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977 On Novel Reading.Answer to the Query of J. O. 978 or the Parliament, or the Constitution ; | rality.” Who can prescribe limits to but they will obey Anarchy. They will a desire thus delusively created and not believe in the Prophets—in Moses fostered? Is that person who dares

in Mabomet-in Christ; but they thus to lull young persons into this believe Tom Paine! With no govern- practice, sure that they will never ment but confusion, and no creed but read, or have a desire to read, any scepticism,- I believe, in my soul, they thing more flagrant? would abjare the one, if it became le- Novels never can contribute to the gitimate; and rebel against the other, acquisition of useful learning, nor the if it was once established.

maturing of good sense, for they are “ Holding, my Lord, opinions such (without exception) replete with trias these, I should consider myself cul- fling, ludicrous, and fabulous bom. pable, if, at such a crisis, I did not de- bast; the production of a heated, clare them. A lover of my country, I vain, and futile imagination. It weré yet draw a line between patriotism and to be wished, that the writers of novels rebellion. A warm friend to liberty of in our own country, would either emconscience, I will not confound tolera- ploy their time and talents in writing tion with infidelity. With all its am- something useful to the community of biguity, I shall die in the doctrines of which they are members, and worthy the Christian faith ; and, with all its the Christian name, which they proerrors, I am contented to live under fess to bear; or so far restrain that the glorious safeguards of the British “ cacoethes scribendi,” as at least not Constitution."

to injure the morality of it. During the course of this speech, If novels, &c. do no more for EngMr. Phillips was frequently interrupt- land, than stage-plays did for Athens, ed by the loud and enthusiastic ap- she will have little reason to boast of plause of the Meeting. Never indeed their utility. What then is the use of did we witness a more powerful or suc- novels ? to hold, as it were, a mirror cessful display of eloquence; it seemed up to nature?—say rather, to present a to have charmed every individual pre- picture, instead of the original, which, sent. When Mr. Phillips sat down, if it were a likeness, might be borne the applause continued for several with: but the features of virtue are so minutes.

distorted in this pretended mirror, the image of vice so altered and adorned,

that readers of this class, having ON NOVEL READING,

already entered into temptation, by October 29, 1819. sanctioning and giving their hearts Mr. Editor,

to these amusements, have become Perhaps the following may be deemed darkened to that degree, by the god worthy a place in your valuable Ma- of this world, that they mistake the gazine. I am, Sir,

latter for the former, and gaze upon Yours, &c. the fascinating chimera, till their once

A Reader. hopeful spirits become deformed into It is a well known truth, that the call the likeness of its author. for novels of every description is daily

Bincreasing to an alarming degree in this country, to the disparagement of

ANSWER TO THE QUERY OF J, 0. religion and every moral virtue.Novels appear no where to have a

(Numb. 8. col: 763.) more dangerous tendency, than when put into the hands of young persons, Your correspondent says, that he especially those who have not had the thought it very strange the conduct of good fortune to be instructed in the Judas should be taken up in the future principles of strict morality.

The reason of this is certainly At all times and in all ages, man is by not very unintelligible, if the circumnature “ unstable,” and inclined to stances be considered. The apostle is waver; but more especially in youth. relating the history of a certain indi

It may be objected, “ such and such vidual, whose acts he details in the novels are not mischievous in their order of time in which they happened ; effects, and are, at the same time, but wishing to designate Judas in paramusing and instructive to young per- ticular, he borrows an epithet from a sons, without endangering their mo- transaction that happened posterior to No. 10.-VOL. I.

