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teeth also set on edge. So if a man see another turn great saving of the richer metal. I remember to swiftly and long, or if he look upon wheels that have heard of a man skilful in metals, that a fifturn, himself waxeth turn-sick. So if a man be teenth part of silver incorporated with gold will upon a high place without rails or good hold, not be recovered by any water of separation, exexcept he be used to it, he is ready to fall: for, cept you put a greater quantity of silver to draw imagining a fall, it putteth his spirits into the to it the less; which, he said, is the last refuge very action of a fall. So many upon the seeing in separations. But that is a tedious way, which of others bleed, or strangled, or tortured, them- no man, almost, will think on. This would be selves are ready to faint, as if they bled, or were better inquired : and the quantity of the fifteenth in strife.
turned to a twentieth; and likewise with some
little additional, that may further the intrinsic inExperiment solitary touching preservation of bodies. corporation. Note, that silver in gold will be
796. Take a stockgillyflower, and tie it gently detected, by weight, compared with the dimenupon a stick, and put them both into a stoop-glass sions; but lead in silver, lead being the weightier full of quicksilver, so that the flower be covered: metal, will not be detected, if you take so much then lay a little weight upon the top of the glass the more silver as will countervail the over-weight that may keep the stick down; and look upon of the lead. them after four or five days; and you shall find the flower fresh, and the stalk harder and less Experiment solitary touching fixation of bodies. flexible than it was.
If you compare it with 799. Gold is the only substance which hath another flower gathered at the same time, it will nothing in it volatile, and yet melteth without be the more manifest. This showeth, that bodies much difficulty. The melting showeth that it is do preserve excellently in quicksilver; and not not jejune, or scarce in spirit. So that the fixing preserve only, but by the coldness of the quick-of it is not want of spirit to fly out, but the equal silver indurate; for the freshness of the flower spreading of the tangible parts, and the close may be merely conservation; which is the more coacervation of them: whereby they have the less to be observed, because the quicksilver presseth appetite, and no means at all to issue forth. It the flower; but the stiffness of the stalk cannot were good therefore to try, whether glass remolten be without induration, from the cold, as it seem-do lose any weight? for the parts in glass are eth, of the quicksilver.
evenly spread; but they are not so close as in
gold: as we see by the easy admission of light, Experiment solitary touching the growth or mul- heat, and cold; and by the smallness of the tiplying of metals.
weight. There be other bodies fixed, which 797. It is reported by some of the ancients, have little or no spirit, so as there is nothing to that in Cyprus there is a kind of iron, that being fly out; as we see in the stuff whereof coppels cut into little pieces, and put into the ground, if are made, which they put into furnaces, upon it be well watered, will increase into greater which fire worketh not; so that there are three pieces. This is certain, and known of old, that causes of fixation; the even spreading both of the lead will multiply and increase, as hath been spirits and tangible parts, the closeness of the seen in old statues of stone which have been put tangible parts, and the jejuneness or extreme in cellars; the feet of them being bound with comminution of spirits : of which three, the two leaden bands; where, after a time, there appeared, first may be joined with a nature liquefiable, the that the lead did swell; insomuch as it hanged last not. upon the stone like warts.
Experiment solitary touching the restless nature of Experiment solitary touching the drowning of the things in themselves, and their desire to change.
more base metal in the more precious. 800. It is a profound contemplation in nature, 798. I call drowning of metals, when that the to consider of the emptiness, as we may call it, baser metal is so incorporated with the more rich or insatisfaction of several bodies, and of their as it can by no means be separated again; which appetite to take in others. Air taketh in lights, is a kind of version, though false: as if silver and sounds, and smells, and vapours; and it is should be inseparably incorporated with gold : or most manifest, that it doth it with a kind of thirst, copper and lead with silver. The ancient elec- as not satisfied with its own former consistence; trum had in it a fifth of silver to the gold, and for else it would never receive them in so sudmade a compound metal, as fit for most uses as denly and easily. Water, and all liquors do gold, and more resplendent, and more qualified hastily receive dry and more terrestrial bodies, in some other properties; but then that was proportionable: and dry bodies, on the other side, easily separated. This to do privily, or to make drink in waters and liquors: so that, as it was the compound pass for the rich metal simple, is well said by one of the ancients, of earthy and an adulteration or counterfeiting: but if it be done watery substances, one is a glue to another. avowedly, and without disguising, it may be al Parchment, skins, cloth, &c., drink in liquors,
though themselves be entire bodies, and not com- | bodies is not violent: for it is many times reciminuted, as sand and ashes, nor apparently procal, and as it were with consent. Of the cause porous: metals themselves do receive in readily of this, and to what axiom it may be referred, constrong waters; and strong waters likewise do sider attentively; for as for the petty assertion, readily pierce into metals and stones: and that that matter is like a common strumpet, that destrong water will touch upon gold, that will not sireth all forms, it is but a wandering notion. touch upon silver, and e converso. And gold, Only flame doth not content itself to take in any which seemeth by the weight to be the closest and other body, but either to overcome and turn anmost solid body, doth greedily drink in quicksil- other body into itself, as by victory; or itself to ver. And it seemeth, that this reception of other die, and go out.
