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9.-Hence also it is, that the centre cate impulses, are turned on their axes of the masses of the earth and moon by slight combinations, and easily act are carried round the sun, by their re- upon and receive the re-action of their ciprocal actions and re-actions on and satellites. Like ships in motion, they through the medium of space, created impart their impulses to bodies in the probable and admitted motion tact with them; and those bodies beof the sun round the centre of the come, in consequence, the patients of masses of the solar system ; the un- all their motions, while every part, in equal diffusion and action of the move- its own re-actions, necessarily respects able fluids in the two hemispheres, the common centre of the motions of causing the earth, at different periods the aggregate. Comets move in very of its orbit, to lengthen and shorten its eccentric orbits, because they do not virtual lever, and to describe an ellip- move in the plane of the sun's motions tic orbit.

or impulses, which is nearly that of the 10.—The general motions of the less eccentric planets. earth, as an aggregate, are the sources 14.---When percussion or collision of all the relative motions which take does not produce an equal quantity of place upon it; and every motion on the aggregate motion in a proportionate earth is but an appropriation, re-ac- change of place in the aggregate: or tion, or mechanical transfer, of part of when the motion received cannot be the motions of the earth. If the earth transferred by diffusion, as when a were at rest, there could be no motion piece of iron, laid on an anvil, receives to transfer; consequently, there could the motion of a hammer, or when two be neither action nor re-action, nor any pieces of wood are rubbed together

, kind of animal power or loco-motion, an intestine re-action of the atoms in nor any aggregate motion or projectile the iron and wood takes place ; acforce.

companied by the perception of heat, 11.--All the parts of the earth con- and by a series of phenomena dependsolidate and fall towards the centre, ing on the quantity of motion thus conbecause every part is the patient of centrated, and on the acceleration of the rotatory force, which gives them the same by reiterated blows, rubbings, station proportioned to their rarity ; or transfers of motion. and of the paramount orbicular force 15.—This intestine motion produces which impels all the densest masses to- various phenomena of the several comwards the line of motion; and also be- ponent atoms of the affected body in cause the centre of the earth is the regard to one another, and to the centre of the combined forces or mo- heterogeneous media in which they are tions of all the united masses.

situated : thus, one quantity creates a 12.—An unattached body, as a stone perception of heat, another sensibly let fall or projected, returns to the imparts that perception to the atoms carth, because, at the time when it was of the surrounding media, another conunattached or projected, it was the pa- verts the fixed mass into fluids, an actient of the earth's motions, and the celeration converts the fluids into diforce which raised it ceases to act when verging gas, and a further accelerait was let fall, or is soon imparted to tion, which exceeds the radiating the air; and because the common powers of the surrounding media, deforce which revolves the earth and at-composes those media, exhibiting flame mosphere cannot revolve a stone in the and intense heat, in the solidification circle in which it revolves the air. In of the oxygenous part of the media, every stratum of the terrestrial mass, and, producing subtle radiations on the the density, multiplied by the velocity rare medium which fills space, thereby of rotation, is, or ought to be, equal; affecting the nerves of the eye, imbued and, if unequal, then bodies rise or fall with that medium, with the perceptions accordingly: and hence in air a bal- of light. loon rises, a bubble swims, and a stone 16.—The parting with each degree falls.

of atomic motion produces a contrary 13.—As it is with the earth, so it is series of phenomena : thus gas, on with all the planetary bodies; they parting with its heat or atomic motion swim in the medium of space, surround- to other bodies, becomes fluid; and ed by atmospheres, which fine off like fluids, by parting with their heat or the down on the seeds of thistles: they excited motion, become solids ; and are, consequently, moved by very deli- the diffusion of heat or atomic motion

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969 Philosophy of Material Phænomena, by Sir R. Phillips. 970 on such re-conversion is sensible, when traction and Repulsion. The power the ogygenous part of atmospheric of all affected strata is inversely as the gas, solidified by respiration, gives out | least distance at which the equilibrium what is called animal heat; and when of the surfaces will not be restored ; the same, soiidified by combustion, or and the galvanic series is merely a reduced in volume by compression, mechanical means of accumulating gives out heat, and excites the pulsa- or accelerating an original excitetions of light.

ment. 17.-Resistance is a phenomenon of 22.-Chemical affinity affords proof parting with received motion. A body that atoms are compounded in different said to be resisted, is merely parting forms, which coalesce and dove-tail towith its motion to the atoms which it gether with more or less facility. encounters in the media within which 23.-Definite sizes in the vegetable it moves, and, as it continues to part and animal kingdoms result from the with its motion to the radiating atoms, fixed ratios of the law of increase and its gradually diminished energy of decrease, or of accretion and dispermotion is, in vulgar language, said to sion; which fixed ratios generate a debe destroyed by resistance.