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CONCERNING JUDAS.

tense.

the event he was then recording, ing (hodden grey) for baith laird and wbich was an act of Jusdas's life ante- lady, and was far afore the twittery rior to the circumstance that gave him worm-wab made now-a-days.” The the name of Traitor ; for, at the time broad national bonnet was invariably that Judas spoke the words in the fol- worn by men of every station in this lowing verse, he was not the traitor; quarter then, except by the Earl of but the act that constituted him one Galloway and Colonel Agnew, of Sheuwas then in futurity. This certainly chan: “ they introduced the thriftless justifies the apostle in using the future fashion of earing hats in this country, time; and indeed if he had not so Linen sarks were only worn by the tap done, he would have spoken incor- gentry; an’ nane o' them had either rectly.

neck or hanbans.” Looking-glasses Many of the supports of Heterodoxy were then so scarce, that “ gin a bonny are derived from wrong translations ; | lass wanted to see hersel, she had, like and the defenders of it often argue my joe Janet, either to keek into the from the translation, without regarding draw-well, a cogfu' o'water, or a dub the import of the original. Oftentimes at a dyke-side. argumentation is entered upon, not This curious chronicler was born in with a design of eliciting truth, but for the parish of Kirkinner, in the bethe purpose of establishing a favourite ginning of 1714, and has always been opinion or system. The word should a laborious and hard-working man. certainly implies necessity or obligation, When he was 102 years of age, during independently of its future significa- the harvest season, he bound up the tion: but the word in the Greek thus grain cut by four able shearers; and rendered, simply means futurity; nor to the present time, he cooks all his is there the least obligation contained own victuals, casts his own peats, and in the passage. Literally translated, manages all his own affairs, and can the verse stands thus: Then said Judas read the smallest edition of the Psalms Iscariot, the son of Simon, (o pelaw,) of David, without the help ofspectacles. he about to betray him. Thus there is Prior to this time, he was never out of no foundation for the supposition of Galloway except once, and then only a Judas being raiserl up to betray few days. His present journey from Christ, as much so as the other apos- Sorby to Pinkell Cottage, was undertles were for the conversion of the taken at the desire of Sir W. Stewart, Gentile world.

J. S. who would have conveyed him in a

carriage; but the old man preferred

travelling on foot, and performed the LONGEVITY.

last nine miles of his journey with great There is at present at Pinkell Cot- ease in about four hours. tage, near Newton Stewart, Wigton- Nov. 10, 1819. shire, the seat of General the Hon. Sir Wm. Stewart, Alexander M'Cready, of

Observations on the Substratum of Sorby, whose corporeal and mental fa

Matter. culties seem but little impaired by the wasting hand of time, although he is MR. EDITOR, at present in the 106th year of his age. Sir,-Almost as soon as I was taught This singular specimen of antiquity that matter has essential properties, possesses such a youthful cheerfulness such as figure, extension, &c. and that in conversation, and such a fondness these properties subsist in an unknown for relating the manners and customs substratum, which is their support, or of the people of Galloway in the early bond of union, a difficulty presented part of his life, as to make him not itself to my mind, that I could not solve only an amusing, but likewise a very to my own satisfaction. As often as I instructive companion.

thought on the distinction between When he was young man, about substance and its qualities, this diffininety years ago, he says, “there was culty appeared ; and I as constantly not a spinning-wheel to be seen frae referred it to the class of incomprethe brig-end o’Dumfries to the braes hensibles, or attributed my inability o'Glannap, nor were the people of Gal- to unravel it to my own want of caloway acquainted with dying any other pacity; nor did I presume, until year colour than black, which, when mixed after year had passed by, to question with white wool, was made into cloth- any opinion that received the sanction

W. L.

981

Observations on the Substratum of Matter. 982 of such names as Newton and Locke. assert that the substance of the Deity Continuing, however, to inquire into is different from that of the worlă the nature of things, and the origin of which he has created.”

