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them; much more the spirits: and we see that to the more general axioms by scale. And of those excrements that are of the first digestion, these kinds of processes of natures and characsmell the worst; as the excrements from the ters of matter, we will now set down some inbelly; those that are from the second digestion stances. less ill: as urine; and those that are from the third, yet less: for sweat is not so bad as the Experiment solitary touching the causes of putreface other two; especially of some persons, that are
tion. full of heat. Likewise most putrefactions are 836. All putrefactions come chiefly from the of an odious smell: for they smell either fetid or inward spirits of the body; and partly also from mouldy. The cause may be, for that putrefaction the ambient body, be it air, liquor, or whatsoever doth bring forth such a consistence, as is most else. And this last by two means : either by incontrary to the consistence of the body whilst it gress of the substance of the ambient body into is sound: for it is a mere dissolution of that form. the body putrefied; or by excitation and solicitaBesides, there is another reason, which is pro- tion of the body putrefied, and the parts thereof, found : and it is, that the objects that please any by the body ambient. As for the received opiof the senses have all some equality, and, as it nion, that putrefaction is caused, either by cold, or were, order in their composition; but where those peregrine and preternatural heat, it is but nugaare wanting, the object is ever ingrate. So mix- tion: for cold, in things inanimate, is the greatest ture of many disagreeing colours is ever unplea- enemy that is to putrefaction; though it extinsant to the eye: mixture of discordant sounds guisheth vivification, which ever consisteth in is unpleasant to the ear: mixture, or hotchpotch spirits attenuate, which the cold doth congeal of many tastes, is unpleasant to the taste; harsh- and coagulate. And as for the peregrine heat, it ness and ruggedness of bodies is unpleasant to is thus far true, that if the proportion of the adthe touch ; now it is certain, that all putrefaction, ventive heat be greatly predominant to the being a dissolution of the first form, is a mere natural heat and spirits of the body, it tendeth to confusion and unformed mixture of the part. Ne- dissolution, or notable alteration. But this is vertheless it is strange, and seemeth to cross the wrought by emission, or suppression, or suffocaformer observation, that some putrefactions and tion, of the native spirits; and also by the disorexcrements do yield excellent odours, as civet and dination and discomposture of the tangible parts, musk; and, as some think, ambergrease : for and other passages of nature, and not by a condivers take it, though improbably, to come from flict of heats. the sperm of fish: and the moss we spake of from apple-trees is little better than an excretion. The Experiment solitary touching bodies unperfectly reason may be, for that there passeth in the ex
mixed. crements, and remaineth in the putrefactions, 837. In versions, or main alterations of bodies, some good spirits ; especially where they pro- there is a medium between the body, as it is at ceed from creatures that are very hot. But it first, and the body resulting; which medium is may be also joined with a further cause, which is corpus imperfecte mistum, and is transitory, and more subtile; and it is, that the senses love not not durable; as mists, smokes, vapours, chylus to be over-pleased, but to have a commixture of in the stomach, living creatures in the first vivifisomewhat that is in itself ingrate. Certainly, cation; and the middle action, which produceth we see how discords in music, falling upon con- such imperfect bodies, is fitly called, by some of cords, make the sweetest strains : and we see the ancients, inquination, or inconcoction, which again, what strange tastes delight the taste : as is a kind of putrefaction: for the parts are in conred herrings, caviary, parmesan, &c. And it fusion, till they settle one way or other. may be the same holdeth in smells; for those kind of smells that we have mentioned, are all strong, Experiment solitary touching concoction and and do pull and vellicate the sense. And we find
crudity. also, that places where men urine, commonly 838. The word concoction, or digestion, is have some smells of violets: and urine, if one chiefly taken into use from living creatures and hath eaten nutmeg, hath so too.
