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with straw to keep them from cold. They remove incorporation doth make the mixture of the body
edible. vigour to put forth strong.
859. Of fleshes, some are edible; some, exExperiment solitary touching several heats working cept it be in famine, not. For those that are the same effects.
not edible, the cause is, for that they have 856. Heat of the sun for the maturation of therefore those creatures which are fierce and
commonly too much bitterness of taste; and fruits; yea, and the heat of vivification of living choleric are not edible; as lions, wolves, squircreatures, are both represented and supplied by rels, dogs, foxes, horses, &c. As for kine, the heat of fire; and likewise the heats of the sun, sheep, goats, deer, swine, conies, hares, &c., we and life, are represented one by the other. Trees see they are mild and fearful. Yet it is true, set upon the backs of chimneys do ripen fruit that horses, which are beasts of courage, have
Vines, that have been drawn in at the been, and are eaten by some nations; as the window of a kitchen, have sent forth grapes ripe Scythians were called Hippophagi; and the a month at least before others. Stoves at the Chinese eat horse-flesh at this day; and some back of walls bring forth oranges here with us.
gluttons have used to have colts'-flesh baked. In Eggs, as is reported by some, have been hatched birds, such as are carnivoræ, and birds of prey, in the warmth of an oven. It is reported by the
are commonly no good meat, but the reason is, ancients, that the ostrich layeth her eggs under rather the choleric nature of those birds, than sand, where the heat of the sun discloseth them. their feeding upon flesh: for pewets, gulls, Experiment solitary touching swelling and dilata- shovellers, ducks, do feed upon flesh, and yet are tion in boiling
good meat. And we see that those birds which 857. Barley in the boiling swelleth not much; when they are very young; as hawks, rooks out
are of prey, or feed upon flesh, are good meat wheat swelleth more; rice extremely, insomuch as a quarter of a pint, unboiled, will arise to a of the nest, owls, &c. Man's flesh is not eaten.
The reasons are three : first, because men in pint boiled. The cause no doubt is, for that the more close and compact the body is, the more it humanity do abhor it: secondly, because no lirwill dilate : now barley is the most hollow; ing creature that dieth of itself is good to eat:
and therefore the cannibals themselves eat no wheat more solid than that; and rice most solid. of all. It may be also that some bodies have a of such as are slain. The third is, because there
man's flesh of those that die of themselves, but kind of lentour, and more depertible nature than others; as we see it evident in colouration; for a
must be generally some disparity between the small quantity of saffron will tinct more than a
nourishment and the body nourished; and they
must not be over-near, or like: yet we see, that very great quantity of brasil or wine.
in great weaknesses and consumptions, men have Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of been sustained with woman's milk; and Facifruits.
nus, fondly, as I conceive, adviseth, for the pro858. Fruit groweth sweet by rolling, or press- longation of life, that a vein be opened in the ing them gently with the hand; as rolling pears, arm of some wholesome young man, and the damascenes, &c.: by rottenness; as medlars, blood to be sucked. It is said that witches do services, sloes, hips, &c.: by time; as apples, greedily eat man's flesh ; which if it be true, bewardens, pomegranates, &c.: by certain special sides a devilish appetite in them, it is likely to maturations ; as by laying them in hay, straw, proceed, for that man's flesh may send up high &c.: and by fire; as in roasting, stewing, bak- and pleasing vapours, which may stir the imaginaing, &c. The cause of the sweetness by rolling tion; and witches' felicity is chiefly in imaginaand pressing, is emollition, which they properly tion, as hath been said. induce; as in beating of stock-fish, flesh, &c.: by rottenness is, for that the spirits of the fruit by Experiment solitary touching the salamander. putrefaction gather heat, and thereby digest the 860. There is an ancient received tradition of the harder part, for in all putrefactions there is a de salamander, that it liveth in the fire, and hath gree of heat: by time and keeping is, because force also to extinguish the fire. It must have the spirits of the body do ever feed upon the tan- two things, if it be true, to this operation : the gible parts, and attenuate them: by several one a very close skin, whereby flame, which ir maturations is, by some degree of heat: and by the midst is not so hot, cannot enter; for we see fire is, because it is the proper work of heat to re- that if the palm of the hand be anointed thick fine, and to incorporate ; and all sourness con- with white of egg, and then aqua vitae be poured sisteth in some grossness of the body; and all upon it, and inflamed, yet one may endure the
flame a pretty while. The other is some extreme more in wine than in water. The cause may be cold and quenching virtue in the body of that trivial: namely, by the expense of the liquor, in creature, which choketh the fire. We see that regard some may stick to the sides of the bottles : milk quencheth wildfire better than water, be- but there may be a cause more subtile; which is, cause it entereth better.