gree of increase, whose limits are de18.-Friction, like resistance, is a termined by the simultaneously acting mere phenomenon of parting with law of decrease. motion, but to a fixed body instead of 24.-All the changes visible on the a fluid ; and being a variation of per- surface of the earth are consequences cussion, or of transfer of motion with- of volcanoes, terrene or submarine; or out change of place, it produces simi- of the slow mechanical action of air lar phenomena of intestine atomic and water; and the great changes motion or heat, which, when continued caused by water arise from the succesor accelerated, produces all the other sive transfers of the ocean into either phenomena of accelerated atomic mo- hemisphere, by the revolution of the tion or heat.'

perihelion point of the earth's orbit 19.-Crystallization is a mere effect through the ecliptic in every 20,900 of parting with atomic motion, in cer- years; the existing strata of organic tain connections with, or relations to remains seeming to prove that at least the atoms of the surrounding media. three such revolutions have taken place

20.—The phenomena of electricity, since the planet of the earth existed in galvanism, &c. consist in separations its present form. or mechanical decompositions of the 25.—In fine, motions of matter subcomponent gazeous atoms of plates of ject to regular mechanical laws, actelectrics, connected and condensed on ing absolutely or subordinately, getheir opposed surfaces by surfaces nerally or locally, on aggregates or of non-electrics ; the re-union of which atoms, and producing various densiseparated strata through a single point ties and different degrees of loco-moof conduit produces intense pheno- tion and affinity in atoms of matter of mena of atomic motion. Thus, glass different constituent forms, are the is coated by tin-foil, air by metal con- proximate causes of all phenomena ; and, ductors, the atmosphere by clouds and as one series of phenomena depends earth, and acids in galvanism by metal- on another, so all existing phenomena lic plates; and the electric or galvanic are, in regard to others, physically fit, power is within the intervening elec- compatible, and harmonious; and, as trics, or on their surfaces.

matter cannot originate its own motion, 21.-Loose light bodies placed on so, in considering motion as the proxithe surface of an electrified stratum of mate cause of all phenomena, we arcoated air, present nearer surfaces to rive, through the ascending series, the oppositely affected surface; and at the necessary and sublime FIRST bodies being light, are patients of the CAUSE of all motion and all phenomena. force exerted within the stratum to restore the disturbed equilibrium of its furface, and therefore, by the energy exerted on their surfaces, they are al- When the English Court interfered in ternately wafted between the affected favour of the Protestant subjects of surfaces of the stratum, creating phe- Louis XIV. and requested his Majesty nomena which, in the language of to release some who had been sent to the mystical philosophy, are called At- the galleys; the King asked angrily.


" What would the King of Great Bri- we are placed is, I hope, a sufficient tain say, were I to demand the pri- apology in itself for any intrusion; but soners of Newgate from him !”—“Sir, I find such apology is rendered more (replied the Ambassador,) my master than unnecessary by the courtesy of would give every one of them up to this reception. Indeed, my Lord, your Majesty, if, as we do, you reclaimed when we see the omens which are them as Brothers.

every day arising--when we see blasphemy openly avowed—when we see

the Scriptures audaciously ridiculedSPEECH OF CHARLES PHILLIPS, ESQ. when in this Christian monarchy the We have not been induced to insert den of the Republican and the Deist the following speech, from any per- yawns for the unwary in your most suasion that it will be entirely new to public thoroughfares--when marts are the generality of our readers. The ostentatiously opened, where the moral celebrity of its author, and the com- poison may be purchased, whose subtle manding eloquence which it displays, venom enters the very soul—when inhave already gained for it an admis- fidelity has become an article of comsion into many of our public papers; merce, and man's perdition may be and the same passport will ensure for cheapened at the stall of every pedlar, it a safe depository in several of our -no friend of society should continue periodical journals.

silent; it is no longer a question of On any occasion, such a burst of political privilege-of sectarian coneloquence as this speech contains, troversy-of theological discussion; it could not but render it highly accept- is become a question, whether Chrisable to an enlightened public; but at tianity itself shall stand, or whether the present moment, when the friends we shall let go the firm anchor of our of infidelity are using every effort to faith, and drift, without chart, or helm, diffuse mental poison through the vast or compass, into the shoreless ocean body of our population, and even en- of impiety and blood! I despise as deavouring to infect the infant just much as any man the whine of bigotry rising from its cradle, the claims of -I will go as far as any man for rathis antidote are too imperious to be tional liberty ; but I will not depose resisted.

my God to deify the infidel, or tear in The Seventh Annual Meeting of the pieces the charter of the state, and city of London Auxiliary Bible So- grope for a constitution amongst the ciety, was held in the Egyptian Hall, murky pigeon-holes of every creedless, Mansion-House, on Thursday, the 4th lawless, infuriated regicide. of November, 1819, for the purpose of “ When I saw the other day, my hearing the Report, electing new offi- Lord, the chief Bacchanal of their cers, &c.

