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art, about the year 1440. And that the occasion of it was, he having cut the letters of his name out of tbe bark of a tree, which was green, and full of sap, and afterwards putting them into a fine linnen handkerchief, the letters impressed upon the linnen their own characters : This first inspired bim with the thoughts of making characters of metal, that might make an impression upon paper, which he afterwards effected. This is strongly affirmed by the citizens of Mentz, saith Polydore Virgil, lib. ii. cap. 7. de invent. rerum : And for proof hereof they produce a copy of Tully's Offices, printed in parchment, and preserved in the library of Augsburg, having this memorandum at the latter end of it, • Præsens M. Tullii opus clarissimum, Jo Fust, Moguntinus civis non atramento plumali canna, neque area, sed arte quadam perpulchra manu Petri Gersheim, pueri mei, fæliciter effeci: Finitum, anno 1440. Die quarto
Mens. Feb.' In English thus : I John Fust, citizen of Moguntia, have happily effected the present most illustrious work of Mark Tully, performed neither by pen and ink, nor brass, but by a certain art, purely by the fair hand of my son Peter Gersheim: Done in the year 1440, on the fourth day of February.' This is cited by Salmuth, in his annotations on Pancirollus, who stands stifly for Germany (his own country) in this point : And also cites another argument from the library of Francfort, wherein an old copy of the decisions of the Rota are kept; at the latter end thereof it is said, “That it was printed in civitate Moguntia artis impressoriæ inventrice & elimatrice prima ; that is, In the city of Moguntia, being the first inventer and refiner of the art of printing'
But, nothwithstanding all these evidences for High Germany, yet Hadrianus Junius, a very learned man of the Low-Countries, is as stiff, on the other side for Haerlem, making that the birth-place of this noble art. This Junius (in his history of the Netherlands) tells us, . That one Laurence John (others call him Laurence Coster) a burgher of good note and quality in the city of Haerlem, was the first inventer of it;' and saith, That he made letters at first of the barks of trees (as was before said of the other) which being set and ranked in order, and put with their heels upwards upon paper, he made the first essay and experiment of this art: At first he made but a line or two, then whole pages, and then books, but printed on one side only: Which rudiments of the art, Junius says, he saw in the town.
And then to turn John Gúttemberg, or Fust, or Faustus, quite out of doors, he gives us this further account: That, after this, the aforenamed Laurence John made types or characters of tin, and brought the art to further perfection daily : But one John Faustus (though he proved Infaustus to him) who was his servant and had learned the mystery, stole away all the letters, and other utensils belonging to the trade ; and, after several removes, set up for himself at Mentz, making as if he were the first inventer of it; (whereas, if what Junius says be true, he had only stole it from Laurence John) and the first book, he printed there, was the
Doctrinal of one Alexander Gallus, which he printed in the year 1440.
This is further confirmed by Hegenitz, who saith, that house the of Laurence John is yet standing in the market-place of Haerlem, with this inscription in golden letters over the door :
Typographic Ars, Artium Conserratrir. hic primum Inrenta, circa
Sacred to Memory. The Art of Printing, the Preserver of Arts, was first invented here,
about the year MCCCCXL.
And underneath, these verses:
Which I have thus paraphrased,
Thus I have given the different pleas of both parties; yet will not pretend to determine which is in the right, but leave the decision to the reader's judgment.
But this is certain, that, though, the chief honour is due to the inventer, yet that perfection and beauty, that printing is now arrived to, is very much owing to them that came after, many in the present age having not a little contributed thereto, here in England, where it is at as great perfection as in any part of the world. And it is as true as strange that, where printing was invented, the art is almost lost, and did never there arrive to any great per. fection,
Printing has been in China, above two-thousand years; but their way is so vastly different from the method we use in Europe, that no comparison can be made between them, the former having so many boards, as they have pages in their book, on which their characters are carved, one representing (or standing for) a man, another an house, &c. as they have occasion to place them; and of
these characters they have such great numbers, that few of them know the one half; they not making use of four and twenty letters to make words, as is used here. This way of the Chinese was not heard of, till within these very few years.
It is well known of the Turks, that they have not the learning, the art in trades, or war, as their neighbours the Germans; and the chief reason is, they have not printing among them, which they will not suffer; for fear, as is thought, it should undermine their false religion, and plant Christianity in its stead.
LETTER WRITTEN TO A YOUNG GENTLEMAN,
TO DISSU ADE HIM FROM AN INTENDED JOURNEY THITHER.
Scotica si diris devotum, terra tulisset
By the Author of ‘The Trip to North Wales.' 1701. Folio. Containing
heard, from my Lady your mother, your intentions led you to our neighbouring kingdom of Scotland, to perfect and give the grace-stroke to that very liberal education, you have so signally improved in England. I confess, it is very irksome, to some spirits, to be contradicted and thwarted in either their expressions, or designs: and they do, with such an unpersuadable obstinacy, cherish their own ideas, that you might as well expect grapes from a thistle, as to make them change their party, thougb upon the most demonstrative arguments, that can be produced. But I hope better things of you; and do not in the least doubt, but you are so much reason's humble servant, that, if I convince you this ramble of yours will neither be for your credit, pleasure, nor advantage (which I shall make the topicks of my discourse) you will even stay where you are, and not hazard three things so very precious to all rational creatures; and, if you meet with any harsh, rugged expressions in this epistle, I hope you will do me the justice to believe, that it was nothing, but a grateful sense of my own obligations, and a
hearty desire of your welfare, that extorted them from me. And let so much suffice, by way of preface.