that the liquor in the vessel is not so much com
pressed as in the bottle; because in the vessel Experiment solitary touching the contrary opera- the liquor meeteth with liquor chiefly; but in the
tions of time upon fruits and liquors. bottles a small quantity of liquor meeteth with 861. Time doth change fruit, as apples, pears, the sides of the bottles, which compress it so pomegranates, &c., from more sour to more sweet : that it doth not open again. but contrari wise liquors, even those that are of the juice of fruit, from more sweet to more sour: Experiment solitary touching the working of water as wort, musted, new verjuice, &c. The cause
upon air contiguous. is, the congregation of the spirits together : for
865. Water, being contiguous with air, cooleth in both kinds the spirit is attenuated by time; it, but moisteneth it not, except it vapour.
The but in the first kind it is more diffused, and more cause is, for that heat and cold have a virtual mastered by the grosser parts, which the spirits transition, without communication of substance; do but digest: but in drinks the spirits do reign, but moisture not: and to all madefaction there is and finding less opposition of the parts, become required an imbibition : but where the bodies are themselves more strong; which causeth also of such several levity and gravity as they mingle more strength in the liquor; such as if the spirits not, there can follow no imbibition. And therebe of the hotter sort, the liquor becometh apt to fore, oil likewise lieth at the top of the water, burn: but in time, it causeth likewise, when the without commixture: and a drop of water running higher spirits are evaporated, more sourness.
swiftly over a straw or smooth body, wetteth not. Experiment solitary touching blows and bruises.
Experiment solitary touching the nature of air. 862. It hath been observed by the ancients, that plates of metal, and especially of brass, ap
866. Starlight nights, yea, and bright moonplied presently to a blow, will keep it down from shine nights, are colder than cloudy nights. The swelling. The cause is repercussion, without cause is, the dryness and fineness of the air, humectation or entrance of any body: for the which thereby becometh more piercing and sharp ; plate hath only a virtual cold, which doth not and therefore great continents are colder than search into the hurt; whereas all plasters and islands: and as for the moon, though itself inointments do enter. Surely, the cause that blows clineth the air to moisture, yet when it shineth and bruises induce swellings is, for that the spirits bright, it argueth the air is dry. Also close air is resorting to succour the part that laboureth, draw warmer than open air; which, it may be, is, for also the humours with them: for we see, that it that the true cause of cold is an expiration from is not the repulse and the return of the humour the globe of the earth, which in open places is in the part strucken that causeth it; for that gouts stronger; and again, air itself, if it be not altered and toothaches cause swelling, where there is no by that expiration, is not without some secret percussion at all.
degree of heat; as it is not likewise without some
secret degree of light: for otherwise cats and Experiment solitary touching the orrice root. owls could not see in the night; but that air hath 863. The nature of the orrice root is almost a little light, proportionable to the visual spirits singular; for there be few odoriferous roots; and of those creatures. in those that are in any degree sweet, it is but the same sweetness with the wood or leaf : but Experiments in consort louching the eyes and sight. the orrice is not sweet in the leaf; neither is the 867. The eyes do move one and the same way; flower any thing so sweet as the root. The root for when one eye moveth to the nostril, the other seemeth to have a tender dainty heat; which moveth from the nostril. The cause is, motion of when it cometh above ground to the sun and the consent, which in the spirits and parts spiritual air, vanisheth : for it is a great mollifier; and is strong. But yet use will induce the contrary; hath a smell like a violet.
for some can squint when they will : and the
common tradition is, that if children be set upon Experiment solitary touching the compression of a table with a candle behind them, both eyes will liquors.
move outwards, as affecting to see the light, and 864. It hath been observed by the ancients, so induce squinting. that a great vessel full, drawn into bottles, and 868. We see more exquisitely with one eye then the liquor put again into the vessel, will not shut, than with both open. The cause is, for that fill the vessel again so full as it was, but that it the spirits visual unite themselves more, and so may take in more liquor: and that this holdeth | become stronger. For you may see, by looking in a glass, that when you shut one eye, the pupil blushing, it is true the spirits ascend likewise to of the other eye that is open dilateth.