At half-past twelve o'clock orgies—the man with whom the Apos the Lord Mayor took the Chair; by tles were cheats, and the Prophets which time the hall was more numer- liars, and Jesus an impostor-on his ously and respectably attended than memorable trial in Guildhall, witherwas ever recollected on any similar ing hour after hour with the most occasion. The immense number of horrid blasphemies, surrounded by the elegant females added much to the votaries of every sect, and the heads brilliancy and interest of the scene. of every faith-the Christian Arch

On the third resolution being moved, bishop, the Jewish Rabbi, the men Mr. Charles Phillips (the celebrated most eminent for their piety and their Irish Barrister) was called upon by learning, whom he had purposely colsome persons on the platform. He lected to hear his infidel ridicule of all immediately rose, and bowing to the they reverenced-when I saw him Meeting, by which he was very warmly raise the Holy Bible in one hand, and greeted, spoke as follows:

the Age of Reason in the other, as it May it please your Lordship— were confronting the Almighty with a Ladies and Gentlemen-Although I rebel worm, till the pious Judge grew have not had the honour either of pro- pale, and the patient Jury interposed, posing or seconding any of your reso- and the self-convicted wretch himself, lutions, still, as a native of that coun- after having raved away all his origitry so pointedly alluded to in your nal impiety, was reduced into a mere report, I hope I may be indulged in a machine for the re-produetion of the few observations. The crisis in which ribald blasphemy of others could


Speech of Charles Phillips, Esq.

974 not help exclaiming, ‘Infatuated man! My Lord, I am the more indignant if all your impracticable madness at these designs, because they are could be realized, what would you sought to be concealed in the disguise give us in exchange for our establish- of liberty. It is the duty of every ments? what would you substitute for real friend of Liberty to tear her mask that august tribunal ? for whom would from the fiend who has usurped it. you displace that independent Judge, No, no ; this is not our island goddess, and that impartial Jury ?-or would bearing the mountain freshness on her you really burn the Gospel, and erase cheek, and scattering the valley's the statutes, for the dreadful equiva- bounty from her hand, known by the lent of the crucifix and the guillotine?' lights that herald her fair presence, Indeed, if I were asked for a practical the peaceful virtues that attend her panegyric on our Constitution, I would path, and the long blaze of glory that adduce the very trial of that criminal; lingers in her train: it is a demon, and if the legal annals of any country speaking fair indeed, tempting our upon earth furnished an instance, not faith with airy hopes and visionary merely of such justice, but of such pa- realms, but even within the folding of tience, such forbearance, such almost its mantle hiding the bloody symbol of culpable indulgence, I would concede its purpose. Hear not its sophistry ; to him the triumph. I hope, too, in guard your child against it; draw what I say, I shall not be considered round your homes the consecrated as forsaking that illustrious example- circle which it dares not enter. You I hope I am above an insult on any will find an amulet in the religion of man in his situation-perhaps, had I your country—it is the great mound the power, I would follow the example raised by the Almighty for the protecfarther than I ought-perhaps I would tion of humanity-it stands between even humble him into an evidence of you and the lava of human passions; the very spirit be spurned ; and as our and, oh, believe me, if you stand creed was reviled in his person, and tamely by while it is basely underminvindicated in his conviction, so I would ed, the fiery deluge will roll on, before give it its noblest triumph in his sen- which all that you hold dear, or venetence, and merely consign him to the rable, or sacred, will wither into ashes. punishment of its mercy.