CENTURY IX. Experiments in consort touching perception in bo-comitants, you may judge of the effect to follow : dies insensible, tending to natural divination or tie ourselves here to that divination and discovery
and the like may be said of discovery; but we subtile trials.
chiefly, which is caused by an early or subtile It is certain, that all bodies whatsoever, though perception. they have no sense, yet they have perception : for The aptness or propension of air, or water, to when one body is applied to another, there is a corrupt or putrefy, no doubt, is to be found before kind of election to embrace that which is agree it break forth into manifest effects of diseases, able, and to exclude or expel that which is ingrate; blastings, or the like. We will therefore set and whether the body be alterant, or altered, ever-down some prognostics of pestilential and unmore a perception precedeth operation; for else wholesome years. all bodies would be alike one to another. And 801. The wind blowing much from the south sometimes this perception, in some kind of bodies, without rain, and worms in the oak-apple, have is far more subtile than the sense; so that the been spoken of before. Also the plenty of frogs, sense is but a dull thing in comparison of it: we grasshoppers, flies, and the like creatures bred of see a weather-glass will find the least difference putrefaction, doth portend pestilential years. of the weather, in heat, or cold, when men find it 802. Great and early heats in the spring, and not. And this perception also is sometimes at namely in May, without winds, portend the same; distance, as well as upon the touch; as when the and generally so do years with little wind or loadstone draweth iron, or flame fireth naphtha of thunder. Babylon, a great distance off. It is therefore a 803. Great droughts in summer lasting till tosubject of a very noble inquiry, to inquire of the wards the end of August, and some gentle showmore subtile perceptions : for it is another key to ers upon them, and then some dry weather again, open nature, as well as the sense, and sometimes do portend a pestilent summer the year following: better. And, besides, it is a principal means of for about the end of August all the sweetness of natural divination; for that which in these per- the earth, which goeth into plants and trees, is ceptions appeareth early, in the great effects exhaled, and much more if the August be dry, so cometh long after. It is true also, that it serveth that nothing then can breathe forth of the earth to discover that which is hid, as well as to foretell but a gross vapour, which is apt to corrupt the that which is to come, as it is in many subtile air: and that vapour, by the first showers, if they trials; as to try whether seeds be old or new, the be gentle, is released, and cometh forth abundantsense cannot inform; but if you boil them in ly. Therefore they that come abroad soon after water, the new seeds will sprout sooner: and so those showers, are commonly taken with sickof water, the taste will not discover the best ness: and in Africa, nobody will stir out of doors water; but the speedy consuming of it, and many after the first showers. But if the showers come other means, which we have heretofore set down, vehemently, then they rather wash and fill the will discover it. So in all physiognomy, the earth, than give it leave to breathe forth presently. lineaments of the body will discover those natu- But if dry weather come again, then it fixeth and ral inclinations of the mind which dissimulation continueth the corruption of the air, upon the first will conceal, or discipline will suppress. We showers begun; and maketh it of ill influence, shall therefore now handle only those two percep- even to the next summer; except a very frosty tions, which pertain to natural divination and winter discharge it, which seldom succeedeth discovery; leaving the handling of perception in such droughts. other things to be disposed elsewhere. Now it 804. The lesser infections, of the small-pox, . is true, that divination is attained by other means; purple fevers, agues, in the summer precedent, as if you know the causes, if you know the con-land hovering all winter, do portend a great pesti
lence in the summer following; for putrefaction either by the nature of the earth, or by the situadoth not rise to its height at once.
