resound of it. other precedents I think there are : and it is like For that which may seem vanity in some things, I to put more life and encouragement into the mean matter of fame, is of great efficacy in this case. undertakers.

But now let me descend to the inferior spheres, Also, considering the large territories which are and speak what co-operation in the subjects or to be planted, it is not unlike your majesty will undertakers may be raised and kindled, and by think of raising some nobility there ; which, if it what means. Therefore, to take plain grounds, be done merely upon new titles of dignity, havwhich are the surest: all men are drawn into ac- ing no manner of reference to the old; and if it tions by three things, pleasure, honour, and profit. be done also without putting too many portions But before I pursue these three motives, it is fit into one hand: and, lastly, if it be done without in this place to interlace a word or two of the any great franchises or commands, I do not see quality of the undertakers : wherein my opinion any peril can ensue thereof. As, on the other side, simply is, that if your majesty shall make these it is like it may draw some persons of great estate portions of land which are to be planted, as re- and means into the action, to the great furtherwards or as suits, or as fortunes for those that are ance and supply of the charges thereof. in want, and are likeliest to seek after them; that And, lastly, for knighthood, to such persons as they will not be able to go through with the have not attained it; or otherwise knighthood, charge of good and substantial plantations, but with some new difference and precedence, it may, ' will deficere in opere medio;" and then this no doubt, work with many. And if any man work will succeed, as Tacitus saith, “ acribus think, that these things which I propound, are initiis, fine incurioso.” So that this must rather aliquid nimis” for the proportion of this action, be an adventure for such as are full, than a setting I confess plainly, that if your majesty will have up of those that are low of means;. for those men it really and effectually performed, my opinion is, indeed are fit to perform these undertakings, you cannot bestow too much sunshine upon it. which were fit to purchase dry reversions after For “ lunæ radiis non maturescit botrus." Thus lives or years, or such as were fit to put out much for honour. money upon long returns.

For profit, it will consist in three parts : I do not say, but that I think the undertakers First, The easy rates that your majesty shall themselves will be glad to have some captains, or be pleased to give the undertakers of the land men of service, intermixed among them for their they shall receive. safety; but I speak of the generality of under- Secondly, The liberties which you may be takers, which I wish were men of estate and pleased to confer upon them. When I speak of plenty.

liberties, I mean, not liberties of jurisdiction, as Now, therefore, it followeth well to speak of the counties palatine, or the like, which it seemeth aforesaid three motives. For it will appear the hath been the error of the ancient donations and more, how necessary it is to allure by all means plantations in that country, but I mean only liberundertakers : since those men will be least fit, ties tending to commodity; as liberty to transport which are like to be most in appetite of them- any of the commodities growing upon the countries selves; and those most fit, which are like least to new planted ; liberty to import from hence all desire it.

things appertaining to their necessary use, customFirst, therefore, for pleasure; in this region or free; liberty to take timber or other materials in tract of soil, there are no warm winters, nor your majesty's woods there, and the like. orange trees, nor strange beasts, or birds, or other The third is, ease of charge; that the whole points of curiosity or pleasure, as there are in the mass of charge doth not rest upon the private Indies and the like: so as there can be found no purse of the undertakers.

Vol. II.-24

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For the two former of these, I will pass them that business. For although your majesty have over; because in that project, which with good a grave and sufficient council in Ireland ; from diligence and providence hath been presented to whom, and upon whom, the commissioners are your majesty by your ministers of that kingdom, to have assistance and dependence; yet that supthey are in my opinion well handled.

plies not the purpose whereof I speak. For, For the third, I will never despair, but that the considering, that upon the advertisements, as parliament of England, if it may perceive, that well of the commissioners, as of the council of this action is not a flash, but a solid and settled Ireland itself, there will be many occasions to pursuit, will give aid to a work so religious, so crave directions from your majesty and your privy politic, and so profitable. And the distribution council here, which are busied with a world of of charge, if it be observed, falleth naturally into affairs; it cannot but give greater expedition, and three kinds of charge, and every of those charges some better perfection unto such directions and respectively ought to have his proper fountain resolutions, if the matters may be considered of and issue. For as there proceedeth from your aforehand by such as may have a continual care of majesty's royal bounty and munificence, the gift the cause. And it will be likewise a comfort and of the land, and the other materials; together with satisfaction to some principal undertakers, if they the endowment of liberties; and as the charge may be admitted of that council. which is private, as building of houses, stocking Secondly, There is a clause wherein the underof grounds, victual, and the like, is to rest upon takers are restrained, that they shall execute the the particular undertakers : so whatsoever is pub-plantation in person; from which I must dissent, lic, as building of churches, walling of towns, if I will consent with the grounds I have already town-houses, bridges, causeways, or highways, taken. For it is not probable that men of great and the like, ought not so properly to lie upon means and plentiful estate will endure the travel, particular persons, but to come from the public diseasements, and adventures of going thither in estate of this kingdom; to which this work is person: but rather, I suppose, many will underlike to return so great an addition of glory, take portions as an advancement for their younger strength, and commodity.

children or kinsfolks; or for the sweetness of For the project itself, I shall need to speak the the expectation of a great bargain in the end, less, in regard it is so considerately digested al- when it is overcome. And, therefore, it is like ready for the county of Tyrone: and therefore my they will employ sons, kinsfolks, servants, or labour shall be but in those things wherein I shall tenants, and yet be glad to have the estate in either add to, or dissent from that which is set themselves. And it may be, some again will join down; which will include five points or articles. their purses together, and make as it were a part

First, they mention a commission for this plan- nership or joint adventure; and yet man forth tation : which of all things is most necessary, both some one person by consent, for the executing of to direct, and appease controversies, and the like. the plantation.