Other rehuman knowledge, other difficulties oc- marks follow on the subject, but as the curred; and happening to meet with preceding quotation is quite sufficient some books on metaphysical subjects, for my purpose, I omit transcribing in which their authors had strongly them. opposed some of the principles men- If we are utterly ignorant of the nationed by those authorities, to whom I ture of material and immaterial subhad been accustomed to give the most stances, how.indeed can we tell, but that obsequious deference, my mind, by the same substance, differently modidegrees, became unshackled; and, fied, may be the support of all properthough with considerable hesitancy, I ties whatever, as Spinoza has contendat length ventured to think for my- ed? Extremes, it is said, resemble each self, on all subjects not immediately re- other. And this is evidently the case vealed.

with the Berkeleyan and Spinozian sysSir Isaac Newton, in a passage that tems, however widely, at first sight, they has had its admirers, expresses himself may appear to differ. Nor is it at all imthus, “ In bodies, we see only their probable, that the doctrine of real unfigures and colours, we hear only the known essences, supporting different sound, we touch only their outward aggregates of properties, gave birth surfaces, we smell the odours and taste to both. Dr. Reid, if I mistake not, savours, but their inward substances has acknowledged that the scheme of are not to be known, either by our Berkeley was logically deduced from senses, or by any reflex act of our the principles of Locke; and it is cerminds; much less, then, have we any tain its admirers continue to support idea of the substance of God.” Locke, it in the same way.

A very learned Clarke, and others, have repeatedly as- metaphysician, and an avowed enemy serted the same thing in other words. of the philosophy developed in the es

Let us now see the use made of this say concerning human understanding, principle, that we have no idea of any has asserted, that if there be any meansubstance whatever, by a daring sceptic, ing in words, as far as the essential

prowho attempts, not only the destruction perties of any being is known, we know of systems, but “ the wreck of matter, so much of its real nature. And, I must and the crush of worlds.” After im- confess, that whenever I have subimposing upon himself by a number of tracted the essential properties of any sophisms, this author contends, that being, from its essential nature, I never while we continue to insist upon the exist- could find that there was any thing left. ence of distinct mental powers, we must Dr. Watts, I remember, in his Logic, conclude against the unity of the human opposes Mr. Locke's unknown substrasoul; and asks “ What is the sub-tum, and treats it as a mental phanstance of the soul? If reason, percep- tom without an archetype in nature ; tion, understanding, volition, memory, and traces its origin to a common and imagination, be powers of the soul, source of error, the structure of lanwhat is the soul itself?” The proper guage. answer to these questions, as far as the Thus far I had written, Sir, when it unity of the soul is concerned is this, occurred to my mind, that the Dr. had that these are not distinct powers, con- noticed this subject in his philosophisidering power as a cause, but mere- cal essays. I read them many years ly names used to denote the different ago, but had lost a distinct rememcapacities and acts of the soul. He brance of particulars, and was thereproceeds, “ If it be answered, that the fore greatly surprised on reading the soul is that, in which all these powers following observations. The Dr. obinhere; and that substance can be serves, after animadverting upon the described in no other way, than as inconsistency of Locke, in abandoning that, in which certain qualities exist; I any general notion of substance, as anask, if it be not evident, that all dis- other real physical distinct being, protinction must be made, not between vided to support all its real or supposed things, but between their qualities ? accidents or qualities, and yet often reMaterial substance, considered as sub- presenting this notion of substance as stance, could not be distinguished from some real unknown thing or being ; spiritual substance; and we could not Truly, if there were any such real

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he says,

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE.

being in nature as substance in gene- | principles or concessions; but I think ral, or a common substance which sup- he neither does, nor perhaps could efports all the properties of things, and fectually secure them from such unthis being were utterly unknown to us, happy consequences.”. then I think it might be granted, that My object in this paper is, to all beings are, or at best might be, the request some able hand to take up same in substance, and are or may be its pen, and either clear the current diversified only by their properties or opinion from these consequences, or accidents; for if we know nothing of help to scout it from the regions of this being called substance, we can philosophy. This request does not deny nothing of it. And then, per proceed from a captious sceptical haps, it might be said, that God and head; but from a mind steadily fixed the creature, that body and mind, are on, and ardently, though cautiously

