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choose. It would be done also when the dew is, wine into them; and so kept himself alive with a little off the ground, lest the vapour be too moist. the odour of them, till the feast was past. I I knew a great man that lived long, who had a knew a gentleman that would fast, sometimes clean clod of earth brought to him every morning three or four, yea, five days, without meat, bread, as he sat in his bed : and he would hold his head or drink ; but the same nian used to have contiover it a good pretty while. I commend also, nually a great wisp of herbs that he smelled on; sometimes, in digging of new earth, to pour in and amongst those herbs, soine esculent herbs of some Malmsey or Greek wine, that the vapour of strong scent; as onions, garlic, leeks, and the the earth and wine together may comfort the like. spirits the more: provided always it be not taken 935. They do use, for the accident of the mofor a heathen sacrifice, or libation to the earth. ther, to burn feathers and other things of ill odour;
929. They have in physic use of pomanders, and by those ill smells the rising of the mother is. and knots of powders, for drying of rheums, com- put down. forting of the heart, provoking of sleep, &c. For 936. There be airs which the physicians adthough those things be not so strong as perfumes, vise their patients to remove unto, in consumpyet you may have them continually in your hand; tions, or upon recovery of long sicknesses ; whereas perfumes you can take but at times; and which, commonly, are plain champaigns, but grazbesides, there be divers things that breathe better ing, and not over-grown with heath or the like; of themselves, than when they come to the fire; or else timber-shades, as in forests, and the like. as nigella romana, the seed of melanthium, amo- It is noted also, that groves of bays do forbid pesmum, &c.
tilent airs : which was accounted a great cause 930. There be two things which, inwardly used, of the wholesome air of Antiochia. There be also do cool and condense the spirits; and I wish the some soils that put forth odorate herbs of themsame to be tried outwardly in vapours. The one selves; as wild thyme, wild marjoram, pennyis nitre, which I would have dissolved in Malm- royal, camomile; and in which the brier roses. sey, or Greek wine, and so the smell of the wine smell almost like musk-roses; which, no doubts. taken; or if you would have it more forcible, pour are signs that do discover an excellent air. of it upon a firepan, well heated, as they do rose- 937. It were good for men to think of having water and vinegar. The other is the distilled healthful air in their houses; which will never be water of wild poppy, which I wish to be mingled, if the rooms be low roofed, or full of windows and at half, with rose-water, and so taken with some doors; for the one maketh the air close, and not mixture of a few cloves in a perfuming pan. The fresh, and the other maketh it exceeding unequal; like would be done with the distilled water of which is a great enemy to health. The windows saffron-flowers.
also should not be high up to the roof, which is in 931. Sınells of musk, and amber, and civet, are use for beauty and magnificence, but low. Also thought to further venerous appetite ; which they stone walls are not wholesome; but timber is. may do by the refreshing and calling forth of the more wholesome; and especially brick: nay, it spirits.
hath been used by some with great success to 932. Incense and nidorous smells, such as make their walls thick; and to put a lay of chalk were of sacrifices, were thought to intoxicate the between the bricks, to take away all dampishbrain, and to dispose men to devotion : which ness. they may do by a kind of sadness, and contristation of the spirits ; and partly also by heating and Experiment solitary touching the emissions of spiexalting them. We see that amongst the Jews the ritual species which affect the senses. principal perfume of the sanctuary was forbidden 938. These emissions, as we said before, are all common uses.
handled, and ought to be handled by themselves 933. There be some perfumes prescribed by the under their proper titles: that is, visibles and auwriters of natural magic, which procure pleasant dibles, each apart: in this place it shall suffice to dreams: and some others, as they say, that pro- give some general observations common to both. cure prophetical dreams; as the seeds of flax, First, they seem to be incorporeal. Secondly, fleawort, &c.
they work swiftly. Thirdly, they work at large 934. It is certain, that odours do, in a small | distances. Fourthly, in curious varieties. Fifthdegree, nourish ; especially the odour of wine; ly, they are not effective of any thing; nor leave and we see men an hungered do love to smell hot no work behind them; but are energies merely: bread. It is related that Democritus, when he for their working upon mirrors and places of echo lay a dying, heard a woman in the house corn- doth not alter any thing in those bodies; but it plain that she should be kept from being at a feast is the same action with the original, only reperand solemnity, which she much desired to see, cussed. And as for the shaking of windows, or because there would be a corpse in the house ; rarifying the air by great noises, and the heat whereupon he caused loaves of new bread to be caused by burning-glasses: they are rather consent for, and opened them, and poured a little ! comitants of the audible and visible species, thanthe effects of them. Sixthly, they seem to be of some of them, go so far as to hold that the spirit 80 tender and weak a nature, as they affect only of the lover doth pass into the spirits of the persuch a rare and attenuate substance, as is the spi- son loved; which causeth the desire of rclurn into rit of living creatures.