their organs; and from thence extended to liquors The slothful, general, and indefinite contem- and fruits, &c. Therefore they speak of meat plations, and notions, of the elements and their concocted; urine and excrements concocted; and conjugations; of the influences of heaven; of heat, the four digestions, in the stomach, in the liver, cold, moisture, drought, qualities active, passive, in the arteries and nerves, and in the several and the like, have swallowed up the true pas- parts of the body, are likewise call concoctions : sages, and processes, and affects, and consis- and they are all made to be the works of heat; tences of matter and natural bodies. Therefore all which notions are but ignorant catches of a they are to be set aside, being but notional and ill few things, which are most obvious to men's oblimited ; and definite axioms are to be drawn out servations. The constantest notion of concoction of measured instances : and so assent to be made is, that it should signify the degrees of alteration, VOL. II.-15
of one body into another, from crudity to perfect quefiable, not liquefiable; fragile, tough; flexibleconcoction; which is the ultimity of that action inflexible; tractile, or to be drawn forth in length, or process; and while the body to be converted intractile; porous, solid; equal and smooth, un, and altered is too strong for the efficient that equal; venous and fibrous, and with grains, entire; should convert or alter it, whereby it resisteth and divers others; all which to refer to heat, and and holdeth fast in some degree the first form or cold, and moisture, and drought, is a compendious consistence, it is all that while crude and incon- and inutile speculation. But of these see princicoct; and the process is to be called crudity and pally our “ Abecedarium naturæ;" and otherwise inconcoction. It is true, that concoction is in “sparsim” in this our “Sylva Sylvarum :" great part the work of heat, but not the work of nevertheless, in some good part, we shall handle heat alone: for all things that further the conver- divers of them now presently. sion or alteration, as rest, mixture of a body already concocted, &c., are also means to concoc- Experiment solitary touching bodies liquefiable, tion. And there are of concoction two periods;
and not liquefiable. the one assimilation, or absolute conversion and 840. Liquefiable, and not liquefiable, proceed subaction; the other maturation; whereof the from these causes; liquefaction is ever caused by former is most conspicuous in the bodies of living the detention of the spirits, which play within the creatures: in which there is an absolute conver- body and open it. Therefore such bodies as are sion and assimilation of the nourishment into the more turgid of spirit; or that have their spirits body: and likewise in the bodies of plants: and more straitly imprisoned; or, again, that hold again in metals, where there is a full transmuta- them better pleased and content, are liquefiable: tion. The other, which is maturation, is seen in for these three dispositions of bodies do arrest the liquors and fruits; wherein there is not desired, emission of the spirits. An example of the first nor pretended, an utter conversion, but only an two properties is in metals; and of the last in alteration to that form which is most sought for grease, pitch, sulphur, butter, wax, &c. The disman's use; as in clarifying of drinks, ripening of position not to liquefy proceedeth from the easy fruits, &c. But note, that there be two kinds of emission of the spirits, whereby the grosser parts absolute conversions; the one is, when a body is contract; and therefore bodies jejune of spirits, converted into another body, which was before; or which part with their spirits more willingly, as when nourishment is turned into flesh; that is are not liquefiable; as wood, clay, free-stone, it which we call assimilation. The other is, &c. But yet even many of those bodies that when the conversion is into a body merely new, will not melt, or will hardly melt, will notwithand which was not before; as if silver should be standing soften: as iron in the forge; and a stick turned to gold, or iron to copper: and this con- bathed in hot ashes, which thereby becometh version is better called, for distinction sake, trans- more flexible. Moreover there are some bodies mutation.
which do liquefy or dissolve by fire; as metals,
wax, &c.: and other bodies which dissolve in waExperiment solitary touching alterations, which ter; as salt, sugar, &c. The cause of the former may be called majors.
proceedeth from the dilatation of the spirits by 839. There are also divers other great altera- heat: the cause of the latter proceedeth from the tions of matter and bodies, besides those that tend opening of the tangible parts, which desire to to concoction and maturation; for whatsoever receive the liquor. Again, there are some bodies doth so alter a body, as it returneth not again to that dissolve with both : as gum, etc. And those that it was, may be called “alteratio major;” as be such bodies, as on the one side have good when meat is boiled, or roasted, or fried, etc., or store of spirit; and on the other side, have the when bread and meat are baked; or when cheese tangible parts indigent of moisture; for the former is made of curds, or butter of cream, or coals of helpeth to the dilating of the spirits by fire; and wood, or bricks of earth; and a number of others. the latter stimulateth the parts to receive the But to apply notions philosophical to plebeian liquor. terms; or to say, where the notions cannot fitly be reconciled, that there wanteth a term or nomen- Experiment solitary touching bodies fragile and clature for it, as the ancients used, they be but
tough. shifts of ignorance; for knowledge will be ever a 841. Of bodies, some are fragile: and some wandering and indigested thing, if it be but a are tough, and not fragile; and in the breaking, commixture of a few notions that are at hand and some fragile bodies break but where the force is; occur, and not excited from sufficient number of some shatter and fly in many pieces. Of fragiliinstances, and those well collated.
