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enemy came on, he should give battle, or raise the siege, as he should be advised by a council of war.
The enemy came to Bruges, and then Marshal Turenne thought it high time to call a council of war, which consisted of eight noblemen, eight lieutenant-generals, and six marshals du camp; but never sent to Ambassador Lockhart, or Major-general Morgan. The whole sense of the council of war was, that it was great danger to the crown of France, to hazard a battle in that streight country, full of canals and ditches of water; and, several reasons being shewn to that purpose, it ran through the council of war to raise the siege, if the enemy came on. Within half an hour after the council of war was risen, Major-general Morgan had the result of it in his camp, and went immediately to Ambassador Lockhart, to know if he heard any thing of it. He said he heard nothing of it; and complained, that he was much afflicted with the stone, gravel, and some other impediments. Major-general Morgan asked him to go with him the next morning to the head-quarters : He said he would, if he were able.
Next morning, Marshall Turenne sent a nobleman to Ambassador Lockhart and Major-general Morgan, to desire them to come to a second council of war. Immediately, therefore, Ambassador Lockbart and Major-general Morgan went with the nobleman to Mar. shal Turenne's camp; and, by that time they came there, the council of war was ready to sit down in Marshal Turenne's tent.
Marshal Turenne satisfied the council of war, that he had forgot to send for Ambassador Lockhart and Major-general Morgan to the first council of war, and therefore thought fit to call this, that they might be satisfied; and then put the question: Whether, if the enemy come on, he should make good the siege on the Newport side, and give them battle; or raise the siege and required they should give their reasons for either.' The Marshals du Camp ran away with it clearly to raise the siege; alledging what danger it was to the crown of France, to hazard a battle within so streight a country, full of canals and ditches of water; farther alledging, that, if the enemy came upon the rock, they would cut between Marshal Turenne's and Major-general Morgan's camps, and prevent their conjunction: Two of the Lieutenant-generals ran along with the Marshals du camp, and shewed the same reasons. But Major-general Morgan, finding it was high time to speak, and that otherwise it would go round the board, rose up, and desired, though out of course, that he might declare his mind, in opposition to what the Marshals du Camp, and the two Lieutenant-generals had declared. Marshal Turenne told him he should have freedom to speak his thoughts. Then Major-general Morgan spake, and said, “That the reasons the Marsbals du Camp and the two Lieutenant-generals had given for raising the siege, were no reasons ; for the streightness of the country was as good for the French and English, as for the enemy: And whereas they alledged, That, if
• This man had married Cromwell's niece.
the enemy came on the bank between Furnes and Dunkirk, they would cut between Marshal Turenne's and Major-general Morgan's camps; Major-general Morgan replied, It was impossible, for they could not march upon the
bank above eight a-breast ; and farther he alledged, that Marshal Turenne's artillery and small shot would cut them off at pleasure :' He added, “That that was not the way the enemy could relieve Dunkirk, but that they would make a bridge of boats over the channel, in an hour and half, and cross their army upon the sands of Dunkirk, to offer Marshal Turenne battle.'
Farther, Major-general Morgan did alledge, What a dishonour it would be to the crown of France to have summoned the city of Dunkirk, and broke ground before it, and then raise the siege, and run away; and he desired the council of war would consider, that, if they raised the siege, the alliance with England would be broken, the same hour.'
Marshal Turenne answered, "That if he thought the enemy would offer that fair game, he would maintain the siege on Newport side; and Major-general Morgan should march, and make conjunction with the French army, and leave Mardyke side open.' Upon Marshal Turenne's reply, Major-general Morgan did rise from the board, and, upon his knees begged a battle, and said, * That he would venture the six-thousand English, every soul.' Upon which, Marshal 'Turenne consulted the noblemen that sat next him, and it was desired that Major-general Morgan might walk a turn or two without the tent, and he should be called immediately. After he had walked two turns, he was called in; as soon as he came in, Marshal Turenne said, “That he had consi. dered his reasons, and that himself and the council of war resolved to give battle to the enemy, if they came on, and to maintain the siege on Newport side ; and that Major-general Morgan was to make conjunction with the French army. Major-general Morgan then said, “That, with God's assistance, we should be able to deal with them.'