succour both the eyes and the face, which are the 869. The eyes, if the sight meet not in one parts that labour; but then they are repulsed by angle, see things double. The cause is, for that the eyes, for that the eyes, in shame, do put back seeing two things, and seeing one thing twice, the spirits that ascend to them, as unwilling to worketh the same effect: and therefore a little look abroad : for no man in that passion doth look pellet held between two fingers laid across, strongly, but dejectedly; and that repulsion from seemeth double.
the eyes diverteth the spirits and heat more to the 870. Poreblind men see best in the dimmer ears, and the parts by them. lights: and likewise have their sight stronger 873. The objects of the sight may cause a great near hand, than those that are not poreblind; and pleasure and delight in the spirits, but no pain or can read and write smaller letters. The cause great offence; except it be by memory, as hath is, for that the spirits visual in those that are been said. The glimpses and beams of diamonds poreblind, are thinner and rarer than in others; that strike the eye; Indian feathers, that have and therefore the greater light disperseth them. glorious colours; the coming into a fair garden; For the same cause they need contracting; but the coming into a fair room richly furnished; a being contracted, are more strong than the visual beautiful person; and the like; do delight and spirits of ordinary eyes are; as when we see exhilarate the spirits much. The reason why it through a level, the sight is the stronger; and so holdeth not in the offence is, for that the sight is is it when you gather the eyelids somewhat the most spiritual of the senses; whereby it hath close: and it is commonly seen in those that are no object gross enough to offend it. But the cause poreblind, that they do mych gather the eyelids chiefly is, for that there be no active objects to together. But old men, when they would see to offend the eye. For harmonical sounds, and disread, put the paper somewhat afar off: the cause cordant sounds, are both active and positive: so is, for that old men's spirits visual, contrary to are sweet smells and stinks : so are bitter and those of poreblind men, unite not, but when the sweet in tastes: so are over-hot and over-cold in object is at some good distance from their eyes. touch: but blackness and darkness are indeed
871. Men see better, when their eyes are over- but privatives; and therefore have little or no against the sun or candle, if they put their hand a activity. Somewhat they do contristate, but very little before their eyes. The reason is, for that little. the glaring of the sun or the candle doth weaken the eye; whereas the light circumfused is enough Experiment solitary touching the colour of the sea for the perception. For we see that an over-light
or other water. maketh the eyes dazzle; insomuch' as perpetual 874. Water of the sea, or otherwise, looketh looking against the sun would cause blindness. blacker when it is moved, and whiter when it Again, if men come out of great light into a dark resteth. The cause is, for that by means of the room ; and contrariwise, if they come out of a motion, the beams of light pass not straight, and dark room into a light room, they seem to have a therefore must be darkened: whereas, when it mist before their eyes, and see worse than they resteth, the beams do pass straight. Besides, shall do after they have stayed a little while, splendour hath a degree of whiteness; especially either in the light or in the dark. The cause is, if there be a little repercussion : for a lookingfor that the spirits visual are, upon a sudden glass with the steel behind, looketh whiter than change, disturbed and put out of order; and till glass simple. This experiment deserveth to be they be recollected, do not perform their function driven farther, in trying by what means motion well. For when they are much dilated by light, may hinder sight. they cannot contract suddenly; and when they are much contracted by darkness, they cannot
Experiment solitary touching shell-fish. dilate suddenly. And excess of both these, that 875. Shell-fish have been, by some of the is, of the dilatation and contraction of the spirits ancients, compared and sorted with the insecta; visual, if it be long destroyeth the eye. For as but I see no reason why they should; for they long looking against the sun or fire hurteth the have male and female as other fish have: neither eye by dilatation; so curious painting in small are they bred of putrefaction; especially such as volumes, and reading of small letters, do hurt the do move. Nevertheless it is certain, that oysters, eye by contraction.
and cockles, and mussels, which move not, have 872. It hath been observed, that in anger the no discriminate sex. Query, in what time, and eyes wax red; and in blushing, not the eyes, but how they are bred? It seemeth, that shells of the ears, and the parts behind them. The cause oysters are bred where none were before; and it is, for that in anger the spirits ascend and wax is tried, that the great horse-mussel, with the eager; which is most easily seen in the eyes, fine shell, that breedeth in ponds, hath bred withbecause they are translucid; though withal it in thirty years: but then, which is strange, it maketh both the cheeks and the gills red; but in hath been tried, that they do not only gape and the left.
shut as the oysters do, but remove from one place Experiment solilary touching the rolling and breakto another.
ing of the seas.
