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335

B. C. Jeshua, having obtained a grant of the high priesthood from Bagoas governor of Syria, proceeds to Jerusalem to depose Johanan, but is slain by him in the inner court of the temple. For this offence, Bagoas condemns the Jews to a severe fine, which they pay until the death of Artaxerxes, about seven years after

366 Mausoleus, king of Caria, dies

354 The Phænicians, joined by some of the Jews, revolt against Ochus, but are defeated. Ochus attacks Jericho, captures it and carries many Jews into captivity

351 Johanan, the high priest, dies, and is succeeded by Jaddua

341 Philip, king of Macedonia, assassinated

336 Darins Codomanus ascends the throne of Persia

Alexander gains the battle of Granicus, and, in the fol. lowing year, that of Issus

333 Besieges Tyre; requires provisions from the Jews, but they refuse to grant them, because of their allegiance to Darius

332 After taking Tyre, he proceeds to Jerusalem; but instead of punishing the Jews, confers many privileges upon them, especially the free exercise of their own laws and religion

ib. Alexandria founded by Alexander

331 The reed Papyrus first used for writing

ib. Battle of Arbela, which transfers the empire of the world to Alexander

ib. Alexander dies at Babylon, through intemperance 323 The empire of Alexander divided. Palestine, with other countries, falls to Laomedon the Mytilenian

ib. Jaddua, the Jewish high priest, dies, and is succeeded by Onias

321 Ptolemy defeats Laomedon; besieges Jerusalem, which he carries by assault on a sabbath day, as the Jews would not then defend themselves

320

B. C. He carries 100,000 Jews captive to Egypt, but honours many of them with offices of great responsibility

320 The æra of the Seleucidæ, used all over the east by Heathens, Jews, Christians, and Mahomedans, begins : memorable for the capture of Babylon by Seleucus, who establishes the Syro-Macedonian empire

312 Epicurus, thirty-two years of age, begins to promuige his doctrines

310 In the war between Ptolemy and Antigonus, Judea frequently changes its master; but after the defeat of Antigonus, at Ipsus in Phrygia, Palestine is secured to Ptolemy

301 Onias, the high priest, dies, and is succeeded by Simon, bis son, denominated the Just. Simon is said to have completed the canon of the Old Testament, by adding the two books of Chronicles, Ezra and Esther, (which four he seems to have written himself) Nehemiah and Malachi 300

Simon dies: his son, being an infant, is set aside; and Eleazar, Simon's brother, becomes high priest

292 Antigonus of Socho becomes president of the Sanhe. drim. Sadoc, one of his pupils, founds the sect of the Sadducees

ib. The Scriptures translated from Hebrew into Greek, about this time, being the eighth year of Ptolemy Philadelphus 277

Eleazar, the high priest, dies, and is succeeded by Manasseh, son of Jaddua

276 The first Punic war begins

264 Berosus, the Babylonish historian, flourishes about 260

Manasseh, the high priest, dies, and is succeeded by Onias II. son of Simon

250 Ptolemy Evergetes, after great successes against Laodice, queen of Syria, offers thanksgiying and sacrifices to the true God, in Jerusalem

246 Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barcas, at nine years of age, swears on the altar, eternal enmity to the Romans

237

B. C.

Displeased at the non-payment of the annual tribute of twenty talents, Evergetes threatens to dispossess the Jews of their country. Alarmed at this, Onias sends his nephew Joseph to Egypt, to intercede with the king, in which he is very successful

226 Onias, the high priest, dies, and is sueceeded by his son Simon

218 Hannibal crosses the Alps, and invades Italy

ib. Ptolemy Philopater, visiting Jerusalem, sacrifices to the true God. Attempts to enter the most holy place of the temple; but is smitten by the hand of Providence, “and carried out half dead.” In revenge, he subjects the Jews to a severe persecution

217 Hannibal defeats the Romans at Thrasymene, and, in ib. the following year, at Cannæ

216 An insurrection in Egypt against Philopater. The Jews supposed to be engaged in it, as forty thousand of them were cut off about this time

