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bodies with the earth, in respect of the distance, the medicine, or by the quantity. The qualities is more dull: the latter, because the body hath are three; extreme bitter, as in aloes, coloquintiin part attained its nature when it is in some da, &c. loathsome and of horrible taste, as in depth in the earth. For as for the moving to agaric, black hellebore, &c. and of secret maligpoint or place, which was the opinion of the an- nity, and disagreement towards man's body, many cients, it is a mere vanity.
times not appearing much in the taste, as in
scammony, mechoachan, antimony, &c. And Erperiment solitary touching the contraction of note well, that if there be any medicine that purgbodies in bulk, by the mixture of the more liquid eth, and hath neither of the first two manifest body with the more solid.
qualities, it is to be held suspected as a kind of 34. It is strange how the ancients took up ex- poison; for that it worketh either by corrosion, periments upon credit, and yet did build great or by a secret malignity, and enmity to nature; matters upon them. The observation of some of and therefore such medicines are warily to be the best of them, delivered confidently, is, that a prepared and used. The quantity of that which vessel filled with ashes will receive the like is taken doth also cause purging; as we see in a quantity of water that it would have done if it great quantity of new milk from the cow; yea had been empty. But this is utterly untrue, for and a great quantity of meat; for surfeits many the water will not go in by a fifth part. And I times turn to purges, both upwards and downsuppose, that that fifth part is the difference of the wards. Therefore we see generally, that the lying close, or open, of the ashes; as we see working of purging medicines cometh two or that ashes alone, if they be hard pressed, will lie three hours after the medicines taken: for that in less room : and so the ashes with air between, the stomach first maketh a proof whether it can lie looser; and with water closer. For I have concoct them. And the like happeneth after surnot yet found certainly, that the water itself, by feits, or milk in too great quantity. mixture of ashes or dust, will shrink or draw 37. A second cause is mordication of the orifices into less room.
of the parts; especially of the mesentery veins;
as it is seen, that salt, or any such thing that is Experiment solitary touching the making vines sharp and biting, put in the fundament, doth promore fruitful.
voke the part to expel; and mustard provoketh 35. It is reported of credit, that if you lay sneezing: and any sharp thing to the eyes progood store of kernels of grapes about the root of voketh tears. And therefore we see that almost a vine, it will make the vine come earlier and all purgers have a kind of twitching and vellicaprosper better. It may be tried with other ker- tion, besides the griping which cometh of wind. nels laid about the root of a plant of the same And if this mordication be in an over-high degree, kind; as figs, kernels of apples, &c. The cause it is little better than the corrosion of poison; may be, for that the kernels draw out of the earth and it cometh to pass sometimes in antimony, juice fit to nourish the tree, as those that would especially if it be given to bodies not replete with be trees of themselves, though there were no huinours; for where humours abound, the huroot; but the root being of greater strength rob-mours save the parts. bech and devoureth the nourishment, when they 38. The third cause is attraction : for I do not have drawn it: as great fishes devour little. deny, but that purging medicines have in them
a direct force of attraction: as drawing plaisters Experiments in consort touching purging medi- have in surgery: and we see sage or betony cines.
bruised, sneezing powder, and other powders, or 36. The operation of purging medicines and liquors, which the physicians call “errhines,” the causes thereof, have been thought to be a put into the nose, draw phlegm and water from great secret; and so according to the slothful the head; and so it is in apophlegmatisms and manner of men, it is referred to a hidden proprie- gargarisms, that draw the rheum down by the ty, a specifical virtue, and a fourth quality, and palate. And by this virtue, no doubt, some purthe like shifts of ignorance. The causes of purg- gers draw more one humour, and some another, ing are divers: all plain and perspicuous, and according to the opinion received: as rhubarb thoroughly maintained by experience. The first draweth choler; sena melancholy; agaric phlegm, is, that whatsoever cannot be overcome and di- &c. but yet, more or less, they draw promiscugested by the stomach, is by the stomach either ously. And note also, that besides sympathy put up by vomit, or put down to the guts; and between the purger and the humour, there is also by that motion of expulsion in the stomach and another cause why some medicines draw some guts, other parts of the body, as the orifices of the humour more than another. And it is, for that seins, and the like, are moved to expel by con- some medicines work quicker than others: and sent. For nothing is more frequent than motion they that draw quick, draw only the lighter and of consent in the body of man. This surcharge more fluid humours; and they that draw slow, of the slumach is caused either by the quality of work upon the more tough and viscous humours.