To this I add two propositions: the one, that Thirdly, There is a main point, wherein I fear which perhaps is meant, though not expressed, the project made hath too much of the line and that the commissioners should for certain times compass, and will not be so natural and easy to reside and abide in some habitable town of Ireland, execute, nor yet so politic and convenient: and near in distance to the country where the planta- that is, that the buildings should be “ sparsim" tion shall be ; to the end, both that they may upon every portion; and the castle or principal be more at hand, for the execution of the parts of house should draw the tenements and farms about their commission; and withal it is like, by draw- it, as it were into villages, hamlets, or endships ; ing a concourse of people and tradesmen to such and that there should be only four corporate towns towns, it will be some help and commodity to the for the artificers and tradesmen. undertakers for things they shall stand in need My opinion is, that the buildings be altogether of: and, likewise, it will be a more safe place of in towns, to be compounded as well of husbanTeceipt and store, wherein to unlade and deposit dries as of arts. My reasons are, such provisions as are after to be employed. First, When men come into a country vast, and

The second is, that your majesty would make a void of all things necessary for the use of man's correspondency between the commission there, life, if they set up together in a place, one of and a council of plantation here: wherein I war- them will the better supply the wants of another: rant myself by the precedent of the like council work-folks of all sorts will be the more continuof plantation for Virginia; an enterprise in my ally on work without loss of time ; when, if work opinion differing as much from this, as Amadis fail in one place, they may have it fast by; the de Gaul differs from Cæsar's Commentaries. But ways will be made more passable for carriages to when I speak of a council of plantation, I mean those seats or towns, than they can be to a numsome persons chosen by way of reference, upon ber of dispersed solitary places; and infinite other whom the labour may rest, to prepare and report helps and easements, scarcely to be comprehended things to the council of estate here, that concern in cogitation, will ensue in vicinity and society of people: whereas, if they build scattered, as is pro- | keep in his own hands, the more the work is like jected, every man must have a cornucopia in him- to prosper. For, first, the person liable to the self for all things he must use ; which cannot but state here to perform the plantation, is the immebreed much difficulty and no less waste. diate undertaker. Secondly, the more his profit

Secondly, it will draw out of the inhabited dependeth upon the annual and springing comcountry of Ireland provisions and victuals, and modity, the more sweetness he will find in putmany necessaries; because they shall be sure of ting forward manurance and husbanding of the utterance: whereas, in the dispersed habitations, grounds, and therefore is like to take more care every man must reckon only upon that that he of it. Thirdly, since the natives are excluded, I brings with him, as they do in provisions of ships. do not see that any persons are like to be drawn

Thirdly, the charge of bawnes, as they call over of that condition, as are like to give fines, them, to be made about every castle or house, and undertake the charge of building. For I am may be spared, when the habitations shall be persuaded, that the people transported will consist congregated only into towns.

of gentlemen and their servants, and of labourers And, lastly, it will be a means to secure the and hinds, and not of yeomen of any wealth. And, country against future perils, in case of any revolt therefore, the charge of buildings, as well of the and defection: for by a slight fortification of no tenements and farms, as of the capital houses great charge, the danger of any attempts of kierns themselves, is like to rest upon the principal unand sword-men may be prevented ;, the omission dertakers. Which will be recompensed in the of which point, in the last plantation of Munster, end to the full, and with much advantage, if they made the work of years to be but the spoil of make no long estates or leases. And, therefore, days. And if any man think it will draw people this article to receive some qualification. too far off from the grounds they are to labour, Fisthly, I should think it requisite that men of it is to be understood, that the number of the experience in that kingdom should enter into some towns be increased accordingly; and, likewise, particular consideration of the charges and prothe situation of them be as in the centre, in re- visions of all kinds, that will be incident to the spect of the portions assigned to them; for in the plantation; to the end, that thereupon some adchampaign countries of England, where the habita- vice may be taken for the furnishing and accomtion useth to be in towns, and not dispersed, it is modating them most conveniently, aiding private no new thing to go two miles off to plough part industry and charge with public care and order. of their grounds; and two miles compass will Thus I have expressed to your majesty those take up a good deal of country.

simple and weak cogitations, which I have had The fourth point, is a point wherein I shall dif- in myself touching this cause, wherein I most fer from the project rather in quantity and pro- humbly desire your pardon, and gracious acceptportion, than in matter. There is allowed to the ance of my good affection and intention. For I undertaker, within the five years of restraint, to hold it for a rule, that there belongeth to great alien a third part in fee farm, and to demise an- monarchs, from faithful servants, not only the other third for forty years : which I fear will tribute of duty, but the oblations of cheerfulness mangle the portions, and will be but a shift to of heart. And so I pray the Almighty to bless make money of two parts; whereas, I am of this great action, with your majesty's care; and opinion, the more the first undertaker is forced to your care with happy success.

A LETTER

TO

MR. SECRETARY CECIL,

AFTER THE DEFEATING OF THE SPANISH FORCES IN IRELAND;* INCITING HIM TO EMBRACE THE CARB

OF REDUCING THAT KINGDOM TO CIVILITY, WITH SOME REASONS SENT ENCLOSED.

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR HONOUR,

time hath some leisure “ad aliud agendum ;" I As one that wisheth you all increase of honour; will presume to propound unto you that which and as one that cannot leave to love the state, though you cannot but see, yet I know not what interest soever I have, or may come to have whether you apprehend and esteem it in so high in it; and as one that now this dead vacation a degree; that is, for the best action of importation Therefore this was wrote in 1901.-Rawley's Resusci

to yourself, of sound honour and merit to her matatio, 38.

I jesty and this crown, without ventosity and popu

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