213 Marcellus, the Roman, captures Syracuse: Archimedes, the famous mathematician, is slain by a common soldier 212

Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, makes himself master of Palestine

203 Hannibal recalled from Italy; and, in the following year, defeated by Scipio, at the battle of Zama

ib. Scopas, an Egyptian general, captures and plunders Jerusalem and other Jewish cities, and thus alieniatęs the affections of the Jews

199 Antiochus, being received with open arms by the Jews, grants them many immunities

198 Simon, the high priest, dies, and is succeeded by his son Opias III.

195 Antiochus entirely defeated at Magnesia in Asia, by the Romans, under Lucius Scipio

190 Simon, governor of the temple, quarrelling with Onias,

B. C.

flies to Apollonius the governor of Celo Syria, and incites him to plunder the temple, with the hope of finding great treasure

176 Jason, having purchased the priesthood of Antiochus Epiphanes, deposes his brother Onias. Erects a Gymnasium, and seduces the Jews to idolatry

175 Menelaus, another brother, purchases the priesthood 172

Menelaus professes idolatry, plunders the temple, and causes Onias to be murdered

171 Jason attacks and captures Jerusalem, and again seizes the priesthood

170 Antiochus hastens to attack Jerusalem. Having taken the city, he slays forty thousand Jews, sells as many more for slaves, plunders the temple, and defiles the holy of holies

ib. Jason, wbo had escaped the vengeance of Antiochus, dies miserably in Lacedemonia

ib. Paulius Æmilius vanquishes Perseus, king of Macedon, and makes that country a Roman province

168 Antiochus vents his displeasure on the Jews; causes great numbers to be slain, and commences a sanguinary persecution against all who observe the law of Moses, or refuse to become idolaters

ib. Mattathias, a priest, (great grandson of Asmonæus) and his sons Johanan, Simon, Judas, Eleazar, and Jonathan, boldly oppose apostacy, at Modin; and, slaying the king's commissioner, retire to the mountains

ib. They resolve to fight on the sabbath, if attacked then by their enemies

ib. Antiochus proceeds to Judea to see his laws enforced; and causes great numbers of Jews to be slain

167 The first library founded at Rome, consisting of books brought from Macedon

ib. Mattathias begins the restoration of the true worship in the cities of Judah, but dies the following year 166

B. C. Judas, called Maccabæus, succeeds his father. He restores the worship of God in several places

166

Judas obtained the name Maccabæus from Mi Ca Ba Ie the

initial syllables of Mi Camoka Baelim Jehovah, (Who is
like thee, among the gods, O Lord,Exod. xv. 11.) which
words constituted a motto for his ensign.

Judas, with a very small army, gains in a short time several important victories, makes great carnage among his enemies, retakes Jerusalem, and re-establishes the worship of God

ib. Antiochus, smitten by the hand of God, dies of a hor. rible disease in his bowels, on the confines of Persia and Babylon

164
The like fate has attended other persecutors, as may be instanced
in Jehoram king of Judah, Herod, Galerius Maximianus the

Roman Emperor, and Philip II. of Spain.
Judas inflicts severe punishment on the Edomites and
Ammonites, and gives several signal defeats to the
Syrian generals

163 Eleazar, one of the brothers of Judas, slain in a battle with the Syrians

ib. Menelaus, the high priest, smothered in ashes, by order of Antiochus Eupator, who appoints Alcimus to be his

ib. Onias, son of Onias III. Aies to Egypt

ib. The Jews, refusing to accept Alcimus as high priest, Demetrius Soter, who had seized the crown of Syria, sends a great army against them, which is defeated by Judas and cut off to a man

161 Judas implores and obtains the alliance of the Romans ib.

Judas, deserted by his men, is defeated and slain by Bacchides;

and Jerusalem, with a great part of Judea, falls into the hands of the Syrians

ib. Jonathan succeeds Judas

ib. John slain by a tribe of Arabs

ib.

successor

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