tion of woods and hills, the air is more unequal 805. It were good to lay a piece of raw flesh or than in others; and inequality of air is ever an fish in the open air; and if it putrefy quickly, it enemy to health ; it were good to take two weais a sign of a disposition in the air to putrefaction. ther-glasses, matches in all things, and to set And because you cannot be informed whether the them, for the same hours of one day, in several putrefaction be quick or late, except you compare places, where no shade is, nor enclosures; and to this experiment with the like experiment in an- mark when you set them, how far the water other year, it were not amiss in the same year, cometh; and to compare them, when you come and at the same time, to lay one piece of flesh or again, how the water standeth then; and if you fish in the open air, and another of the same kind find them unequal, you may be sure that the place and bigness within doors : for I judge, that if a where the water is lowest is in the warmer air, general disposition be in the air to putrefy, the and the other in the colder. And the greater the flesh, or fish, will sooner putrefy abroad where the inequality be, of the ascent or descent of the waair hath more power, than in the house, where it ter, the greater is the inequality of the temper of hath less, being many ways corrected. And this the air. experiment would be made about the end of 812. The predictions likewise of cold and long March: for that season is likeliest to discover winters, and hot and dry summers, are good to what the winter hath done, and what the summer be known, as well for the discovery of the causes, following will do, upon the air. And because the as for divers provisions. That of plenty of haws, air, no doubt, receiveth great tincture and infu- and hips, and brier-berries, hath been spoken of sion from the earth ; it were good to try that ex- before. If wainscot, or stone, that have used to posing of flesh or fish, both upon a stake of wood sweat, be more dry in the beginning of winter, or some height above the earth, and upon the flat of the drops of the eaves of houses come more slowthe earth.
ly down than they use, it portendeth a hard and 806. Take May-dew, and see whether it putre- frosty winter. The cause is, for that it showeth fy quickly or no; for that likewise may disclose an inclination of the air to dry weather, which in the quality of the air, and vapour of the earth, winter is ever joined with frost. more or less corrupted.
813. Generally a moist and cool summer por807. A dry March, and a dry May, portend a tendeth a hard winter. The cause is, for that the wholesome summer, if there be a showering April vapours of the earth are not dissipated in the sumbetween: but otherwise it is a sign of a pestilen- mer by the sun; and so they rebound upon the
winter. 808. As the discovery of the disposition of the 814. A hot and dry summer, and autumn, and air is good for the prognostics of wholesome and especially if the heat and drought extend far into unwholesome years; so it is of much more use, September, portendeth an open beginning of winfor the choice of places to dwell in : at the least, ter; and colds to succeed toward the latter part for lodges, and retiring places for health : for of the winter, and the beginning of the spring: mansion-houses respect provisions as well as for till then the former heat and drought bear the health, wherein the experiments above-mentioned sway, and the vapours are not sufficiently multimay serve.
plied. 809. But for the choice of places, or seats, it is 815. An open and warm winter portendeth a hot good to make trial, not only of aptness of air to and dry summer; for the vapours disperse into corrupt, but also of the moisture and dryness of the winter showers; whereas cold and frost keepthe air, and the temper of it in heat or cold; for eth them in, and transporteth them into the late that may concern health diversely. We see that spring and summer following. there be some houses, wherein sweetmeats will 816. Birds that use to change countries at cerrelent, and baked meats will mould, more than in tain seasons, if they come earlier, do show the others; and wainscots will also sweat more; so temperature of weather, according to that country that they will almost run with water; all which, whence they came: as the winter birds, namely, no doubt, are caused chiefly by the moistness of woodcocks, feldfares, &c., if they come earlier, the air in those seats. But because it is better to and out of the northern countries, with us show know it before a man buildeth his house, than to cold winters. And if it be in the same country, find it after, take the experiments following. then they show a temperature of season, like unto
810. Lay wool, or a sponge, or bread, in the that season in which they come: as swallows, place you will try, comparing it with some other bats, cuckoos, &c., that come towards summer, if places; and see whether it doth not moisten, and they come early, show a hot summer to follow. make the wool, or sponge, &c., more ponderous 817. The prognostics, more immediate of weathan the other : and if it do, you may judge of ther to follow soon after, are more certain than that place, as situated in a gross and moist air. those of seasons. The resounding of the sea
811. Because it is certain, that in some places, ! upon the shore; and the murmur of winds in the
woods, without apparent wind, show wind to fol- | is, pleasure that both kinds take in the moistness low; for such winds breathing chiefly out of the and density of the air ; and so desire to be in moearth, are not at the first perceived, except they tion, and upon the wing, whithersoever they be pent by water or wood. And therefore a mur- would otherwise go; for it is no marvel, that mur out of caves likewise portendeth as much. water-fowl do joy most in that air which is likest
818. The upper regions of the air perceive the water: and land-birds also, many of them, decollection of the matter of tempests and winds, light in bathing, and moist air. For the same before the air here below; and therefore the ob- reason also, many birds do prune their feathers ; scuring of the smaller stars is a sign of tempest and geese do gaggle; and crows seem to call following. And of this kind you shall find a upon rain : all which is but the comfort they number of instances in our inquisition De ventis. seem to receive in the relenting of the air.
