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Page 87.

The tinkling throngs Of laden camels, and their drivers' songs. “ Some of the camels have bells about their necks, and some about their legs, like those which our carriers put about their fore-horses' necks, which together with the servants (who belong to the camels, and travel on foot,) singing all night, make a pleasant noise, and the journey passes away delightfully." - Pitt's Account of the Mahometans.

" The camel-driver follows the camels singing, and sometimes playing upon his pipe; the louder he sings and pipes, the faster the camels go. Nay, they will stand still when he gives over his music.” Tavernier.

Page 92.

Hot as that crimson haze By which the prostrate caravan is aw'd. Savary says of the south wind, which blows in Egypt from February to May, “ Sometimes it appears only in the shape of an impetuous whirlwind, which passes rapidly, and is fatal to the traveller, surprised in the middle of the deserts. Torrents of burning sand roll before it, the firmament is enveloped in a thick veil, and the sun appears of the colour of blood. Sometimes whole caravans are buried in it."

Page 101.

the pillard Throne Of Parviz. There were said to be under this Throne or Palace of Khosrou Parviz a hundred vaults filled with “ treasures so immense, that some Mahometan writers tell us, their Pro

phet, to encourage his disciples, carried them to a rock, which at his command opened, and gave them a prospect through it of the treasures of Khosrou.” — Universal History.


Page 102.
And they beheld an orb, ample and bright,

Rise from the Holy Well. We are not told more of this trick of the Impostor, than that it was

une machine, qu'il disoit être la Lune.” According to Richardson, the miracle is perpetuated in Nekscheb. “ Nakshab, the name of a city in Transoxiania, where they say there is a well, in which the appearance of the moon is to be seen night and day.”

Page 104, On for the lamps that light yon lofty screen. The tents of Princes were generally illuminated. Norden tells us that the tent of the Bey of Girge was distinguished from the other tents by forty lanterns being suspended before it. — v. Harmer's Observations on Job.

Page 108. Engines of havoc in, unknown before. That they knew the secret of the Greek fire among the Mussulmans early in the eleventh century appears from Dow's Account of Mamood I. 66 When he arrived at Moultan, finding that the country of the Jits was defended by great rivers, he ordered fifteen hundred boats to be built, each of which he armed with six iron spikes, projecting from their prows and sides, to prevent their being boarded by the enemy, who were very expert in that kind of war. When he had launched this fleet, he ordered twenty archers into each boat, and five others with fire-balls, to burn the craft of the Jits, and naptha to set the whole river on fire.”

The agnee aster, too, in Indian poems, the Instrument of Fire, whose flame cannot be extinguished, is supposed to signify the Greek Fire. - v. Wilks's South of India, vol. i. p. 471. — And in the curious Javan poem, the Brata Yudha, given by Mr. Raffles in his History of Java, we find, “ He aimed at the Heart of Soéta with the sharp-pointed Weapon of Fire.”

The mention of gunpowder as in use among the Arabians, long before its supposed discovery in Europe, is introduced by Ebn Fadhl, the Egyptian geographer, who lived in the thirteenth century. “ Bodies," he says,

6 in the form of scorpions, bound round and filled with nitrous powder, glide along, making a gentle noise ; then, exploding, they lighten, as it were, and burn. But there are others, which cast into the air stretch along like a cloud, roaring horribly, as thunder roars, and on all sides vomiting out flames, burst, burn, and reduce to cinders whatever comes in their way.” The historian Ben Abdalla, in speaking of the sieges of Abulualid in the year of the Hegira 712, says, “ A fiery globe, by means of combustible matter, with a mighty noise suddenly emitted, strikes with the force of lightning, and shakes the citadel." v. the extracts from Casiri’s Biblioth. Arab. Hispan, in the Appendix to Berington's Literary History of the Middle Ages.

Page 108.
Discharge, as from a kindled naptha

fount. See Hanway's Account of the Springs of Naptha at Baku (which is called by Lieutenant Pottinger Joala Mookhee, or the Flaming Mouth), taking fire and running into the sea. Dr. Cooke in his Journal mentions some wells in Circassia, strongly impregnated with this inflammable oil, from which

issues boiling water. « Though the weather," he adds,

was now very cold, the warmth of these wells of hot water produced near them the verdure and flowers of spring.”

Major Scott Waring says that naptha is used by the Persians, as we are told it was in hell, for lamps.

many a row
Of starry lamps and blazing cressets, fed
With naptha and asphaltus, yielded light
As from a sky.

Page 116.
Thou seest yon cistern in the shade'tis fill'd

With burning drugs for this last hour distilld. « Il donna du poison dans le vin à tous ses gens, et se jetta lui-même ensuite dans une cuve pleine de drogues brûlantes et consumantes, afin qu'il ne restât rien de tous les membres de son corps, et que ceux qui restoient de sa secte puissent croire qu'il étoit monté au ciel, ce qui ne manqua pas

d'arriver." - D'Herbelot.

Page 124. To eat any mangoes but those of Mazagong was, of course,

impossible. “ The celebrity of Mazagong is owing to its mangoes, which are certainly the best fruit I ever tasted. The parent tree, from which all those of this species have been grafted, is honoured during the fruit season by a guard of sepoys; and, in the reign of Shah Jehan, couriers were stationed between Delhi and the Mahratta coast, to secure an abund


ant and fresh supply of mangoes for the royal table.” – Mrs. Graham's Journal of a Residence in India.

Page 124.

His fine antique porcelain. This old porcelain is found in digging, and “if it is esteemed, it is not because it has acquired any new degree of beauty in the earth, but because it has retained its ancient beauty; and this alone is of great importance in China, where they give large sums for the smallest vessels which were used under the Emperors Yan and Chun, who reigned many ages before the dynasty of Tang, at which time porcelain began to be used by the Emperors,” (about the year 442.) - Dunn's Collection of curious Observations, &c. - a bad translation of some parts of the Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses of the Missionary Jesuits.

Page 130. That sublime bird, which flies always in the air. “ The Huma, a bird peculiar to the East. It is supposed to fly constantly in the air, and never touch the ground: it is looked upon as a bird of happy omen; and that every head it overshades will in time wear a crown." Richardson.

In the terms of alliance made by Fuzzel Oola Khan with Hyder in 1760, one of the stipulations was, “that he should have the distinction of two honorary attendants standing behind him, holding fans composed of the feathers of the humma, according to the practice of his family." — Wilks's, South of India. He adds in a note; “ The Humma is a fabulous bird. The head over which its shadow once passes will assuredly be circled with a crown. The splendid little

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