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B. C:

Alcimus dies soon after obtaining possession of the high priesthood

160 The Romans threaten Demetrius with war, if he con. tinue to molest the Jews

ib. Bacchides is defeated by Jonathan

158 Jonathan owned by Demetrius as bis lieutenant in Judea 153 Repairs and fortifies Jerusalem

ib. Alexander Balas, a pretender to the Syrian crown, appoints Jonathan high priest, and sends him a gold crown and a purple robe

ib. Jonathan assumes the priesthood, and declares for Alexander

ib. The priesthood continued in the family of the Asmoneans until

the reign of Herod. Demetrius slain in battle by Alexander Balas, who soon after confers great honours on Jonathan

150 Demetrius, son of Demetrius Soter, invades Syria. Apollonius, one of his generals, defeated by Jonathan 148

Alexander Balas, defeated by Ptolemy Philometer, Aies to the Arabs, who murder him

146 Carthage destroyed by Scipio Africanus, jun.

ib. Corinth plundered and destroyed by Luc. Mummius ib.

Demetrius seeks an alliance with Jonathan; bnt after receiving considerable services from him, violates all his promises

145 Antiochus Theos, son of Balas, being placed on the throne of Syria, by Tryphon, Jonathan espouses bis cause, and defeats the forces of Demetrius

144 Tryphon, governor of Antioch, basely seizes the person of Jonathan, and puts him to death : Simon succeeds him ib.

Tryphon destroys Antiochus Theos and usurps the crown of Syria

ib. Simon solicits the friendship of Demetrius, who constitutes him sovereign and high priest of Judea ; in these

141

B.C. offices ise is afterwards confirmed, both by his own countrymen and by the Romans

143 The castle in Jerusalem, so long held by the Syrians, is surrendered to the Jews, who demolish it

142 Demetrius ken prisoner by the Parthians

Antiochus Sidetes, or the hunter, second son of Demetrius Soter, assumes the crown of Syria

140 Defeats Tryphon, who is afterwards slain at Apamia 139

Antiochus makes war on Simon, but is defeated by his two sons, Judas and John

ib. Simon, with two of his sons, Judas and Mattathias, being treacherously murdered by his son-in-law Ptolemy, John Hyrcanus succeeds him

135 Antiochus besieges Jerusalem, and Hyrcanus capitulates ib. Antiochus slain in the Parthian war

130 Demetrius, who had effected his escape from Parthia, reassumes the crown

ib. Hyrcanus, taking advantage of the distractions of the Syrian monarchy, establishes the independence of the Jews ib.

Takes Shechem, and destroys the temple on Mount Gerizim

ib. Reduces the Edomites, and incorporates them with his own subjects ; and renews his league with the Romans 129

Carthage rebuilt by order of the Roman senate 123

John Hyrcanus sends Aristobulus and Antigonus, his sons, to besiege Samaria; which they capture and utterly demolish, notwithstanding the attempts of the Syrian and Egyptian princes to raise the siege.

After this success, Hyrcanus becomes master of all Judea, Galilee, and several other places

109 B.C.

The Samaritans, between whom and the Jews so much animosity

subsisted, resided at Shechem, after their expulsion from Samaria by Alexander the Great. Those whom Hyrcanus subdued, were another race, composed of Macedonians, Greeks, and Syrians, whose ancestors were planted there by that conqueror.

Hyrcanus leaves the Pharisees and joins the Sadducees 108

Dies, and is succeeded by his son Aristobulus, who assumes a diadem and the title of king

107 Cicero, and Pompey the Great, born

ib. Aristobulus starves his mother to death, because she bad been entrusted by Hyrcanus with a share in the administration ; and shuts up three of his brothers in prison ib.