And therefore men must beware how they take are well digested of the stomach, and well rerhubarb, and the like, alone familiarly; for it ceived also of the mesentery veins; so they come taketh only the lightest part of the humour away, as far as the liver, which sendeth urine to the and leaveth the mass of humours more obstinate. bladder, as the whey of blood : and those mediAnd the like may be said of wormwood, which cines being opening and piercing do fortify the is so much magnified.
operation of the liver, in sending down the wheyey 39. The fourth cause is flatuosity; for wind part of the blood to the reins. For medicines stirred moveth to expel: and we find that in ef- urinative do not work by rejection and indigestion, fect all purgers have in them a raw spirit or wind; as solutive do. which is the principal cause of tortion in the sto- 44. There be divers medicines, which in greater mach and belly. And therefore purgers lose, quantity move stool, and in smaller urine: and most of them, the virtue by decoction upon the so contrariwise, some that in greater quantity fire; and for that cause are given chiefly in in- move urine, and in smaller stool. Of the former fusion, juice, or powder.
sort is rhubarb, and some others. The cause is, 40. The fifth cause is compression or crushing; for that rhubarb is a medicine which the stomach as when water is crushed out of a sponge: so in a small quantity doth digest and overcome, we see that taking cold moveth looseness by being not flatuous nor loathsome, and so sendeth contraction of the skin and outward parts; and it to the mesentery veins; and so being opening, so doth cold likewise cause rheums, and deflux- it helpeth down urine: but in a greater quantity, ions from the head; and some astringent plaisters the stomach cannot overcome it, and so it goeth crush out purulent matter. This kind of opera- to the guts. Pepper by some of the ancients is tion is not found in many medicines; myrobolanes noted to be of the second sort; which being in have it; and it may be the barks of peaches; small quantity, moveth wind in the stomach and for this virtue requireth an astriction ; but such guts, and so expelleth by stool; but being in an astriction as is not grateful to the body; for a greater quantity, dissipateth the wind; and itself pleasing astriction doth rather bind in the hu- getteth to the mesentery veins, and so to the liver mours than expel them: and therefore, such as- and reins; where, by heating and opening, it triction is found in things of a harsh taste. sendeth down urine more plentifully.
41. The sixth cause is lubrefaction and relaxation. As we see in medicines emollient; such Experiments in consort touching meats and drinks as are milk, honey, mallows, lettuce, mercurial,
that are most nourishing. pellitory of the wall, and others. There is also 45. We have spoken of evacuating of the body: a secret virtue of relaxation in cold: for the heat we will now speak something of the filling of it, of the body bindeth the parts and humours to- by restoratives in consumptions and emaciating gether, which cold relaxeth : as it is seen in urine, diseases. In vegetables, there is one part that is blood, pottage, or the like; which, if they be more nourishing than another; as grains and roots cold, break and dissolve. And by this kind of nourish more than the leaves; insomuch as the relaxation, fear looseneth the belly: because the order of the Foliatanes was put down by the pope, heat retiring inwards towards the heart, the guts, as finding leaves unable to nourish man's body. and other parts are relaxed ; in the same manner Whether there be that difference in the flesh of as fear also causeth trembling in the sinews.living creatures is not well inquired, as whether And of this kind of purgers are some medicines livers, and other entrails be not more nourishing made of mercury.