ty, the cause is an impotency to be extended ; The consistence of bodies are very diverse : and therefore stone is more fragile than metal; dense, rare; tangible, pneumatical; volatile, fixed; and so fictile earth is more fragile than crude determinate, not determinate; hard, soft; cleav- earth ; and dry wood than green. And the cause ing, not cleaving; congelable, not congelable, li- l of this unaptness to extension, is the small quantíty of spirits, for it is the spirit that furthereth equal spreading of the tangible parts, which therethe extension or dilatation of bodies, and it is by are more sliding and following: as in gold, ever concomitant with porosity, and with dryness lead, wax, &c. But note, that soft bodies, as we in the tangible parts : contrariwise, tough bodies use the word, are of two kinds; the one, that eabave more spirit, and fewer pores, and moister sily giveth place to another body, but altereth not tangible parts: therefore we see that parchment bulk, by rising in other places : and therefore we or leather will stretch, paper will not; woollen see that wax, if you put any thing into it, doth cloth will tenter, linen scarcely.
not rise in bulk, but only giveth place; for you
may not think, that in printing of wax, the wax Experiment solitary touching the two kinds of riseth up at all; but only the depressed part pneumaticals in bodies.
giveth place, and the other remaineth as it was. 842. All solid bodies consist of parts of two The other that altereth bulk in the cession, as several natures, pneumatical and tangible; and water, or other liquors, if you put a stone or any it is well to be noted, that the pneumatical sub- thing into them, they give place indeed easily, but stance is in some bodies the native spirit of the then they rise all over ; which is a false cession; body, and in some other, plain air that is gotten for it is in place, and not in body. . in; as in bodies desiccate by heat or age: for in them when the native spirit goeth forth, and the Experiment solitary touching bodies ductile and moisture with it, the air with time getteth into
tensile. the pores. And those bodies are ever the more
845. All bodies ductile and tensile, as metals, fragile; for the native spirit is more yielding and that will be drawn into wires; wool and tow, that extensive, especially to follow the parts, than air. will be drawn into yarn or thread, have in them The native spirits also admit great diversity; as the appetite of not discontinuing strong, which hot, cold, active, dull, &c., whence proceed most maketh them follow the force that pulleth them of the virtues and qualities, as we call them, of out; and yet so as not to discontinue or forsake bodies: but the air intermixed is without virtues, their own body. Viscous bodies likewise, as and maketh things insipid, and without any ex- pitch, wax, bird-lime, cheese toasted, will draw stimulation.
forth and rope. But the difference between bodies
fibrous and bodies viscous is plain: for all wool, Experiment solitary touching concretion and disso- and tow, and cotton, and silk, especially raw silk, lution of bodies.
have, besides their desire of continuance, in re843. The concretion of bodies is commonly gard of the tenuity of their thread, a greediness solved by the contrary; as ice, which is congealed of moisture; and by moisture to join and incorpoby cold, is dissolved by heat; salt and sugar, rate with other thread; especially if there be a which are excocted by heat; are dissolved by little wreathing; as appeareth by the twisting of cold and moisture. The cause is, for that these thread, and the practice of twirling about of spinoperations are rather returns to their former na- dles. And we see also, that gold and silver ture, than alterations; so that the contrary cureth. thread cannot be made without twisting. As for oil, it doth neither easily congeal with cold, nor thicken with heat. The cause of both Experiment solitary touching other passions of mateffects, though they be produced by contrary effi
ter, and characters of bodies. cients, seemeth to be the same; and that is, be- 846. The differences of impressible and not imcause the spirit of the oil by either means exhaleth pressible; figurable and not figurable; mouldable little, for the cold keepeth it in: and the heat, and not mouldable; scissile and not scissile, and except it be vehement, doth not call it forth. As many other passions of matter, are plebeian nofor cold, though it take hold of the tangible parts, tions applied unto the instruments and uses which yet as to the spirits, it doth rather make them men ordinarily practise; but they are all but the swell than congeal them: as when ice is con- effects of some of these causes following, which gealed in a cup, the ice will swell instead of con- we will enumerate without applying them, betracting, and sometimes rift.