the body whence it was emitted; whereupon fol
loweth that appetite of contact and conjunction Experiments in consort touching the emission of im- which is in lovers. And this is observed like
n.ateriate rirlues from the minds and spirits of wise, that the aspects which procure love, are not men, either by affections, or by imaginations, or gazings, but sudden glances and dartings of the by olher impressions.
eye, as for envy, that emitteth some malign and 939. It is mentioned in some stories, that poisonous spirit, which taketh hold of the spirit where children have been exposed, or taken away of another: and is likewise of greatest force when young from their parents; and that afterwards the cast of the eye is oblique. It hath been noted they have approached to their parents' presence, also, that it is most dangerous when an envious the parents, though they have not known them, eye is cast upon persons in glory, and triumph, have had a secret joy or other alteration there and joy. The reason whereof is, for that at such upon.
times the spirits come forth most into the outward 940. There was an Egyptian soothsayer, that parts, and so meet the percussion of the envious made Antonius believe, that his genius, which eye more at hand : and therefore it bath been otherwise, was brave and confident, was, in the noted, that after great triumphs, men have been presence of Octavianus Cæsar, poor and coward- ill.disposed for some days following. We see ly; and therefore, he advised him to absent him the opinion of fascination is ancient, for both efself as much as he could, and remove far from him. fects ; of procuring love; and sickness caused by This soothsayer was thought to be suborned by envy: and fascination is ever hy the eye. But Cleopatra, to make him live in Egypt, and other yet if there be any such infection from spirit to remote places from Rome. Howsoever, the con- spirit, there is no doubt but that it worketh by ceit of a predominant or mastering spirit of one presence, and not by the eye alone : yet most forman over another, is ancient, and received still, cibly by the eye. even in vulgar opinion.
945. Fear and shame are likewise infective; 941. There are conceits, that some men that for we see that the starting of one will make anare of an ill and melancholy nature, do incline the other ready to start: and when one man is out of company into which they come to be sad and ill-countenance in a company, others do likewise disposed; and contrariwise, that others that are blush in his behalf. of a jovial nature, do dispose the company to be merry
and cheerful. And again, that some men Now we will speak of the force of imagination are lucky to be kept company with and employed; upon other bodies, and of the means to exalt and and others unlucky. Certainly, it is agreeable strengthen it. Imagination, in this place, I underto reason, that there are at the least some light stand to be, the representation of an individual effluxions from spirit to spirit, when men are in thought. Imagination is of three kinds: the first presence one with another, as well as from body joined with belief of that which is to come: the to body.
second joined with memory of that which is past: 912. It hath been observed, that old men who and the third is of things present, or as if they have loved young company, and been conversant were present: for I comprehend in this, imaginacontinually with them, have been of long life; tions feigned, and at pleasure, as if one should their spirits, as it seemeth, being recreated by imagine such a man to be in the vestments of a such company. Such were the ancient sophists pope, or to have wings. I single out, for this and rhetoricians; which ever had young auditors time, that which is with faith or belief of that and disciples; as Georgias, Protagoras, Isocrates, which is to come. The inquisition of this subject &c., who lived till they were a hundred years in our way, which is by induction, is wonderful old. And so likewise did many of the grammarians hard: for the things that are reported are full of and school-masters; such as was Orbilius, &c. fables; and new experiments can hardly be made,
913. Audacity and confidence doth, in civil bu- but with extreme caution, for the reason which siness, so great effects, as a man may reasonably we will hereafter declare. doubt, that besides the very daring, and earnest- The power of imagination is of three kinds; the ness, and persisting, and importunity, there should first upon the body of the imaginant, including be some secret binding, and stooping of other likewise the child in the mother's womb; the men's spirits to such persons.