The very next day, at four in the afternoon, the Spanish army had made a bridge of boats, crossed their army on the sands of Dunkirk, and drew up into battalia, within two miles of Marshal, Turenne's lines, before be knew any thing of them. Immediately, all the French horse drew out to face the enemy at a mile's dis. tance; and Marshal Turenne sent immediate orders to Major general Morgan, to march into his camp, with the six-thousand English, and the French brigade of horse; wbich was done accordingly.
The next day, about eight of the clock, Marshal Turenne gave orders to break avenues on both the lines, that the army might march out in battalia. Major-general Morgan set his soldiers to break avenues for their marching out in battalia likewise. Several officers being with him, as he was looking on his soldiers at work, Ambassador Lockhart comes up, with a white cap on his head, and said to Major-general Morgan, 'You see what a condition I am in,
I am not able to give you any assistance this day; you are the older soldier, and the greatest part of the work of this day must lie upon your soldiers. Upon which the officers smiled; and so he bid . God be with us,' and went away with the lieutenant-general of the horse, that was upon our left wing; from which time we never saw him, till we were in pursuit of the enemy. When the avenues were cleared, both the French and English army marched out of the lines lowards the enemy. We were forced to march up in four lines (for we had not room enough to wing, for the canal between Furnes and Dunkirk, and the sea) till we had marched. above balf a mile ; then we came to a halt on rising hills of sand, and, having more room, took in two of our lines.
Major-general Morgan, seeing the enemy plain in battalia, said, before the head of the ariny, · See! yonder are the gentlemen you have to trade withal.' Upon which the whole brigade of English gave a shout of rejoicing, that made a roaring eccho betwixt the sea and the canal. Thereupon, the Marshal Turenne came up, with above an hundred noblemen, to know what was the matter and reason of that great shout. Major-general Morgan told him, 'It was an usual custom of the red-coats, when they saw the enemy, to rejoice.'
Marshal 'Turenne answered, “They were men of brave resolution and courage.' After which, Marshal Turenne returning to the head of his army, we put on to our march again." At the second halt, the whole brigade of English gave a shout, and cast up their caps into the air, saying, “They would have better hats before night.' Marshal Turenne, upon that shout, came up again, with several noblemen and officers of the army, admiring the resolution of the English, at which time we were within three quarters of a mile of the enemy in battalia. Marshal Turenne desired Major-general Morgan, that, at the next halt, he would keep even front with the French, · For, says he, I do intend to halt at some distance, that we may see how the enemy is drawn up, and take our advantage accordingly. Major-general Morgan demanded of his excellency, Whether he would shock the whole army at one dash, or try one wing first?' Marshal Turenne's reply was, • That as to that question, he could not resolve him yet, till be came nearer the enemy.' Major-general Morgan desired the Marshal, not to let him languish for orders, saying, “That oftentimes opportunities are lost, for want of orders in due time.' Marshal Turenne said, he would either come himself and give orders, or send a lieutenant.general;' and so Marshal Turenne parted, and went to the head of his army. In the mean time, Major-general Morgan gave orders to the colonels and leading officers, to have a special care, that, when the French came to a halt, they keep even front with them; and farther told them, if they could not observe the French, they should take notice when he lifted up his hat (for he marched still above threescore before the center of the bodies): But, when the French came to a halt, it so happened, that the English pressed upon their leading officers, so that they came up under the shot of the enemy. But, when they saw that Major
general Morgan was in a passion, they put themselves to a stand. Major-general Morgan could soon have remedied their forwardness, but he was resolved he would not lose one foot of ground he had advanced, but would hold it as long as he could. We were so near the enemy, the soldiers fell into great friendship, one asking, • Is such an officer in your army;' another, · Is such a soldier in yours ;' and this passed on both sides. Major-general Morgan endured this friendship for a little while, and then came up to the center of the bodies, and demanded, How long that friendship would continue; and told them further, that, for any thing they knew, they would be cutting one another's throats, within a minute of an liour. The whole brigade answered, 'Their friendship should continue no longer than he pleased.' Then Major-general Morgan bid them tell the enemy, No more friendship: Prepare your buff-coats and scarfs, for we will be with you