You are now advanced to those years, in which, if ever, men begin lo consider and propose some end to themselves in what they do. But, under favour, if, by going into Scotland, you imagine to improve your intellect, you are as wide of your purpose, as if you should take West-Chester in your way from London to Dover; and, before I will believe, that ever any man, that has lived a gentleman, or fellowcommoner, in either of our two Universities, and a little tasted of the education of an inn of court (as you have done) can ampliate his understanding by grazing in the Caledonian forest, I will subscribe to the calling in of the Jews, and the Pope's being turned protestant.
I will not deny, but Scotland has formerly given very eminent scholars to the world; nay, I will go further, there are no finer gentlemen in the world, than that natiou can justly hoast of ; but then they are such as have travelled, and are indebted to other countries for those accomplishments that render them so esteemed, their own affording only pedantry, poverty, brutality, and hypocrisy.
To make this evident, give me leave a little to pursue my proposed method: And here pleasure (which influences most people, young especially, that care not much to look forwards) leads the van. Now, Sir, you would take him for a very unaccountable man, that should pretend to regale bis nose with asa fætida, or, in the heat of summer, take sanctuary in a bagnio, for coldness; and yet you do the same thing in effect, when you make the tour of Scotland for diversion.
For the charms of conversation (which, considering man as a sociable creature, are most universally desired) it may be presumed, Nebuchadnezzar, when turned out a grasing, had full as eligible companions, as you are like to meet with; and you might, with as much safety, enter into a league of friendship with a cannibal, who would upon the first opportunity eat you up, as with a Scotchman; for what Sir John Chardin says of the Mingrelians, may be truly applied to them, That they are perfidy itself. "The most sacred ties, as oaths and the like, are snapped asunder by them with as much ease, as the new cords were by Sampson. And there is nothing amongst them, t, their very kings (of which the last, age afforded us a very memorable example) t:at is not vendible, Civility is not so much as known in the idea amongst that proverbially clownish people. The conscience of a custom-house officer, the integrity of a knight of the post, the modesty of a common prostitute, and the courage of a town-bully amount to full as much.
Their women are, if possible, yet worse than the men, and carry no temptations, but what have at band suitable antidotes; and you must be qualified for the embraces of a Succubus, before you can break the seventh, or one article of the tenth commandment here. The skin of their faces looks like vellum; and a good Orientalist might easily spy out the Arabick alphabet between their Eye-brows. Their legs resemble mill-posts, both for shape, bigness, and strength; their hair is like that of an overgrown hostess ; their gait like a Muscovian duck's; and their fingers strut out with the itch, like so many country justices going to keep a petty sessions. Their voice is like thunder, and will as effectually sowre all the milk in a dairy, or beer in a cellar, as forty drums beating a preparative. It is a very common thing for a woman of quality to say to her footman, • Andrew, take a fast gripe of my am, and help me over the stile.'
They pretend to be descended from one Madam Scota, daughter to King Pharaoh; but the best proof, they give of it, is their bringing two of the plagues of Egypt along with them, viz. lice and the itch; which they have intailed upon their posterity ever since.
Sonie are of opinion, that, when the Devil shewed our Saviour the kingdoms of the earth, he laid his thumb upon Scotland, and that for a twofold reason: First, because it was not like to be any temptation. Next, being part of his mother's jointure, he could not dispose of it during her life.
For their cookery and bedding, they are the antipodes of all cleanly folks. Can you like to breakfast upon steen bannock? (An oaten cake, often baked upon my hostess's warm wemb.) Or drink ropy ale, that is full as palpable, as ever the Egyptian darkness was? Would it please you to see a joint of meat ready to run away from you? And yet such must be your entei tainment there.
In Edinburgh, the capital city, whither you are going, they have not a private forica ; but, as their houses, which are incredibly high, consist of eight or ten distinct families, each of which possesses an intire floor, so, at every stair’s-head, you may see a great tub, called a cogue, that is the receptacle-general of the nastiness of a whole family; for all disembogue here promiscuously, both males and females, masters and mistresses, with their servants, without the least restraint of modesty or shame. When this is competently full, two lusty fellows, by the help of a cowl-staff, carry it by night to a window, and, after crying, Geud peeple, leuk to yar selles there,' out they throw it; he, that comes by, has great cause to bless his stars, if he comes off with piss. It may be, at high noon, and in the principal street, you shall meet a tattered wretch, with a monstrous cloke, and a close-stool under it, bawling out, “Wha wants me?' For a half-penny you may be accommodated, and covered, whilst you are so.
Trees are great rarities : This made Sir Anthony Weldon, who knew the country very well, say, “ That, had Christ lived there, and been betrayed, as most certainly he would have been, if he had lived there, Judas might sooner have found the grace of repentance, than a tree to bang himself on.' The high-street in Edinburgh, about three quarters of a mile long, is very fit, by reason of its breadth, for a triumpb, from the Castle to Holy-rood