second is, the power of it upon dead bodies, as 944. The affections, no doubt, do make the plants, wood, stone, metal, &c.; the third is, the spirits more powerful and active ; and especially power of it upon the spirits of men and living those affections which draw the spirits into the creatures: and with this last we will only meddle. eyes: which are two; love, and envy, which is The problem therefore is, whether a man concalled occulus malus. As for love, the Platonists, stantly and strongly believing that such a thing
shall be, as that such an one will love him, or first, his thought had been fixed; but the other that such an one will grant him his request, or imagining first, bound his thought.” Which, such an one shall recover a sickness, or the like, though it did somewhat sink with me, yet I made it doth help any thing to the effecting of the thing it lighter than I thought, and said, I thought it itself. And here again we must warily distin- was confederacy between the juggler and the two guish; for it is not meant, as hath been partly said servants: though, indeed, I had no reason so to before, that it should help by making a man more think, for they were both my father's servants, and stout, or more industrious, in which kind a con- he had never played in the house before. The jugstant belief doth much, but merely by a secret gler also did cause a garter, to be held up, and took operation, or binding, or changing the spirit of upon him to know, that such a one should point another : and in this it is hard, as we began to in such a place of the garter, as it should be say, to make any new experiment; for I cannot near so many inches to the longer end, and so command myself to believe what I will, and so no many to the shorter; and still he did it, by first trial can be made. Nay, it is worse; for what- telling the imaginer, and after bidding the actor soever a man imagineth doubtingly, or with fear, think. must needs do hurt, if imagination have any Having told this relation, not for the weight power at all; for a man representeth that oftener thereof, but because it doth handsomely open the that he feareth, than the contrary.
nature of the question, 1 return to that I said, that The help therefore is, for a man to work by an experiments of imagination must be practised by other, in whom he may create belief, and not by others, and not by a man's self. For there be himself; until himself have found by experience, three means to fortify belief: the first is experithat imagination doth prevail; for then experi- ence; the second is reason; and the third is avence worketh in himself belief; if the belief that thority : and that of these which is far the most such a thing shall be, be joined with a belief potent, is authority; for belief upon reason, or exthat his imagination may procure it.
perience will stagger. 946. For example: I related one time to a man 947. For authority, it is of two kinds, belief in that was curious and vain enough in these things, an art, and belief in a man. And for things of that I saw a kind of juggler, that had a pair of belief in an art, a man may exercise them by himcards, and would tell a man what card he thought. self; but for belief in a man, it must be by anThis pretended learned man told me, it was a mis- other. Therefore if a man believe in astrology, taking in me; “ for,” said he, “it was not the and find a figure prosperous, or believe in natural knowledge of the man's thought, for that is pro- magic, and that a ring with such a stone, or such per to God, but it was the enforcing of a thought a piece of a living creature carried, will do good, upon him, and binding his imagination by a it may help his imagination : but the belief in a stronger, that he could think no other card." man is far the most active. But howsoever, all And thereupon he asked me a question or two, authority must be out of a man's self, turned, as which I thought he did but cunningly, knowing was said, either upon an art, or upon a man: and before what used to be the feats of the juggler. where authority is from one man to another, there “Sir," said he, “ do you remember whether he the second must be ignorant, and not learned, or told the card the man thought, himself, or bade full of thoughts; and such are, for the most part, another to tell it ?" I answered, as was true, that all witches and superstitious persons, whose behe bade another tell it. Whereunto he said, liefs, tied to their teachers and traditions, are no “So I thought: for," said he, “ himself could not whit controlled either by reason or experience; have put on so strong an imagination; but by and upon the same reason, in magic, they use for telling the other the card, who believed that the the most part boys and young people, whose spijuggler was some strange man, and could do rits easiliest take belief and imagination. strange things, that other man caught a strong Now to fortify imagination, there be three imagination.” I hearkened unto him, thinking ways: the authority whence the belief is defor a vanity he spoke prettily. Then he asked me rived ; means to quicken and corroborate the imaanother question : saith he, “Do you remember, gination : and means to repeat it and refresh it. whether he bade the man think the card first, and 948. For the authority, we have already afterwards told the other man in his ear what spoken: as for the second, namely, the means to he should think; or else that he did whisper first quicken and corroborate the imagination; we see in the man's ear that should tell the card, telling what hath been used in magic, if there be in those that such a man should think such a card, and practices any thing that is purely natural, as vestafter bade the man think a card ?" I told him, as ments, characters, words, seals; some parts of was true; that he did first whisper the man in the plants, or living creatures: stones, choice of the ear, that such a man should think such a card : hour, gestures and motions; also incenses and upon this the learned man did much exult and odours, choice of society, which increaseth imaplease himself, saying; “ Lo, you may see that gination; diets and preparations for some time my opinion is right; for if the man had thought before. And for words, there have been ever used,
either barbarous words, of no sense, lest they should 952. It were good, because you cannot discern disturb the imagination, or words of similitude, that fully of the strength of imagination in one man may second and feed the imagination; and this more than another, that you did use the imaginawas ever as well in heathen charms, as in charms tion of more than one, that so you may light upon of latter times. There are used also Scripture a strong one. As if a physician should tell three words ; for that the belief that religious texts and or four of his patient's servants, that their master words have power, may strengthen the imagina- shall surely recover. tion. And for the same reason, Hebrew words, 953. The imagination of one that
you which amongst us is counted the holy tongue, and such is the variety of men's minds, cannot be althe words more mystical, are often used. ways alike constant and strong; and if the suc
949. For the refreshing of the imagination, cess follow not speedily, it will faint and lose which was the third means of exalting it, we strength. To reinedy this, you must pretend to see the practices of magic, as in images of wax, him, whose imagination you use, several degrees and the like, that should melt by little and little; of means, by which to operate: as to prescribe or some other things buried in muck, that should him that every three days, if he find not the sucputrefy by little and little; or the like ; for so oft cess apparent, he do use another root, or part of a as the imaginant doth think of those things, so oft beast, or ring, &c., as being of more force: and if doth he represent to his imagination the effect of that fail, another; and is that, another, till seven that he desireth.