cause that will be too long. The first is the ces
sion, or not cession of bodies, into a smaller space Experiment solitary touching hard and soft bodies. or room, keeping the outward bulk, and not fly
844. Of bodies, some we see are hard, and some ing up. The second is the stronger or weaker soft: the hardness is caused chiefly by the jejune-appetite in bodies to continuity, and to fly disconness of the spirits, and their imparity with the tinuity. The third is the disposition of bodies to tangible parts : both which, if they be in a greater contract, or not contract: and again, to extend, or degree, make them not only hard, but fragile, and not extend. The fourth is the small quantity, or less enduring of pressure; as steel, stone, glass, great quantity of the pneumatical in bodies. The dry wood, &c. Softness cometh, contrariwise, by ifth is the nature of the pneumatical, whether it the greater quantity of spirits, which ever helpeth be native spirit of the body, or common air. The to induce yielding and cession, and by the more sixth is the nature of the native spirits in the body,
whether they be active and eager, or dull and gen-northern countries, mead simple, which, well
metals, the woof of textiles, more inward or more out
849. It is reported by the ancients, that there ward, &c. The fifteenth is the porosity or impo- was a kind of steel in some places, which would rosity betwixt the tangible parts, and the greatness polish almost as white and bright as silver. And. or smallness of the pores. The sixteenth is the col- that there was in India a kind of brass, which, location and posture of the pores. There may be being polished, could scarce be discerned from more causes; but these do occur for the present. gold. This was in the natural ure: but I am
doubtful, whether men have sufficiently refined Experiment solitary touching induration by sym- metals, which we count base; as whether iron, pathy.
brass, and tin be refined to the height? But 847. Take lead and melt it, and in the midst of when they come to such a fineness, as serveth theit, when it beginneth to congeal, make a little dint ordinary use, they try no farther. or hole, and put quicksilver wrapped in a piece of linen into that hole, and the quicksilver will fix Experiment solitary touching cements and quarries. and run no more, and endure the hammer. This 850. There have been found certain cements is a noble instance of induration, by consent of under earth that are very soft; and yet, taken one body with another, and motion of excitation forth into the sun, harden as hard as marble: to imitate; for to ascribe it only to the vapour of there are also ordinary quarries in Somersetshire, lead, is less probable. Query, whether the fixing which in the quarry cut soft to any bigness, and may be in such a degree, as it will be figured like in the building prove firm and hard. other metals? For if so, you may make works of it for some purposes, so they come not near the fire. Experiment solitary touching the altering of the
colour of hairs and feathers. Experiment solitary touching honey and sugar. 851. Living creatures generally do change their
848. Sugar hath put down the use of honey, hair with age, turning to be gray and white: as is insomuch as we have lost those observations seen in men, though some earlier, some later; in and preparations of honey which the ancients horses that are dappled, and turn white; in old had, when it was more in price. First, it squirrels that turn grisly; and many others. So seemeth that there was in old time tree-honey, do some birds; as cygnets from the gray turn as well as bee-honey, which was the tear or white; hawks from brown turn more white. blood issuing from the tree: insomuch as one And some birds there be that upon their moulting of the ancients relateth, that in Trebisond do turn colour; as robin-red-breasts, after their there was honey issuing from the box-trees which moulting, grow to be red again by degrees, so do made men mad. Again, in ancient time there goldfinches upon the head. The cause is, for that was a kind of honey, which either of its own na- moisture doth chiefly colour hair and feathers, and ture, or by art, would grow as hard as sugar, and dryness turneth them grey and white: now hair was not so luscious as ours. They had also a in age waxeth drier; so do feathers. As for feawine of honey, which they made thus. They thers, after moulting, they are young feathers, and crushed the honey into a great quantity of water, so all one as the feathers of young birds. So the and then strained the liquor: after they boiled it beard is younger than the hair of the head, and in a copper to the half; then they poured it into doth, for the most part, wax hoary later. Out of earthen vessels for a small time, and after turned this ground a man may devise the means of alterit into vessels of wood, and kept it for many years. ing the colour of birds, and the retardation of They have also at this day, in Russia and those hoary hairs. But of this see the fifth experiment.