than the outward flesh. We find that amongst 42. The seventh cause is abstersion; which the Romans, a goose's liver was a great delicacy; is plainly a scouring off, or incision of the more insomuch as they had artificial means to make it viscous humours, and making the humours more fair and great; but whether it were more nourishfluid; and cutting between them and the part; ing appeareth not. It is certain, that marrow is as is found in nitrous water, which scoureth linen more nourishing than fat. And I conceive that cloth speedily from the foulness. But this incision some decoction of bones and sinews, stamped and must be by a sharpness, without astriction : which well strained, would be a very nourishing broth: we find in salt, wormwood, oxymel, and the like. we find also that Scotch skinck, which is a pot
43. There be medicines that move stools, and tage of strong nourishment, is made with the not urine; some other, urine, and not stools. knees and sinews of beef, but long boiled : jelly Those that purge by stool are such as enter not also, which they use for a restorative, is chiefly at all, or little, into the mesentery vein: but made of knuckles of veal. The pulp that is witheither at the first are not digestible by the stomach, in the crawfish or crab, which they spice and and therefore move immediately downwards to butter, is more nourishing than the flesh of the the guts; or else are afterwards rejected by the crab or crawfish. The yolks of eggs are clearly mesentery veins, and so turn likewise downwards more nourishing than the whites. So that it to the guts; and of these two kinds are most should seem, that the parts of living creatures that purgers. But those that move urine are such as I lie more inwards, nourish more than the outward
desh; except it be the brain: which the spirits 50. Pistachoes, so they be good, and not musty, prey too much upon, to leave it any great virtue joined with almonds in almond milk; or made of nourishing. It seemeth for the nourishing of into a milk of themselves, like unto almond milk, aged men, or men in consumptions, some such but more green, are an excellent nourisher : but thing should be devised, as should be half chylus, you shall do well to add a little ginger, scraped, before it be put into the stomach.
because they are not without some subtile windi. 46. Take two large capons; parboil them upon ness. a soft fire, by the space of an hour or more, till in 51. Milk warm from the cow is found to be a effect all the blood is gone. Add in the decoction great nourisher, and a good remedy in consumpthe pill of a sweet lemon, or a good part of the pill tions: but then you must put into it, when you of a citron, and a little mace. Cut off the shanks, inilk the cow, two little bags; the one of powder and throw them away. Then with a good strong of mint, the other of powder of red roses; for they chopping-knife mince the two capons, bones and keep the milk somewhat from turning or curdling all, as small as ordinary minced meat; put them in the stomach; and put in sugar also, for the into a large neat boulter; then take a kilderkin same cause, and hardly for the taste's sake ; sweet and well seasoned, of four gallons of beer, but you must drink a good draught, that it of 8s. strength, new as it cometh from the tun- may stay less time in the stomach, lest it ning: make in the kilderkin a great bung-hole of curdle: and let the cup into which you milk the purpose : then thrust into it the boulter, in which cow, be set in a greater cup of hot water, that the capons are, drawn out in length; let it steep you may take it warm. And cow milk thus prein it three days and three nights, the bung-hole pared, I judge to be better for a consumption than open to work, then close the bung-hole, and so let ass milk, which, it is true, turneth not so easily, it continue a day and half; then draw it into bot- but it is a little harsh; marry it is more proper tles, and you may drink it well after three days' for sharpness of urine, and exulceration of the bottling; and it will last six weeks: approved. bladder, and all manner of lenifying. Woman's It drinketh fresh, flowereth and mantleth exceed- milk likewise is prescribed, when all fail ; but I ingly; it drinketh not newish at all; it is an ex-commend it not, as being a little too near the cellent drink for a consumption, to be drunk either juice of man's body, to be a good nourisher ; exalone, or carded with some other beer. It quench-cept it be in infants, to whom it is natural. eth thirst, and hath no whit of windiness. Note, 52. Oil of sweet almonds, newly drawn, with that it is not possible, that meat and bread, either sugar and a little spice, spread upon bread toasted, in broths, or taken with drink, as is used, should is an excellent nourisher: but then to keep the get forth into the veins and outward parts so finely oil from frying in the stomach, you must drink a and easily as when it is thus incorporate, and good draught of mild beer after it; and to keep it made almost a chylus aforehand.