819. Great mountains have a perception of the 824. The heron, when she soareth high, so as disposition of the air to tempests, sooner than the sometimes she is seen to pass over a cloud, valleys or plains below: and therefore they say showeth winds: but kites flying aloft show fair in Wales, when certain hills have their night-caps and dry weather. The cause may be, for that on, they mean mischief. The cause is, for that they both mount most into the air of that temper tempests, which are for the most part bred above wherein they delight: and the heron being a in the middle region, as they call it, are soonest water-fowl, taketh pleasure in the air that is conperceived to collect in the places next it. densed ; and besides, being but heavy of wing,
820. The air, and fire, have subtile perceptions needeth the help of the grosser air. But the kite of wind rising, before men find it. We see the affecteth not so much the grossness of the air, as trembling of a candle will discover a wind that the cold and freshness thereof: for being a bird otherwise we do not feel; and the flexuous burn- of prey, and therefore hot, she delighteth in the ing of flames doth show the air beginneth to be fresh air, and many times flieth against the unquiet; and so do coals of fire by casting off the wind, as trouts and salmons swim against the ashes more than they use. The cause is, for that stream. And yet it is true also, that all birds no wind at the first, till it hath struck and driven find an ease in the depth of the air, as swimmers the air, is apparent to the sense; but flame is do in a deep water. And therefore when they easier to move than air: and for the ashes, it is are aloft, they can uphold themselves with their no marvel, though wind unperceived shake them wings spread, scarce moving them. off; for we usually try which way the wind blow- 825. Fishes, when they play towards the top eth, by casting up grass, or chaff, or such light of the water, do commonly foretell rain. The things into the air.
cause is, for that a fish hating the dry, will not 821. When wind expireth from under the sea, approach the air till it groweth moist; and when as it causeth some resounding of the water, where it is dry, will fly it, and swim lower. of we spake before, so it causeth some light mo- 826. Beasts do take comfort generally in a tions of bubbles, and white circles of froth. The moi air: and it maketh them eat their meat cause is, for that the wind cannot be perceived by better; and therefore sheep will get up betimes the sense, until there be an eruption of a great in the morning to feed against rain: and cattle, quantity from under the water; and so it getteth and deer, and conies, will feed hard before rain ; into a body : whereas in the first putting up it and a heifer will put up her nose, and snuff in cometh in little portions.
the air against rain. 822. We spake of the ashes that coals cast off; 827. The trefoil against rain swelleth in the and of grass and chaff carried by the wind; so stalk; and so standeth more upright: for by wet, any light thing that moveth when we find no wind stalks do erect, and leaves bow down. There is showeth a wind at hand; as when feathers, or a small red flower in the stubble-fields, which down of thistles, fly to and fro in the air. country-people call the wincopipe; which if it
For prognostics of weather from living creatures open in the morning, you may be sure of a fair it is to be noted, that creatures that live in the day to follow. open air, sub dio, must needs have a quicker im- 828. Even in men, aches, and hurts, and corns, pression from the air, than men that live most do engrieve either towards rain, or towards frost: within doors; and especially birds who live in for the one maketh the humours more to abound; the air freest and clearest; and are aptest by their and the other maketh them sharper. So we see voice to tell tales what they find, and likewise both extremes bring the gout. by the motion of their flight to express the same. 829. Worms, vermin, &c., do foreshow like
823. Water-fowls, as sea-gulls, moor-hens, &c., wise rain : for earthworms will come forth, and when they flock and fly together from the sea moles will cast up more, and fleas bite more, towards the shores; and contrariwise, land-birds, against rain. as crows, swallows, &c., when they fly from the 830. Solid bodies likewise foreshow rain. As land to the waters, and beat the waters with their stones and wainscot, when they sweat: and boxes wings, do foreshow rain and wind. The cause and pegs of woods, when they draw and wind hard; though the former be but from an outward | Certain it is, that bay-salt, which is but a kind cause; for that the stone, or wainscot, turneth of water congealed, will sometimes smell like and beateth back the air against itself; and the violets. latter is an inward swelling of the body of the wood itself.