times. Also you must prescribe a good large 950. If there be any power in imagination, it is time for the effect you promise; as if you should less credible that it should be so incorporeal, and tell a servant of a sick man that his master shall immateriate a virtue, as to work at great distances, recover, but it will be fourteen days ere he findeth or through all mediums, or upon all bodies: but it apparently, &c. All this to entertain the imathat the distance must be competent, the medium gination, that it waver less. not adverse, and the body apt and proportionate. 954. It is certain, that potions, or things taken Therefore if there be any operation upon bodies into the body; incenses and perfumes taken at in absence by nature, it is like to be conveyed the nostrils; and ointments of some parts, do from man to man, as fame is; as if a witch, by naturally work upon the imagination of him imagination, should hurt any afar off, it cannot be that taketh them. And therefore it must needs naturally; but by working upon the spirit of greatly co-operate with the imagination of him some that cometh to the witch; and from that whom you use, if you prescribe him, before he party upon the imagination of another; and so do use the receipt for the work which he desireth, upon another; till it come to one that hath resort that he do take such a pill, or a spoonful of liquor; to the party intended; and so by him to the party or burn such an incense; or anoint his temples, intended himself. And although they speak, or the soles of his feet, with such an ointment or that it sufficeth to take a point, or a piece of the oil: and you must choose, for the composition of garment, or the name of the party, or the like; yet such pill, perfume, or ointment, such ingredients there is less credit to be given to those things, as do make the spirits a little more gross or muddy; except it be by working of evil spirits.
whereby the imagination will fix the better. The experiments, which may certainly demon- 955. The body passive, and to be wrought strate the power of imagination upon other bodies, upon, I mean not of the imaginant, is better are few or none : for the experiments of witchcraft wrought upon, as hath been partly touched, at are no clear proofs; for that they may be by some times than at others : as if you should prea tacit operation of malign spirits: we shall scribe a servant about a sick person, whom you therefore be forced, in this inquiry, to resort to have possessed that his master shall recover, new experiments; wherein we can give only di- when his master is fast asleep, to use such a root, rections of trials, and not any positive experi- or such a root. For imagination is like to work ments. And if any man think that we ought to better upon sleeping men, than men awake; as have stayed till we had made experiment of some we shall show when we handle dreams. of them ourselves, as we do commonly in other 956. We find in the art of memory, that images titles, the truth is, that these effects of imagina- visible work better than other conceits : as if you tion upon other bodies have so little credit with would remember the word philosophy, you shall us, as we shall try them at leisure: but in the more surely do it, by imagining, that such a man, mean time we will lead others the way.
for men are best places, is reading upon Aristotle's 951. When you work by the imagination of Physics; than if you should imagine him to say, another, it is necessary that he, by whom you" I'll go study philosophy.” And therefore this work, have a precedent opinion of you that you observation would be translated to the subject we can do strange things; or that you are a man of now speak of: for the more lustrous the imaginaart, as they call it; for else the simple affirmation tion is, it filleth and fixeth the better. And thereto another, that this or that shall be, can work fore I conceive, that you shall, in that experiment but a weak impression in his imagination. whereof we spake before, of binding of thoughts,
less fail, if you tell one that such an one shall name one of twenty men, than if it were one of Experiments in consort touching the secret virtue
of sympathy and antipathy. twenty cards. The experiment of binding of thoughts would be diversified and tried to the 960. There be many things that work upon full: and you are to note, whether it hit for the the spirits of man by secret sympathy and antimost part, though not always.