880. Shallow and narrow seas break more than Experiment solitary touching the right side and deep and large. The cause is, for that, the im
pulsion being the same in both, where there is 876. The senses are alike strong, both on the greater quantity of water, and likewise space right side and on the left; but the limbs on the enough, there the water rolleth and moveth, both right side are stronger. The cause may be, for more slowly, and with a sloper rise and fall: but that the brain, which is the instrument of sense, where there is less water, and less space, and the is alike on both sides; but motion, and abilities water dasheth more against the bottom, there it of moving, are somewhat holpen from the liver, moveth more swiftly, and more in precipice; for which lieth on the right side. It may be also, in the breaking of the waves there is ever a prefor that the senses are put in exercise indifferently cipice. on both sides from the time of our birth; but the limbs are used most on the right side, whereby Experiment solitary touching the dulcoration of custom helpeth; for we see that some are left
salt water. handed; which are such as have used the left 881. It hath been observed by the ancients, hand most.
that salt water boiled, or boiled and cooled again,
is more potable, than of itself raw: and yet the Erperiment solitary touching frictions. taste of salt in distillations by lire riseth not, for 877. Frictions make the parts more fleshy and the distilled water will be fresh. The cause may full; as we see both in men, and in currying of be, for that the salt part of the water doth partly horses, &c. The cause is, for that they draw rise into a kind of scum on the top, and partly greater quantity of spirits and blood to the parts : goeth into a sediment in the bottom, and so is and again, because they draw the aliment more rather a separation than an evaporation. But it forcibly from within: and again, because they is too gross to rise into a vapour, and so is a bitrelax the pores, and so make better passage for ter taste likewise; for simple distilled waters, of the spirits, blood, and aliment: lastly, because wormwood, and the like, are not bitler they dissipate and digest any inutile or excrementitious moisture which lieth in the flesh; all which Experiment solitary touching the return of sallness help assimilation. Frictions also do more fill
in pits upon the seashore. and impinguate the body than exercise. 'The 882. It hath been set down before, that pits cause is, for that in frictions the inward parts are upon the seashore turn into fresh water, by perat rest; which in exercise are beaten, many times, colation of the salt through the sand: but it is too much: and for the same reason, as we have further noted, by some of the ancients, that in noted heretofore, galley-slaves are fat and fleshy some places of Africa, after a time, the water in because they stir the limbs more, and the inward such pits will become brackish again. The cause parts less.
is, for that after a time, the very sands through
which the salt water passeth, become salt, and so Experiment solilary touching globes appearing flat the strainer itself is tinctured with salt. The at distance.
remedy therefore is, to dig still new pits, when 878. All globes afar off appear flat. The cause
the old wax brackish; as if you would change is, for that distance, being a secondary object of your strainer. sight, is not otherwise discerned, than by more or less light; which disparity, when it cannot be
Experiment solitary touching at/raction by similidiscerned, all seemeth one: as it is, generally, in
tude of substance. objects not distinctly discerned; for so letters, if
883. It hath been observed by the ancients, they be so far off as they cannot be discerned,
that salt water will dissolve salt put into it, in show but as a duskish paper; and all engravings
less time than fresh water will dissolve it. The and embossings, afar off, appear plain.
cause may be, for that the salt in the precedent
water doth, by similitude of substance, draw the Experiment solilary touching shadows.
salt new put in unto it; whereby it diffuseth in
the liquor more speedily. This is a noble expe879. The yttermost parts of shadows seem ever rimeni, if it be true, for it showeth means of more to tremble. The cause is, for that the little quick and easy infusions, and it is likewise a motes which we see in the sun do ever stir, good instance of attraction by similitude of subthough there be no wind; and therefore those stance. Try it with sugar put into water formermoving, in the ineeting of the light and the ly sugared, and into other water unsugared. shadow, from the light to the shadow, and from the shadow to the light, do show the shadow to Experiment solitary touching altraction. move, because the inedium moveth.