, the same in substance, even the same pursuing truth. I confess, that at preindividual substance, and that they sent I think with the good Dr. quoted differ only in certain properties. But above, that there is no necessity of this is a most palpable falshood, which going beyond essential properties, in I shall take some further notice of by quest of an unknown nature. Solidity and by: for God and the creature dif- may be, for aught I see to the contrary

, fer from each other in their very es- the very essence of matter, and consence, in their substantial nature or sciousness the essence of spirit. If I physical being, though the logical or am wrong, I shall be thankful to any generic idea of substance may be ap- one who will endeavour to put me plied to them both, as self-subsisting right. I am, Sir, beings.”—Essay 2, section 1.

Your's, respectfully, In section 3, Consideration the Fifth,

AN ENQUIRER. “ Let it be considered also, that the supposition of some utterly unknown being called substance, to be the substratum or subject of all the properties of body, and such an un

Sir, Liverpool, June 10, 1819. known being also to be the subject of If the following original lines should all the properties of mind or spirit

, meet your approbation, their insertion is a notion that carries with it some in your truly valuable publication will dangerous consequences, and therefore

particularly oblige your ought not to be too easily embraced.”

Constant Reader, W.M. And again, further, he observes, “ If this opinion should be true, then how

THE NEGRO'S PRAYER. can we tell but God himself, even the infinite mind, may have also the pro

'Twas night, and o'er the rippled sea

A gentle breeze arose, perty of solid extension, that is, may

More welcome than the scorching sun, also be matter or body; and then he

That here in noonday glows. may be the same with the universe of heings, as Spinoza fancied; and thus

The balmy dew-drops heavy fell,

And dimly shone the nioon; the whole universe, God and this

No sound disturb’d, save wind and wave, world, may be the same individual

The soul-inspiring gloom. substance, which Spinoza maintains

Not long the awful silence reign'd; with subtilty : for if there be such a

For straight from Negro shed, thing as an universal ulterior substra

Along the beach with hasty step, tum necessary to support solid exten

The captive Gambia fled. sion, and to support the power of

Thro’ well-known paths from thence be flex, thinking, and this substance or sub

And 'neath a lime's dark shade, stratum be so unknown a thing as Mr.

The harass'd slave, o'er Leah's tomb Locke supposes, how can I deny any The ardent tribute paid. thing concerning it? or, at best, how

Then turning from the hallow'd spot, can I be sure that God and the mate

Weak, pensive, and opprest, rial world have not one common sub- To Heav'n be rais'd his weeping eges, stance !” The Dr. adds,“ In that sec- And thus reliev'd his breast : tion, Mr. Locke endeavours to guard

“O Alla! say, must Afric's tribe bis principles or doctrines from the

Sink fetter'd to the grave ? danger of this objection, which he sup- And when the spirit takes its flight, poses, very naturally, to arise from his Will shackles load the slave ?

985

Poetry.

986

CANTO II.

THE

“ If not, this ever ready dirk,

Genius of Britain! thou that o'er ber bier
Shall gore my injur'd breast,

Still in distraction shed'st th' unceasing tear; And tho to hell my soul repairs,

Shall. Grecian woe absorb thy wond'ring gaze, My aching limbs will rest.

And Grecian art monopolize thy praise ; “ I rave, for sure it cannot be,

Bid thine own children viudicate thy name, That one like thee so good,

And Painting tell thy tale of tears to Fame; Would banish me, and cherish those

Then 'neath thy cypress wreath may start a
Who traffic in

smile,
blood.
my

To see thy grief immortalize thine isle. “Resign'd, in thee my hopes I'll fix,

# Perseus -See Lempriere. Nor fear the baffling wave,

+ This and the following lines allude to the melancholy

fate of the Princess Charlotte. Which foams in every frightful form,

With tornent to the slave.
“ I'll bear the worst, with patience bear,

THE VILLAGER'S LAY.
Nor once shall sorrow's sigh
Escape my breast; and silenc'd thus
Will Gambia live and die."

