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Of the compression of liquors .

119 Considerations touching the queen's service

of the nature of air......

..... 119

in Ireland ........

188

Of the working of water upon air contiguous 119 Letters to Sir Geo. Villiers

190

Of the eyes and sight...

119

TRACTS RELATING TO SPAIN.

of the colour of the sea or other water

Of shell-fish

120

Report of the Spanish grievances ... 193

of the right side and the left

121

Notes of a speech concerning a war with

Of frictions.....

121

Spain ..

199

Of globes appearing ilat at distance........

Considerations touching a war with Spain . 201

121
Of shadows

Miscellaneous tracts .

121

214

Of the rolling and breaking of the seas. 121

Report of Lopez's treason

216

Of the dulcoration of salt-water

121

TRACTS RELATING TO ENGLAND.

Of the retum of saltness in pits upon the sea-

shore...

Of the true greatness of Britain ...... 222

Of attraction by similitude of substance 121

Proposition touching the amendment of the

laws

Of attraction ...

121

229

Of heat under earth

Offer of digest of the laws.....

233

Of flying in the air.

122

Certificate touching the penal laws.. 236

Of the scarlet dye...

122

Advice touching the charter-house

239

Of maleficiating....

Observations on a libel.....

122

242

Of the rise of water by means of flame ..... 122 SPEECHES.

Of the influences of the moon.....

122

Touching purveyors...

Of vinegar

123

About undertakers .

269

Of creatures that sleep all winter....

........ 123

To the king upon the grievances of the Com-

Of the generating of creatures by copulation,

272

and by putrefaction.

123

On wards and tenures

273

CENTURI X.

Declaration for the master of the wards .... 274

Of the transmission and influx of immateri-

On receiving the king's messages

276

ate virtues, and the force of imagination.. 124

Concerning impositions on merchandises... 278

Of the transmission of spirits, and the force

To grant supplies to the king..

281

of imagination .....

124

Relating to the mint..

282

Of the emission of spirits in vapour, or exha-

To the speaker's excuse..

284

lation, odour-like

126

On the motion of a subsidy .

286

Of emission of spiritual species which affect

the senses.....

.... 128

CHARGES.

Of emissions of immateriate virtues, from the

Commission for the verge.

289

minds and spirits of men, by affections,

Of subordinate magistrates ..

294

imagination, or other impressions .... 129 Against duels....

295

Of the secret virtue of sympathy and antipa-

Decree of Star-Chamber against duels.

thy......

129

Against Mr. Oliver St. John......

303

Of secret virtues and proprieties .

136

Mr. Lumsden, &c.

307

Of the general sympathy of men's spirits ... 137

Lord Sanquhar..

311

Mr. Owen...

313

TRACTS RELATING TO SCOTLAND.

Countess of Somerset.. 315, 319

A discourse of the happy union..... 138

Earl of Somerset

321

Articles touching the union

142

Letter to the king.

326

Certificate of the commissioners

149

To Sir G. Villiers.

326

Naturalization of the Scottish nation... 150

To the king ...

328

Union of laws.....

158

To Sir G. Villiers .

330

Proposition towards the union of laws 160

Of Somerset's arraignment

330

The post-nati.....

166

To the king, about Somerset's

examination......

331

TRACTS RELATING TO IRELAND.

To Sir G. Villiers, about Lady

Considerations touching the plantation..... 183

Somerset's pardon ....

331

Letter to Mr. Secretary Cecil..... ... 187

William Talbot

389

...

.

Page

Page

PAPERS RELATING TO THE EARL OF

Physiological remains.....

... 455

ESSEX.

Medical remains....

466

Apology of Sir Francis Bacon............ 333

The proceedings of the Earl of Essex ..... 342 JUDICIAL CHARGES AND TRACTS.

Declarations of his treasons

348

SPEECHES.

Arraignment of Blunt, Davis, &c.

363 On taking his place in chancery

........ 471

of Cuffe...

365

Before the summer circuits............. 475-

of Merrick

365

To Sir W. Jones

477

Confession of Lee...

365

To Sir J. Denham

477

of Knowd

366

To Justice Hutton

478

of Gorge.

367 Ordinances for regulating the Court of Chan-

of Sir J. Davis...

cery...

479

of Sir C. Davers. .......

368, 369 PAPERS RELATING TO SIR EDWARD COK.

of Sir C. Blunt......

