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the importance of studying comparative anatomy, - an interesting department of inquiry, then only just beginning to attract attention; * but which, hy the united labours of Cuvier and Blumenbach, and our own distinguished countryman, Mr. Lawrence, has since been matured into a most interest ing science, leading to results which even the sagacity of Bacon could hardly have anticipated.
He cautions the medical student against hastily pronouncing any disease to be incurable; acutely remarking, that this is to
* Dr. Harvey, says Aubrey, 'was always very contemplative, and the first that I hear of that was curious in Anatomy in England. He had made dissections of frogs, toads, and a number of other animals, and had curious observations on them, which papers, together with his goods, in his lodgings at Whitehall, were plundered at the Rebellion; he being for the King, and with him at Oxon; but he often said, that of all the losses he sustained, no grief was so crucifying to him as the loss of his papers,
which for love or money he could never retrieve or obtain.'--Letters from the Bodleian Library, vol. 2, p. 379.
enact a law of neglect, and to exempt ignorance from discredit. His suggestion that there should be set down a narrative of the special cases of patients, and how they proceeded, and how they were judged by recovery or death, is now universally adopted. In almost every principal hospital for the sick, Clinical lectures * are delivered: the various symptoms of disease in each patient being day by day carefully noted down, and forming the subject of extemporary discourse. The celebrated Dupuytren, surgeon to the Hotel de Dieu, whose recent loss his country has to deplore, was so convinced of the great practical advantage of this procedure, that, by his will, he has patriotically devoted a magnificent sum to the purpose of founding a Clinical Professorship.
Another suggestion of Bacon's may be mentioned, which, although an obvious one, has only been recently adopted. We allude to the fabrication of factitious mineral waters, identical in composition with those natural medicinal springs which have been found so efficacious in the cure of chronic diseases.*
* i. e., bed-side lectures.
As to the other department of human knowledge which concerns the mind, it refers as well to the substance or nature of the soul as to its faculties, which last branch of philosophy, according to Bacon's classification, has two parts, Rational and Moral.
As man's labour is to invent that which is sought or propounded; or to judge that which is invented; or to retain that which is judged; or to deliver over that which is retained; Bacon accordingly treats the intellectual arts as being four in number; viz., the art of inquiry or invention; the art of examination or judgment; the art of custody
* There is an establishment at Brighton for dispensing mineral waters identical in composition with the most celebrated German springs, viz., Carlsbad, Ems, Schlesischer, Marienbad, Auschowits, &c. &c. These waters may likewise be purchased at the principal chemists thoughout the country.
or memory; and the art of elocution or tradition. Having delivered many profound remarks on each of these arts and their various subdivisions, he then examines into the state of Moral Philosophy; and with this concludes his survey of that general part of human philosophy which contemplates man as an individual, consisting of body and mind.
The other principal part of human philosophy is Civil Knowledge; and this embraces the three arts of Conversation, Negotiation, and Government. On these he discourses at considerable length, and with his wonted wisdom and eloquence. Thus have I concluded,' says Bacon, 'this portion of learning touching civil knowledge; and with civil knowledge have concluded human philosophy; and with human philosophy, philosophy in general. And being now at some pause, looking back into that I have passed through, this writing seemeth to me, "si nunquam fallit imago,” (as far as a man can judge of his own work,) not much better than that noise or sound which musicians make while they are tuning their instruments; which is nothing pleasant to hear, but yet is a cause why the music is sweeter afterwards: so have I been content to tune the instruments of the muses, that they may play that have better hands. And surely, when I set before me the condition of these times, in which learning hạth made her third visitation or circuit in all the qualities thereof,as the excellency and vivacity of the wits of this age; the noble helps and lights which we have hy the travails of ancient writers; the art of printing, which communicateth baoks to men of all fortunes; the openness of the world by navigation, which hath disclosed multitudes of experiments, and a mass of natural history; the leisure wherewith these times abound, not employing men so generally in civil business, as the states of Græcia did, in respect of their popularity, and the states of Rome, in respect of the greatness of their monarchy; the present