from relaxing the stomach too much, you must 47. Trial would be made of the like brew with put in a little powder of cinnamon. potatoe roots, or burr roots, or the pith of arti- 53. The yolks of eggs are of themselves so well chokes, which are nourishing meats : it may be prepared by nature for nourishment, as, so they be tried also with other flesh; as pheasant, partridge, poached, or reare boiled, they need no other prepayoung pork, pig, venison, especially of young deer, ration or mixture; yet they may be taken also &c.
raw, when they are new laid, with Malmsey, or 48. A mortress made with the brawn of capons, sweet wine : you shall do well to put in some few stamped and strained, and mingled, after it is slices of eryngium roots, and a little ambergrice; made, with like quantity, at the least, of almond for by this means, besides the immediate faculty butter, is an excellent meat to nourish those that of nourishment, such drink will strengthen the are weak; better than blanckmanger, or jelly: back, so that it will not draw down the urine too and so is the cullice of cocks, boiled thick with fast; for too much urine doth always hinder the like mixture of almond butter; for the mort- nourishment. ress or cullice, of itself, is more savoury and 54. Mincing of meat, as in pies, and buttered strong, and not so fit for nourishing of weak minced meat, saveth the grinding of the teeth ; bodies; but the almonds, that are not of so high and therefore, no doubt, it is more nourishing, a taste as flesh, do excellently qualify it. especially in age, or to them that have weak teeth;
49. Indian maiz hath, of certain, an excellent but the butter is not so proper for weak bodies; spirit of nourishment; but it must be throughly and therefore it were good to moisten it with a boiled, and made into a maiz-cream like a barley- little claret wine, pill of lemon or orange, cut cream. I judge the same of rice, made into a small, sugar, and a very little cinnamon or nutcream; for rice is in Turkey, and other countries meg. As for chuets, which are likewise minced of the east, most fed upon; but it must be meat, instead of butter and fat, it were good to thoroughly boiled in respect of the hardness of moisten them, partly with cream, or almond, or it, and also because otherwise it bindeth the body pistacho milk: or barley, or maiz-cream; adding too much.
a little coriander seed and caraway seed, and a
very little saffron. The more full handling of that the spirits do less spend the nourishment in alimentation we reserve to the due place. sleep, than when living creatures are awake, and
We have hitherto handled the particulars which because, that which is to the present purpose, it yield best, and easiest, and plentifullest nourish- helpeth to thrust out the nourishment into the ment; and now we will speak of the best means parts. Therefore in aged men, and weak bodies, of conveying and converting the nourishment. and such as abound not with choler, a short sleep
55. The first means is to procure that the nourish- after dinner doth help to nourish; for in such ment may not be robbed and drawn away; where- bodies there is no fear of an over-hasty digestion, in that which we have already said is very mate- which is the inconvenience of postmeridian sleeps. rial; to provide that the reins draw not too strong- Sleep also in the morning, after the taking of somely an over great part of the blood into urine. To what of easy digestion, as milk from the cow, this add that precept of Aristotle, that wine be nourishing broth, or the like, doth further nourishforborne in all consumptions; for that the spirits ment: but this would be done sitting upright, of the wine do prey upon the roscid juice of the that the milk or broth may pass the more speedily body, and inter-common with the spirits of the to the bottom of the stomach. body, and so deceive and rob them of their nourish- 58. The fourth means is, to provide that the ment. And therefore, if the consumption, grow- parts themselves may draw to them the nourishing from the weakness of the stomach, do force ment strongly. There is an excellent observation you to use wine, let it always be burnt, that the of Aristotle; that a great reason, why plants, quicker spirits may evaporate; or, at the least, some of them, are of greater age than living creaquenched with two little wedges of gold, six or tures, is, for that they yearly put forth new leaves seven times repeated. Add also this provision, and boughs: whereas living creatures put forth that there be not too much expense of the nourish- after their period of growth, nothing that is young, ment, by exhaling and sweating; and therefore if but hair and nails, which are excrements, and no the patient be apt to sweat, it