you expect us. Immediately after the friendship was broke, the enemy poured a volley of shot into one of our battalions, wounded three or four, and one dropped. The Major-general immediately sent the Adjutant-general to Marshal Turenne for orders, 'Whether he should charge the enemy's right wing, or whether Marshal Turenne would engage the enemy's left wing, and advised the Adjutant-general not to stay, but to acquaint Marshal Turenne, that we were under the enemy's shot, and had received some prejudice already; but there was no return of the Adjutant-general, nor orders. By and by the enemy poured in another volley of shot, into another of our battalions, and wounded two or three. Majorgeneral Morgan, observing the enemy mending faults, and opening the intervals of the foot, to bring horse in, which would have made our work more difficult, called all the colonels and officers of the field together, before the center of the bodies, and told them, he had sent the Adjutant-general for orders, but, when he saw there was no hope of orders, he told them, “ If they would concur with him, he would immediately charge the enemy's right wing :' Their answer was, “They were ready whenever he gave orders. He told them, He would try the right wing with the blue regiment, and the four-hundred firelocks, which were in the interval of the French horse; and wished all the field-officers to be ready at their several posts.' Major-general Morgan gave orders, that the other five regiments should not move from their ground, except they saw the blue regiment, the white, and the four-hundred firelocks shocked the enemy's right wing off of their ground, and farther, sbewed the several colonels what colours they were to charge, and told them moreover, “That, if he was not knocked on the head, he would come to them. In like manner, as fast as he could, he ad, monished the whole brigade, and told them, . They were to look in the face of an enemy who had violated, and endeavoured to take away their reputation, and that they had no other way, but to fight it out to the last man, or to be killed, taken prisoners, or drowned; and farther, that the honour of England did depend much upon their gallantry and resolution that day.'
The enemy's wing was posted on a sandy hill, and had cast the sand breast-high before them: Then Major-general Morgan did order the blue regiment, and the four-hundred firelocks, to advance to the charge. In the mean time Major-general Morgan, knowing the enemy would all bend upon them that did advance, removed the white regiment more to the right, that it might be in the flank of them, by that time the blue regiment was got within push of pike.
His royal highness the Duke of York, with a select party of horse, had got into the blue regiment, by that time the white came in, and exposed his person to great danger. But we knew no body at that time. Immediately the enemy were clear shocked off of their ground, and the English colours flying over their heads, the strongest officers and soldiers clubbing them down. Major-general Morgan, when he saw this opportunity, stepped to the other five regiments, which were within six score of him, and ordered them to advance, and charge immediately: But, when they came within ten pikes length, the enemy, perceiving they were not able to endure our charge, shaked their hats, held up their handkerchiefs, and called for quarter ; but the red-coats cried aloud, . They had no leisure for quarter.' Whereupon the enemy faced about, and would not endure our charge, but fell to run, having the English colours over their heads, and the strongest soldiers and officers clubbing them down, so that the six-thousand English carried ten or twelve thousand horse and foot before them. The French army was about musquet-shot in the rear of us, where they came to balt, and never moved off of their ground. The rest of the Spanish army, seeing the right wing carried away, and the English colours flying over their heads, wheeled about in as good order as they could, so that we had the whole Spanish army before us; and Major-general Morgan called out the colonels, .To the right as much as you can, that so we might have all the enemy's army under the English colours. The six-thousand English carried all the Spanish army, so far as Westminster-abby to Paul's Church-yard, before ever a Frenchman came in, on either wing of us; but then at last we could perceive the French horse come pouring on each wing, with much gallantry: but they never struck one stroke, only care ried prisoners back to the camp. Neither did we ever see the Ambassador Lockhart, till we were in pursuit of the enemy; and then we could see him amongst us very brisk, without his white cap on his head, and neither troubled with gravel or stone. When we were at the end of the pursuit, Marshal Turenne and above a hundred officers of the army came up to us, quitted their sses, embraced the officers, and said, “They never saw a more glorious action in their lives, and that they were so transported with the sight of it, that they had no power to move, or do any thing. And this high compliment we had for our pains. In a word, the French army did not strike one stroke in the battle of Dunkirk, only the sixthousand English. After we had done pursuing the enemy, Majorgeneral Morgan rallied his forces, and marched over the sande