pathy: the virtues of precious stones worn, havo 957. It is good to consider, upon what things been anciently and generally received, and cuimagination hath most force : and the rule, as I riously assigned to work several effects. So conceive, is, that it hath most force upon things much is true: that stones have in them fine that have the lightest and easiest motions. And spirits, as appeareth by their splendour; and therefore above all, upon the spirits of men : and therefore they may work by consent upon the in them, upon such affections as move lightest ; spirits of men, to comfort and exhilarate them. as upon procuring of love; binding of lust, which Those that are the best, for that effect, are the is ever with imagination; upon inen in fear; or diamond, the emerald, the jacinth oriental, and men in irresolution; and the like. Whatsoever is the gold stone, which is the yellow topaz. As of this kind would be throughly inquired. Trials for their particular properties, there is no credit likewise would be made upon plants, and that to be given to them. But it is manifest, that diligently: as if you should tell a man, that such light, above all things, excelleth in comforting a tree would die this year; and will him at these the spirits of men: and it is very probable, that and these times to go unto it, to see how it light varied doth the same effect, with more thriveth. As for inanimate things, it is true that novelty. And this is one of the causes why the motions of shulling of cards, or casting of precious stones comfort. And therefore it were dice, are very light motions: and there is a good to have tincted lanterns, or tincted screens folly very usual, that gamesters injagine, that of glass coloured into green, blue, carnation, some that stand by them bring them ill luck. crimson, purple, &c., and to use them with There would be trial also made, of holding a ring candles in the night. So likewise to have round by a thread in a glass, and telling him that hold- glasses, not only of glass coloured through, but eth it, before, that it shall strike so many times with colours laid between crystals, with handles against the side of the glass, and no more; or
to hold in one's hand. Prisms are also comfort of holding a key between two men's fingers, able things. They have of Paris-work, lookingwithout a charm; and to tell those that hold it, glasses, bordered with broad borders of small that at such a name it shall go off their fingers; crystal, and great counterfeit precious stones, of for these two are extreme light motions. And all colours, that are most glorious and pleahowsoever I have no opinion of these things, yet sant to behold; especially in the night. The so much I conceive to be true; that strong ima- pictures of Indian feathers are likewise comfortgination hath more force upon things living, or able and pleasant to behold. So also fair and that have been living, than things merely inani- clear pools do greatly comfort the eyes and spirits.mate: and mere force likewise upon light and especially when the sun is not glaring, but oversubtile motions, than upon motions vehement or cast; or when the moon shineth. ponderous.
961. There be divers sorts of bracelets fit to 958. It is an usual observation, that if the comfort the spirits; and they be of three intenbody of one murdered be brought before the mur- tions; refrigerant, corroborant, and aperient. derer, the wounds will bleed afresh. Some do For refrigerant, I wish them to be of pearl, or of aflirm, that the dead body, upon the presence of coral, as is used; and it hath been noted that the murderer, hath opened the eyes; and that coral, if the party that weareth it be indisposed, there have been such like motions, as well where will wax pale; which I believe to be true, because the parties murdered have been strangled or otherwise distemper of heat will make coral lose drowned, as where they have been killed by colour. I commend also beads, or little plates of wounds. It may be, that this participateth of a lapis lazuli; and beads of nitre, either alone, or miracle, by God's just judgment, who usually with some cordial mixture. bringeth murders to light: but if it be natural, it 962. For corroboration and confortation, take must be referred to imagination.
such bodies as are of astringent quality, without 959. The tying of the point upon the day of manifest cold. I commend bead-amber, which is marriage, to make men impotent towards their full of astriction, but yet is. unctuous, and not wives, which, as we have formerly touched, is cold; and is conceived to impinguate those that 80 frequent in Zant and Gascony, if it be natural, wear such beads; I commend also beads of hartsmust be referred to the imagination of him that horn and ivory; which are of the like nature; tieth the point. I conceive it to have the less also orange beads; also beads of lignum aloos, affinity with witchcraft, because not peculiar per- macerated first in rose-water, and dried. sons only, such as witches are, but anybody may 963. For opening, I commend beads, or pieces do it.
of the roots of carduus benedictus also; of the