369, 372 An expostulation to the Lord Chief Justice

of Lord Sandys.

Coke ......

485

of the Earl of Essex........ 374 To the king, about the commendams. 488

Declaration of Sir William Warren .. 366 A memorial for his majesty

489

of Thomas Wood.

366 To Sir George Villiers ....

491

of David Hethrington.... 366 Tracts relating to commendams...... 491

of the Lord Keeper.

370

A remembrance of abuse received from Lord

Examination of Lord Rutland

371

Coke..

497

of Lord Cromwell.... 372 Reasons for removing Lord Coke

497

of Lord Southampton.. 373

To the king ...

498

Speech of Sir Christopher Blunt.

373 Lord Viscount Villiers to Sir Francis Bacon 498

Advice to Sir George Villiers

375

To the king.

499

Remembrances of his majesty's declaration

THEOLOGICAL TRACTS.

touching Lord Coke...

500

PRAYERS.

To the king ·

500

A prayer, or psalm, made by the Lord Ba.

To the king.

501

con, chancellor of England........... 405

Sir Edward Coke to the king

502

A prayer made by the Lord Chancellor The king to the lord keeper.

502

Bacon......

405 Sir Henry Yelverton to the Lord Keeper

The student's prayer

406

Bacon...

503

The writer's prayer.

406

To the Marquis of Buckingham ..... 504

A confession of faith ....

407

The Lord Chancellor Ellesmere to the king 505

The characters of a believing Christian, in

Lord Coke's answer to the fourth question
paradoxes and seeming contradictions.... 408 arising out of Dr. Bonham's case. ....... 506
An advertisement, touching the controver-

Lord Coke's answer to the last question

sies of the church of England ... 411

arising upon Bagg's case.......

507

Certain considerations, touching the better

Letter to the judges ...

507

pacification and edification of the church

Charge against Whitelocke

508

of England. .........

.... 420

LETTERS RELATING TO LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.

The translation of certain psalms into Eng.

Robert, Earl of Somerset, to Sir Thos. Over-

lish verse

431

bury

509

An advertisement touching a holy war..... 435

To the king

510

Questions about the lawfulness of a war for

To John Murray

511

the propagating of religion

511

444

To Mr, Murray

To Mr. Murray

511

MISCELLANEOUS.

To the king

511

Mr. Bacon's discourse in praise of his sove- Supplement of passages omitted in Bacon's

reign ...

445 speech against Owen.

512

A proclamation drawn for his majesty's first

To the king

512

coming in.....

451 To Sir George Villiers, touching the examina-

A draught of a proclamation touching his

tion of Sir Robert Cotton ....

515

majesty's style......

453 Sir Francis Bacon to the judges. .

515

Pago

.....

......

.........

Page

Legal questions for the judges ... 516 Lord Coke's answer to the question arising

Questions of convenience ...

616 upon Godfrey's case ......

530

A particular remembrance for his majesty.. 516 John Selden, Esq. to the Lord Viscount St.
Heads of the charge against Robert, Earl of

Alban.

630

Somerset....

616

To Sir George Villiers..

618 MISCELLANEOUS.

To tho king ......

619 The first copy of my Discourse touching the

Advice to the king, for reviving the commis-

safety of the Queen's Person ..... 532

sion of suits ....

520 The first Fragments of a Discourse touching

To the Earl of Buckingham

521 intelligence and safety of the Queen's

To the lord keeper.

521

Person

532

To the lord keeper

521 The Speeches drawn up by Mr. Bacon for

To the lord chancellor ..

522 the Earl of Essex, in a device exhibited by

To Sir Henry Yelverton.

522 his lordship before Queen Elizabeth, on the

To the lord chancellor...

522 anniversary of her accession to the throne,

To the lord chancellor

522 Nov. 17, 1595...

533

To the lord chancellor

523

Remembrances for the King, before his going

To the lord chancellor ..

523

into Scotland ....

537

To the lord chancellor

523 Account of Council Business............. 537

To the lord chancellor ..

524 An account of Council Business and of other

To the king .....

524 matters committed to me by his Majesty . 538

To the lord chancellor ..

524 A Draught of an Act against a usurious shift

To the Marquis of Buckingham...

625 of gain, in delivering Commodities instead

To the lord chancellor .....

525 of Money.......