Conquers the Itureans, a neighbouring people, and incorporates them with the Jews

106 Causes his brother Antigonus to be murdered

ib. Dies in great agony of mind

ib. Salome gives the three brothers of Aristobulus their liberty ; and Alexander Jannæus, the eldest, ascends the tbrone

ib. Ptolemy Lathyrus, king of Cyprus, defeats Alexander with the loss of 30,000 men

104 Cæsar born in the month Quirinalis, afterwards called July in honour of him

100 Alexander captures and destroys Gaza

97 The Jews, uniting against Alexander, insult him in the temple; on which he falls upon them with the soldiers and slays 6,000 men

95 Alexander gains some victories over the Arabians 94 Is snared by them in an ambush, and most of his army slain 92

The Jews revolt against him: this begins a civil war which lasts six years

ib. Civil war at Rome, between Marius and Sylla, begins 88

Alexander, after many sanguinary conflicts, being at length victorious, conducts 800 prisoners to Jerusalem, and crucifies them all in one day. While they are hanging on the cross, he slays their wives and children before

86 Is defeated at Addida, by Aretas, king of Damascus 85

The Syrians expel the Seleucidæ, and confer the government of their country on Tigranes, king of Armenia

83

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B. C.

Alexander, after an absence of three years, in which he had overcome many of his enemies, returns in triumph to Jerusalem

82 Gives himself up to debauchery, and contracts a disease which terminates his life, after a reign of twenty-seven years. He is succeeded by his wife Alexandra

79 Alexandra appoints Hyrcanus, her eldest son, high priest 78

The Pharisees, whose favour is courted by Alexandra, take vengeance upon their enemies

77 The adverse party headed by Aristobulus, younger son of Alexandra, take possession of the garrisons, by the queen's permission, and set their enemies at defiance 72

Alexandra dies, and Aristobulus seizes the crown and priesthood from Hyrcanus

70 Antipater, an Idumean, father of Herod, espousing the canse of Hyrcanus, invites to his aid Aretas king of Arabia Petrea, by whom Aristobulus is defeated

65 Hyrcanus and Aristobulus refer their dispute to Pompey, and plead their respective causes before him in person. Pompey, however, postpones his decision; and Aristobulus puts Judea in a state of defence

63 Cicero detects the conspiracy of Cataline

ib. Pompey displeased with Aristobulus goes to Jerusalem. The temple being shut against him, he lays siege to it, and after three months, carries it by storm. Twelve thousand Jews were slain in this conflict

ib. Pompey leaves unmolested all the treasures of the temple, but is led by curiosity to enter the most holy place ib.

It merits special notice, that Pompey's prosperity ended with this

violation of the sanctuary. Pompey demolishes the walls of Jerusalem ; restores Hyrcanus to the priesthood, and then departs for Rome, taking Aristobulus, his sons Alexander and Aptigonus, and two of his daughters, with him, to grace his triumph. On the way Alexander makes his escape

ib.

ib.

B.C. Octavius Cæsar born

63 Hyrcanus assists Aretas, king of Arabia Petræa, in his war against Scaurus governor of Syria

62 The first triumvirate at Rome, onder Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus

60 Alexander, son of Aristobulas, seizes several strong places in Judea; but Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria, defeats him, and shuts him up in the castle of Alexandrium, wliere he at length surrenders and pardoned 57

Gabinius abolishes the monarchy of Judea, and appoints five independent councils at Jerusalem, Jericho, Gadara, Amathus, and Sephoris, making each place the head of a province

Aristobulus and his son Antigonus, having escaped from Rome, assemble an army and begin to repair the dilapidated castles ; but being attacked and defeated by the Romans, they are again made prisoners and sent back to that city. At the request of Gabinius, however, the senate set Antigonus at liberty

ib. Gabinius having gone to Egypt with Mark Anthony, Alexander raises an army in his absence, puts all the Romans that fall into his hands to death, and besieges a body of them in mount Gerizim. Gabinius, however, returns to Syria, and defeats Alexander at mount Tabor 56 Cæsar invades Britain

55 Syria assigned to Crassus. This avaricious Roman plunders the Jewish temple of all its valuables, estimated to be worth ten thousand talents, to enable him to prosecute a war against Parthia

54 Crassus and a great part of his army cut off by the Parthians at Carrhæ, or Haran, in Mesopotamia

53 Cassius makes war upon the party of Aristobulus, and forces them to a peace

52 The civil war between Pompey and Cæsar breaks out 50 Cæsar sets Aristobulus at liberty and sends him to

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