CONTIGUOUS, or remote, or verging wide,
Now landscape beauties rise in all their pride;
Untir’d, on these the eye delights to dwell,

Where hills and valleys bold receding swell. IPHIGENIA OF TIMANTHES, Where hamlets rise, and glittring on the spire, a Poem:

From morn's bright porch the earliest ray of

fire, The Subject for the Newdigate Prize, at

Proclaims the dawn :-now o'er the village Oxford, for 1819.

plain, By the Author of Genius, a Vision. Advancing Summer leads the smiling train. IMAGINATION! Thou whose kindling eye

In sylvan pride extending trees compose Erst pierc'd the crystal glories of the sky;

A compact fence of intertwisted boughs; Saw Gods in grief--and awe-struck at the sight, The hedge-row now, while Summer's pride Denied a mortal's misery to light;

arrays, Oh! once again vouchsafe to point our view,

Of various kinds a flowery robe displays;

But fairest hue, and sweetest in perfume, And raise the vision of the past anew.

The WiLDING Rose suspends her blushing Such as Timanthes såw, till Aulis' tale Embodied—turn’d the shudd'ring nations pale. Emblem of'rural innocence, and meek

plume; Then time at last were cheated .of his prey, The pen would snatch the pencil from decay.

As maiden worth dyes virtue's lovely cheek; The vision rises-mark, 'amid the band,

Retiring modest midst the sylvan scene,

Simple as sweet, the hedge-row's floral green: So ghastly wan, the victim princess stand ;

Left thus to nature, culture's boasted cares Not as ere while, in impotence of pray'r,

Disdains a wild-flower every thicket bears. But stamp'd a silent convert to despair. Fix'd as the wife that turn'd her longing gaze,

Sweet Wilding Rose! though in the garden's

bound, Where nought but stone could tolerate the

Each sister beauty breathes herfragrance round; blaze;

Damask or scarlet, in each tincture dyed, Oppos’d-confronted—like as Lot had been, Had but one glance resought his bosom's queen. Tempt with their charms the hand of guilt or

pride, Like to huge Atlas, when his weaker foe*

Awhile to such their beauties are diplay'd, Struck with his gorgon talisman the blow. The king, the father stands—but veil'd in grief, Sweet Wilding Rose! no guilty hands assign

Then cast away indifferent ere they fade ! Since dumb conviction dares not hope relief.

To cold neglect such simple charms as thine ; Stupendous thought! to veil a mortal's throe,

Empearl'd in dews, ere from thy native thorn, To give to Fancy, e'en a God in woe.

The Sun has kiss'd the moisture of the morn, No! not a pang the pencil e'er pourtray'd,

Reflection wand'ring, reads in every flower So much of mourning majesty convey'd;

The curious traces of creative power; Still is his form, and can that calm express

Reads in thy blushes and thy odours sweet, More than a God's epitomis'd distress.

The health and beauty of this mild retreat. Colossal all! here pity turns to gaze,

But emblem’d then, let simple truth arise, And pour the speechless homage of amaze.

From the sweet wild-rose in its lovely guise; But mark that eye! its fix'd and glassy stare To the plain village-maid, whose native grace Might basilisk the demon of despair.

Reigus in her manners, as her smiling face : No hope on earth, the princess looks on high, To her the town, and its politer round, And dread Diana answers from the sky. Ne'er lent their lessons; her attainments found Such look our loveliestt when her cherub fled, Within the circle of a generous heart, Fix'd on its car of glory as it sped;

Ne'er shar'd, nor sought to share, the charms And ere her herald pass'd the gates of bliss,

of art. Clapp'd the glad wing, and join'd him with a Frank, unsuspecting, innocent, and kind, kiss.

Her fears as heedless, and unwarp'd her mind;

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