540

Notes of a speech of the lord chancellor 525 A Proposition for the repressing of singular

To the Marquis of Buckingham

526

Combats, or Duels..

540

To the Marquis of Buckingham

526 Advice to the King for reviving the Com-

To the king ..

526

mission of Suits.......

... 511

To the king

527 Reasons why the New Company is not to be

Notes upon Michael de la Pole's case...... 527 trusted and continued with the trade of

Observations upon Thorpe's case. .... 527

Clothes......

541

Notes upon Sir John Lee's case

527

Notes upon Lord Latimer's case .......... 528 MISCELLANEOUS TRACTS, (Translated

Notes

upon

John Lord Neville's case...... 528

from the Latin.)

Questions demanded of the Chief Justice of

On the Interpretation of Nature...... 543

the King's Bench .........

528 True Hints on the Interpretation of Nature. 551

Lord Coke's answers to the questions upon

The Phenomena of the Universe; or, Natu.

the case of the Isle of Ely, ............. 529 ral History for the Basis of Natural Philo-

Lord Coke's answers to the questions upon

sophy ....

558

D'Arcy's case...

529 Description of the Intellectual Globe....... 571

....

LORD BACON'S WORKS.

SYLVA SYLVARUM;

OB,

A NATURAL HISTORY,

IN TEN CENTURIES.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

In the spring of 1626, Lord Bacon died. In the same year, Dr. Rawley, “his lordship’s first and last chaplain," as he always proudly entitles himself, collected and published the different poems which were written to the memory of his honoured master. In the year 1627, he published the Sylva Sylvarum, with an address to the reader, explaining the intention of Lord Bacon in the compilation of this work, and the probable objections which might be made to the publication ; that it was not methodical; and that many of the experiments would be deemed vulgar and trivial.

With respect to the want of method, although, to use the words of Dr. Rawley, “ he that looketh attentively into the work, shall find that they have a secret order," yet knowing as he did the charms of symmetry in arrangement and beauty of style, and the necessity of adopting them to insure an immediate and favourable reception of abstruse works, Lord Bacon was never misled by the love of order: he did not worship this idol; but “as Hercules, when he saw the image of Adonis, Venus' minion, in a temple, said in disdain, Nil sacri es;' so there are none of Hercules' followers in learning, that is, the more severe and laborious sort of inquirers into truth, but will despise those delicacies and affectations, as indeed capable of no divineness."

“ No man was, for his own sake, less attached to system or ornament than Lord Bacon. A plain unadorned style in aphorisms, in which the Novum Organum is written, is, he invariably states, the proper style for philosophy. In the midst of his own arrangement, in the Advancement of Learning, he says: The worst and most absurd sort of triflers are those who have pent the whole art into strict methods and narrow systems, which men commonly cry up for the sake of their regularity and style.""

Again he says: “It is of great consequence to consider whether sciences should be delivered by way of aphorism or of method. Methodical delivery is more fit to win consent or belief; but less fit to point to action; for they carry a show of demonstration in orb or circle, one part illuminating another; and therefore do more satisfy the understanding ; but being that actions in common course of life are dispersed, and not orderly digested, they do best agree with dispersed directions. Lastly, aphorisms representing certain portions only, and as it were fragments of sciences, invite others to contribute and add something; whereas methodical delivery carrying show of a total and perfect knowledge, forthwith secureth men as if they were at the furthest."

Again, “Science is much injured by the over early and peremptory reduction of knowledge into • It is a small 8vo, of which there is a copy in the British Museum,

See page 170 of the first volume, Vol. II.-1

А

1

arts and method; from which time commonly sciences receive small or no augmentation. But as young men, when they knit and shape perfectly, do seldom grow to a further stature; so knowledge, while it is in aphorisms and observations, it is in growth; but when it once is comprehended in exact methods, it may perchance be further polished and illustrated, and accommodated for use and practice, but it increaseth no more in bulk and substance."1