884. Put sugar into wine, part of it above, Vol. II.-16
part under the wine, and you shall find, that which cause therein you may see the motion, and set a may seem strange, that the sugar above the wine candle lighted in the bottom of a bason of water, will soften and dissolve sooner than that within and turn the mouth of the pot or glass over the the wine. The cause is, for that the wine enter- candle, and it will make the water rise. They eth that part of the sugar which is under the ascribe it to the drawing of heat; which is not wine, by simple infusion or spreading; but that true : for it appeareth plainly to be but a motion part above the wine is likewise forced by suck- of nexe, which they call ne detur vacuum; and ing; for all spongy bodies expel the air and draw it proceedeth thus. The flame of the candle, as in liquor, if it be contiguous: as we see it also soon as it is covered, being suffocated by the in sponges put part above the water. It is close air, lesseneth by little and little; during worthy the inquiry, to see how you may make which time there is some little ascent of water, more accurate infusions, by help of attraction. but not much: for the flame occupying less and
less room, as it lesseneth, the water succeedeth. Experiment solitary touching heat under earth.
But upon the instant of the candle's going out, 885. Water in wells is warmer in winter than there is a sudden rise of a great deal of water ; in summer; and so air in caves. The cause is, for that the body of the flame filleth no more for that in the higher parts, under the earth, there place, and so the air and the water succeed. It is a degree of some heat, as appeareth in sulphu- I worketh the same effect, if instead of water you reous veins, &c., which shut close in, as in winter, put flour or sand into the bason: which showeth, is the more ; but if it perspire, as it doth in sum- that it is not the flame's drawing the liquor as mer, it is the less.
nourishment, as it is supposed; for all bodies are Experiment solitary touching flying in the air.
alike unto it, as it is ever in motion of nexe; in
somuch as I have seen the glass, being held by 886. It is reported, that amongst the Leucadians, in ancient time, upon a superstition they motion of nexe did so clasp the bottom of the
the hand, hath lifted up the bason and all: the did use to precipitate a man from a high cliff into the sea, tying about him with strings, at some lifted up, was made with oil, and not with water :
bason. That experiment, when the bason was distance, many great fowls, and fixing unto his nevertheless this is true, that at the very first setbody divers feathers, spread, to break the fall. Certainly many birds of good wing, as kites, and ting of the mouth of the glass upon the bottom of the like, would bear up a good weight as they then standeth at a stay, almost till the candle's
the bason, it draweth up the water a little, and fly, and spreading of feathers thin and close, and in great breadth, will, likewise, bear up a great attraction at first : but of this we will speak more,
going out, as was said. This may show some weight, being even laid, without tilting upon the sides. The farther extension of this experiment
when we handle attractions by heat. for flying may be thought upon.
Experiments in consort touching the influences of
the moon. Experiment solitary touching the dye of scarlet. 887. There is in some places, namely in Cepha
Of the power of the celestial bodies, and what lonia, a little shrub which they call hollyoak, or
more secret influences they have, besides the two dwarf-oak: upon the leaves whereof there riseth manifest influences of heat and light, we shall a tumour like a blister; which they gather, and speak when we handle experiments touching the rub out of it a certain red dust, that converteth, celestial bodies; mean while we will give some after a while, into worms, which they kill with directions for more certain trials of the virtue and wine, as is reported, when they begin to quicken: influences of the moon, which is our nearest with this dust they dye scarlet.
The influences of the moon, most observed, are Erperiment solitary touching maleficiating. four; the drawing forth of heat: the inducing of 888. In Zant it is very ordinary to make men putrefaction; the increase of moisture; the eximpotent to accompany with their wives. The citing of the motions of spirits. like is practised in Gascony; where it is called 890. For the drawing forth of heat, we have nouër l’eguillette. It is practised always upon formerly prescribed to take water warm, and to the wedding-day. And in Zant the mothers set part of it against the moon-beams, and part of themselves do it, by way of prevention ; because it with a screen between; and to see whether thereby they hinder other charms, and can undo that which standeth exposed to the beams will their own. It is a thing the civil law taketh not cool sooner. But because this is but a small knowledge of; and therefore is of no light regard. interposition, though in the sun we see a small
shade doth much, it were good to try it when the Experiment solitary touching the rise of water by moon shineth, and when the moon shineth not at. means of flame.
all; and with water warm in a glass bottle, as 889. It is a common experiment, but the cause well as in a dish; and with cinders; and with is mistaken. Take a pot, or better a glass, be iron red-hot, &c.