must be gently re- parts. And it is most certain, that whatsoever is strained. But chiefly Hippocrates's rule is to be young, doth draw nourishment better than that followed, who adviseth quite contrary to that which is old; and then, that which is the mystewhich is in use: namely, that the linen or gar- ry of that observation, young boughs, and leaves, ment next the flesh be, in winter, dry and oft calling the sap up to them, the same nourisheth changed; and in summer seldom changed, and the body in the passage. And this we see notasmeared over with oil; for certain it is, that any bly proved also, in that the oft cutting, or polling substance that is fat, doth a little fill the pores of of hedges, trees, and herbs, doth conduce much to the body, and stay sweat in some degree: but the their lasting. Transfer therefore this observation more cleanly way is, to have the linen smeared to the helping of nourishment in living creatures: lightly over with oil of sweet almonds; and not the noblest and principal use whereof is, for the to forbear shifting as ost as is fit.
prolongation of life; restoration of some degree 56. The second means is, to send forth the nou- of youth, and inteneration of the parts; for certain rishment into the parts more strongly; for which it is, that there are in living creatures parts that the working must be by strengthening of the nourish and repair easily, and parts that nourish stomach ; and in this, because the stomach is and repair hardly; and you must refresh and renew chiefly comforted by wine and hot things, which those that are easy to nourish, that the other may otherwise hurt, it is good to resort to outward ap- be refreshed, and as it were, drink in nourishment plications to the stomach : Wherein it hath been in the passage. Now we see that draught oxen, tried, that the quilts of roses, spices, mastic, worm- put into good pasture, recover the flesh of young wood, mint, &c. are nothing so helpful, as to take beef; and men after long emaciating diets wax a cake of new bread, and to bedew it with a little plump and fat, and almost new: so that you may sack, or Alicant, and to dry it, and after it be dried surely conclude, that the frequent and wise use a little before the fire, to put it within a clean of those emaciating diets, and of purgings, and napkin, and to lay it to the stomach; for it is cer- perhaps of some kind of bleeding, is a principal tain, that all flour hath a potent virtue of astric- means of prolongation of life, and restoring some tion; in so much as it hardeneth a piece of flesh, degree of youth; for as we have often said, death or a flower, that is laid in it: and therefore a bag cometh upon living creatures like the torment of quilted with bran is likewise very good; but it Mezentius : drieth somewhat too much, and therefore it must
Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis not lie long
Componens manibusque manus, atque oribus ora. 57. The third means, which may be a branch of the former, is to send forth the nourishment For the parts in man's body easily reparable, as the better by sleep. or we see, that bears, and spirits, blood, and flesh, die in the embracement other creatures that sleep in the winter, wax ex- of the parts hardly reparable, as bones, nerves, and ceeding fat: and certain it is, as it is commonly membranes ; and likewise some entrails, which believed, that sleep doth nourish much, both for they reckon amongst the spermatical parts, are
Æn. viii. 485.
hard to repair: though that division of spermati-hath been said. Ordinary keepers of the sick of cal and menstrual parts be but a conceit. And the plague are seldom infected. Enduring of this same observation also may be drawn to the tortures, by custom, hath been made more easy: present purpose of nourishing emaciated bodies: the brooking of enormous quantity of meats, and and therefore gentle frication draweth forth the so of wine or strong drink, hath been, by custom, nourishment, by making the parts a little hungry, made to be without surfeit or drunkenness. And and heating them; whereby they call forth nou- generally, diseases that are chronical, as coughs, rishment the better. This frication I wish to be phthisics, some kinds of palsies, lunacies, &c. done in the morning. It is also best done by the are most dangerous at the first: therefore a wise hand, or a piece of scarlet wool, wet a little physician will consider whether a disease be inwith the oil of almonds, mingled with a small curable; or whether the just cure of it be not full quantity of bay-salt, or saffron: we see that the of peril; and if he find it to be such, let him revery currying of horses doth make them fat, and sort to palliation; and alleviate the symptom, in good liking.