Again : “ And as for the overmuch credit that hath been given unto authors in sciences, in making them dictators, that their words should stand, and not consuls, to give advice; the damage is infinite that sciences have received thereby, as the principal cause that hath kept them low, at a stay, without growth or advancement. For hence it hath come, that in arts mechanical the first devisor comes shortest, and time addeth and perfecteth; but in sciences the first author goeth farthest, and time leeseth and corrupteth. So, we see, artillery, sailing, printing, and the like, were grossly managed at the first, and by time accommodated and refined: but contrariwise, the philosophies and sciences of Aristotle, Plato, Democritus, Hippocrates, Euclides, Archimedes, of most vigour at the first, and by time degenerate and embased; whereof the reason is no other, but that in the former many wits and industries have contributed in one; and in the latter many wits and industries have been spent about the wit of some one, whom many times they have rat! depraved than illustrated. For as water will not ascend higher than the level of the first spring-head from whence it descendeth, so knowledge derived from Aristotle, and exempted from liberty of examination, will not rise again higher than the knowledge of Aristotle.” This was the reason why the Sylva Sylvarum was published in Aphorisms, as “ he knew well, that there was no other way open to unloose men's minds, being bound, and, as it were, maleficiate, by the charms of deceiving notions and theories, and thereby made impotent for generation of works."

With respect to some of the experiments being vulgar and trivial, Lord Bacon says in the Novum Organum,: “Quod vero ad rerum utilitatem attinet, vel etiam turpitudinem, quibus (ut ait Plinius) honos præfandus est: eæ res, non minus quam lautissimæ et pretiosissimæ, in Historiam Naturalem recipiendæ sunt. Neque propterea polluitur Naturalis Historia : Sol enim æque palatia et cloacas ingreditur, neque tamen polluitur. Nos autem non Capitolium aliquod aut Pyramidem hominum superbiæ dedicamus aut condimus, sed Templum sanctum ad exemplar mundi in intellectu humano fundamus. Itaque exemplar sequimur. Nam quicquid essentia dignum est, id etiam scientia dignum; quæ est essentiæ imago. At vilia æque substitunt ac lauta. Quinetiam, ut e quibusdam putridis materiis, veluti Musco et Zibetho, aliquando optimi odores generantur; ita et ab instantiis vilibus et sordidis, quandoque eximia lux et informatio emanant. Verum de hoc nimis multa; cum hoc genus fastidii sit plane puerile et effæminatum.”3

And again, “with relation to this contempt of natural history, on account of its containing things that are vulgar, ignoble, subtile, or useless in their origins, we should here consider, as an oracle, the saying of the poor woman to the haughty prince, who rejected her petition as a thing below his dignity to take notice of; then cease to reign; for it is certain, that whoever will not attend to matters of this kind, as if they were too minute or trifling, shall never obtain command or rule over nature."

These two objections stated by Rawley were anticipated by Lord Bacon in the Novum Organum,* where he mentions a third objection which is, even at this day, repeatedly urged against the Sylva Sylvarum. “Some," he says, “without doubt, upon reading our history and tables of invention, will meet with experiments not well verified, or even absolutely false; and may thence, perhaps, be apt to suspect, that our inventions are built upon doubtful principles, and erroneous foundations. But this is nothing: for such slips must necessarily happen in the beginning. It is but as if here and there a letter should be misplaced, or mistaken, in a writing, or printed book; which does not, usually, much interrupt the reader: as such errors are easily corrected, from the sense of the place. In the same manner let men observe, that experiments may be falsely believed, and received in natural history; and yet soon after be expunged and rejected, when causes and axioms are discovered. Though, it is true, that if there should be many, and frequent, and continued errors, in a natural and experimental history, they cannot be corrected by any felicity of art or genius: and therefore, if in our Natural History, which is collected, and examined, with so much diligence, so rigorous, and, as it were, with so religious a severity, there should sometimes happen any falsity, or mistake, with re

1 Page 173 of the first volume. 3“But for unpolite, or even sordid particulars, which as Pliny observes, require an apology for being mentioned ; even these ought to be received into a Natural History, no less than the most rich and delicate; for Natural History is not defiled by them, any more than the sun, by shining alike upon the palace and the privy. And we do not endeavour to build a Capi. tol, or erect a paramid, to the glory of mankind; but to found a temple, in imitation of the world, and consecrate it to the human understanding: so that we must frame our model accordingly. For whatever is worthy of existence, is worthy of our knowledge, which is the image of existence: but ignoble things exist, as well as the noble. Nay, as some excrementi. tious matters, for example, musk, civet, &c. sometimes produce excellent odours; so sordid instances sometimes afford great light and information. But enough of this; as such a delicacy is perfectly childish and effeminate."

• Article 119.

9 Article 120.

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