It is re
Experiment solitary touching the differences of live as the whale is far greater than the elephant: and
ing creatures, male and female. beasts are generally greater than birds. For 852. The difference between male and female, fishes, the cause may be, that because they live in some creatures, is not to be discerned, other- not in the air, they have not their moisture drawn wise than in the parts of generation : as in horses and soaked by the air and sun-beams. Also they and mares, dogs and bitches, doves he and she, rest always in a manner, and are supported by the and others. But some differ in magnitude, and water, whereas motion and labour do consume. that diversely; for in most the male is the greater; As for the greatness of beasts more than of birds, as in man, pheasants, peacocks, turkeys, and the it is caused, for that beasts stay longer time in the like: and in some few, as in hawks, the female. womb than birds, and there nourish and grow; Some differ in the hair and feathers, both in the whereas in birds, after the egg laid, there is no quantity, crispation, and colours of them; as he- further growth or nourishment from the female; lions are hirsute, and have great manes: the shes for the sitting doth vivify, and not nourish. are smooth like cats. Bulls are more crisp upon the forehead than cows; the peacock, and phea- Experiment solitary touching exossation of fruits. sant-cock, and goldfinch-cock, have glorious and 854. We have partly touched before the means fine colours; the hens have not. Generally the of producing fruits without cores or stones. And hes in birds have the fairest feathers. Some this we add farther, that the cause must be abundiffer in divers features: as bucks have horns, dance of moisture; for that the core and stone are does none; rams have more wreathed horns than made of dry sap: and we see that it is possible ewes; cocks have great combs and spurs, hens to make a tree put forth only in blossom, without little or none; boars have great fangs; sows fruit, as in cherries with double flowers, much much less; the turkey-cock hath great and swel. more into fruit without stone or cores. ling gills, the hen hath less: men have generally ported that a scion of an apple, grafted upon a deeper and stronger voices than women. Some colewort stalk, sendeth forth a great apple withdiffer in faculty, as the cocks amongst singing-birds out a core. It is not unlikely, that if the inward are the best singers. The chief cause of all these, pith of a tree were taken out, so that the juice no doubt is, for that the males have more strength came only by the bark, it would work the effect. of heat than the females, which appeareth mani. For it hath been observed, that in pollards, if the festly in this, that all young creatures males are water get in on the top, and they become hollow, like females, and so are eunuchs, and geltcreatures they put forth the more. We add also, that it is of all kinds, liker females. Now heat causeth delivered for certain by some, that if the scion be greatness of growth, generally, where there is grafted the small end downwards, it will make moisture enough to work upon: but if there be fruit have little or no cores and stones. found in any creature, which is seen rarely, an over-great heat in proportion to the moisture, in Experiment solitary touching the melioration of them the female is the greater, as in hawks and
tobacco. sparrows. And if the heat be balanced with the 855. Tobacco is a thing of great price, if it be moisture, then there is no difference to be seen in request: for an acre of it will be worth, as is between male and female, as in the instances of affirmed, two hundred pounds by the year
towards horses and dogs. We see also, that the horns of charge. The charge of making the ground and oxen and cows, for the most part, are larger than otherwise is great, but nothing to the profit; but the bulls, which is caused by abundance of mois- the English tobacco hath small credit, as being ture, which in the horns of the bull faileth. too dull and earthy: nay, the Virginian tobacco, Again, heat causeth pilosity and crispation, and though that be in a hotter climate, can get no so likewise beards in men. It also expelleth credit for the same cause: so that a trial to make finer moisture, which want of heat cannot expel; tobacco more aromatical, and better concocted, and that is the cause of the beauty and variety of here in England, were a thing of great profit. feathers. Again, heat doth put forth many ex- Some have gone about to do it by drenching the crescences, and much solid matter, which want English tobacco in a decoction or infusion of In. of heat cannot do; and this is the cause of horns, dian tobacco; but those are but sophistications and of the greatness of them, and of the greatness and toys; for nothing that is once perfect, and of the combs and spurs of cocks, gills of turkey- hath run his race, can receive much amendment. cocks, and fangs of boars. Heat also dilateth the You must ever resort to the beginnings of things pipes and organs, which causeth the deepness of for melioration. The way of maturation of tobacco we voice. Again, heat refineth the spirits, and that must, as in other plants, be from the heat either causeth the cock singing-bird to excel the hen. of the earth or of the sun: we see some leading
of this in musk-melons, which are sown upon a Experiment solitary touching the comparalive hot-bed dunged below, upon a bank turned upon magnitude of living creatures.
the south sun, to give heat by reflection; laid 853. There be fishes greater than any beasts; I upon tiles, which increaseth the heat, and covered