Experiment solitary touching sweet smells.
833. To sweet smells heat is requisite to conExperiment solitary touching the nature of appetite coct the matter; and some moisture to spread the in the stomach.
breath of them. For heat, we see that woods 831. Appetite is moved chiefly by things that and spices are more odorate in the hot countries are cold and dry; the cause is, for that cold is a than in the cold: for moisture, we see that things kind of indigence of nature, and calleth upon too much dried lose their sweetness: and flowers supply; and so is dryness: and therefore all sour growing, smell better in morning or evening things, as vinegar, juice of lemons, oil of vitriol, than at noon. Some sweet smells are destroyed &c., provoke appetite. And the disease which by approach to the fire; as violets, wallflowers, they call appetitus caninus, consisteth in the gillyflowers, pinks; and generally all flowers matter of an acid and glassy phlegm in the mouth that have cool and delicate spirits. Some conof the stomach. Appetite is also moved by sour tinue both on the fire, and from the fire; as rosethings; for that sour things induce a contraction water, &c. Some do scarce come forth, or at in the nerves placed in the mouth of the stomach, least not so pleasantly, as by means of the fire ; which is a great cause of appetite. As for the as juniper, sweet gums, &c., and all smells that cause why onions, and salt, and pepper in baked are enclosed in a fast body: but generally those meats, move appetite, it is by vellication of those smells are the most grateful, where the degree nerves; for motion whetteth. As for wormwood, of heat is small; or where the strength of the olives, capers, and others of that kind, which par- smell is allayed ; for these things do rather woo ticipate of bitterness, they move appetite by ab- the sense, than satiate it. And therefore the stersion. So as there be four principal causes of smell of violets and roses exceedeth in sweetness appetite ; the refrigeration of the stomach joined that of spices and gums; and the strongest sort with some dryness, contraction, vellication, and of smells are best in a weft afar off. abstersion; besides hunger; which is an emptiness; and yet over-fasting doth, many times, Erperiment solitary touching the corporeal subcause the appetite to cease; for that want of meat
stance of smells. maketh the stomach draw humours, and such 834. It is certain, that no smell issueth but humours as are light and choleric, which quench with emission of some corporeal substance; not appetite most.
as it is in light, and colours, and in sounds.
For we see plainly, that smell doth spread noExperiment solitary touching sweetness of odour thing that distance that the other do. It is true, from the rainbow.
that some woods of oranges, and heaths of rose832. It hath been observed by the ancients, mary, will smell a great way into the sea, perthat where a rainbow seemeth to hang over or haps twenty miles; but what is that, since a peal to touch, there breatheth forth a sweet smell. of ordnance will do as much, which moveth in a The cause is, for that this happeneth but in cer- small compass ? Whereas those woods and tain matters, which have in themselves some heaths are of vast spaces; besides, we see that. sweetness; which the gentle dew of the rainbow smells do adhere to hard bodies; as in perfumdoth draw forth: and the like do soft showers; ing of gloves, &c., which showeth them corporeal ; for they also make the ground sweet: but none and do last a great while, which sounds and light are so delicate as the dew of the rainbow where do not. it falleth. It may be also that the water itself hath some sweetness; for the rainbow consisteth Experiment solitary touching fetid and fragrant of a glomeration of small drops, which cannot
odours. possibly fall but from the air that is very low ; 835. The excrements of most creatures smell and therefore may hold the very sweetness ill; chiefly to the same creature that voideth of the herbs and flowers, as a distilled water; them: for we see, besides that of man, that for rain, and other dew that fall from high, can- pigeons and horses thrive best, if their houses not preserve the smell, being dissipated in the and stables be kept sweet, and so of cage birds : drawing up: neither do we know, whether some and the cat burieth that which she voideth : and it water itself may not have some degree of sweet- holdeth chiefly in those beasts which feed upon ness. It is true, that we find it sensibly in no flesh. Dogs almost only of beasts delight in fetid pool, river, nor fountain; but good earth, newly odours, which showeth there is somewhat in their turned up, hath a freshness and good scent; sense of smell differing from the smells of other which water, if it be not too equal, for equal ob- beasts. But the cause why excrements smell ill jects never move the sense, may also have. is manifest; for that the body itself rejecteth.