without busying himself too much with the per59. The fifth means is, to further the very act fect cure : and many times, if the patient be inof assimilation of nourishment; which is done by deed patient, that course will exceed all expectasome outward emolliments, that make the parts tion. Likewise the patient himself may strive, by more apt to assimilate. For which I have com- little and little, to overcome the symptom in the acerpounded an ointment of excellent odour, which 1 bation, and so, by time, turn suffering into nature. call Roman ointment; vide the receipt. The use of it would be between sleeps; for in the latter
Experiment solitary touching cure by excess. sleep the parts assimilate chiefly.
62. Divers diseases, especially chronical, such Experiment solitary touching " Filum medicinale.", as quartan agues, are sometimes cured by surfeit
and excesses: as excess of meat, excess of drink, 60. There be many medicines, which by them- extraordinary stirring or lassitude, and the like. selves would do no cure, but perhaps hurt; but the cause is, for that diseases of continuance get being applied in a certain order, one after another, an adventitious strength from custom, besides do great cures. I have tried, myself, a remedy their material cause from the humours; so that for the gout, which hath seldom failed, but driven the breaking of the custom doth leave them only it away in twenty-four hours space: it is first to to their first cause; which if it be any thing weak apply a poultis, of which vide the receipt, and will fall off. Besides, such excesses do excite then a bath, or fomentarion, of which vide the re- and spur nature, which thereupon rises more ceipt; and then a plaister, vide the receipt. The forcibly against the disease. poultis relaxeth the pores, and maketh the humour apt to exhale. The fomentation calleth forth the Experiment solitary touching cure by motion of humour by vapours; but yet in regard of the way
consent. made by the poullis, draweth gently; and therefore 63. There is in the body of man a great consent draweth the humour out, and doth not draw more in the motion of the several parts. We see, it is to it; for it is a gentle fomentation, and hath children's sport, to prove whether they can rub withal a mixture, though very little, of some upon their breast with one hand, and pat upon stupefactive. The plaister is a moderate astrin- their forehead with another; and straightways gent plaister, which repelleth new humour from they shall sometimes rub with both hands, or pat falling. The poultis alone would make the part with both hands. We see, that when the spirits more soft and weak, and apter to take the deflux- that come to the nostrils expel a bad scent, the ion and impression of the humour. The fomen- stomach is ready to expel by vornit. We find tation alone, if it were too weak, without way that in consumptions of the lungs, when nature made by the poultis, would draw forth little; if cannot expel by cough, men fall into fluxes of the too strong, it would draw to the part, as well as belly, and then they die. Soin pestilent diseases, draw from it. The plaister alone would pen the if they cannot be expelled by sweat, they fall humour already contained in the part, and so ex- likewise into looseness; and that is commonly asperate it, as well as forbid new humour. There- mortal. Therefore physicians should ingeniously fore they must be all taken in order, as is said. contrive, how, by emotions that are in their power, The poultis is to be laid to for two or three hours: they may excite inward motions that are not in the fomentation for a quarter of an hour, or some their power: as by the stench of feathers, or the what better, being used hot, and seven or eight like, they cure the rising of the mother. times repeated : the plaister to continue on still, till the part be well confirmed.
Experiment solitary touching cure of diseases which
are contrary to predisposition. Experiment solitary touching cure by custom.
64. Hippocrates's aphorism, “in morbis minus,'' 61. There is a secret way of cure, unpractised, is a good profound aphorism. It importeth, that by assuetude of that which in itself hurteth. diseases, contrary to the complexion, age, sex, seaPoisons have been made, by some, familiar, as son of the year, diet, &c. are more dangerous than VOL. II.-3