Believe no one who tells you that the But, indeed, my Lord, the fate of friends of Freedom are now, or ever this half-infidel, half-trading martyr, were, the enemies of Religion. They matters very little in comparison of know too well that rebellion against that of the thousands he has corrupted. God cannot prove the basis of governHe has literally disseminated a moral ment for Man, and that the loftiest plague, against which even the nation's structure Impiety can raise is but the quarantine can scarce avail us. It | Babel monument of Impotence; its has poisoned the fresh blood of in- pride mocking the builders with a fancy—it has disheartened the last moment's strength, and then covering hope of age; if his own account of them with inevitable confusion. Do its circulation be correct, hundreds you want an example ? only look to of thousands must be this instant France. The microscopic vision of tainted with the infectious venom, your rabble blasphemers has not sight whose sting dies not with the destruc- enough to contemplate the mighty tion of the body. Imagine not, be- minds which commenced her revolucause the pestilence smites not at tion. The wit—the sage--the orator once, that its fatality is the less certain the hero—the whole family of ge-imagine not, because the lower or- nius, furnished forth their treasures, ders are the earliest victims, that the and gave them nobly to the nation's more elevated will not suffer in their exigence; they had great provocation turn: the most mortal chillness begins --they had a glorious cause—they had at the extremities; and you may de- all that_human potency could give pend upon it, nothing but time and them. But they relied too much upon apathy are wanting to change this this human potency-they abjured their healthful land into a charnel-house, God, and, as a natural consequence, where murder, anarchy, and prostitu- they murdered their King--they called tion, and the whole hell-brood of infi- their polluted deities from the brothel, delity, will quaff the heart's blood of and the fall of the idol extinguished the the eonseorated and the noble.

flame of the altar. They crowded the

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scaffold with all their country held of, and, as far as in me lies, practise the genius or of virtue ; and when the mandates, of this sacred volume; and peerage and the prelacy were exhaust- should the ridicule of earth and the ed, the mob-executioner of to-day be- blasphemy of hell assail me, I shall came the mob-victim of to-morrow- console myself by the contemplation of no sex was spared-no age respected- those blessed spirits who in the same no suffering pitied : and all this they holy cause have toiled, and shone, and did in the sacred name of Liberty, suffered. In the 'goodly fellowship of though in the deluge of human blood the Saints,'—in the ‘noble army of the they left not a mountain top for the ark Martyrs,'—in the society of the great

, of Liberty to rest on. But Providence and good, and wise, of every nation, was neither“ dead nor sleeping.” It if my sinfulness be not cleansed, and mattered not that for a moment their my darkness illumined, at least my impiety seemed to prosper—that Vic- pretensionless submission may be extory panted after their ensanguined cused. If I err with the luminaries I banners—that as their insatiate Eagle have chosen for my guides, I confess soared against the sun, he seemed but myself captivated by the loveliness of to replume his wing, and to renew his their aberrations. If they err, it is in vision-it was only for a moment, and an heavenly region ;-if they wander, you see at last that in the very banquet it is in fields of light ;-if they aspire, of their triumph the Almighty's ven- it is at all events a glorious daring; geance blazed upon the wall, and their and, rather than sink with infidelity indiadem fell from the brow of the ido- to the dust, I am content to cheat mylater.

self with their vision of eternity. It “ My Lord, I will not abjure the al- may indeed be nothing but delusion, tar, the throne, and the constitution, but then I err with the disciples of for the bloody tinsel of this revolution philosophy and of virtue-with men ary pantomime. I prefer my God even who have drank deep at the fountain to the impious democracy of their Pan- of human knowledge, but who distheon-I will not desert my King, even solved not the pearl of their salvation for the political equality of their Pan- | in the draught. I err with Bacon, the demonium. I must see some better great confidant of Nature, fraught with authority than the Fleet-street Temple, all the learning of the past, and almost before I forego the principles which I prescient of the future, yet too wise not imbibed in my youth, and to which I to know his weakness, and too philolook forward as the consolation of my sophic not to feel his ignorance. I age—those all-protecting principles, err with Milton, rising on an angels which at once guard, and consecrate, wing to heaven, and, like the bird of and sweeten, the social intercourse

morn, soaring out of sight amid the which give life happiness, and death music of his grateful piety. I err hope-which constitute man's purity with Locke, whose pure philosophy his best protection, placing the infant's only taught him to adore its Source, cradle and the female's couch beneath whose warm love of genuine liberty the sacred shelter of the national mo

was never chilled into rebellion with rality. Neither Mr. Paine, nor Mr. its Author. I err with Newton, whose Palmer, nor all the venom-breathing star-like spirit shooting athwart the brood, shall swindle from me the book darkness of the sphere, too soon to rewhere I have learned these precepts. ascend to the home of his nativity..! In despite of all their scoff, and seorn, err with Franklin, the patriot of the and menacing, I say, of the sacred world, the play-mate of the lightning, volume they would obliterate, ' It is a the philosopher of liberty, whose elecbook of facts, as well authenticated as tric touch thrilled through the hemiany heathen history-a book of mi- sphere. With men like these, my Lord, racles,incontestably avouched-a book I shall remain in error; nor shall I deof prophecy, confirmed by past as well sert those errors even for the drunken present fulfilment—a book of poetry, death-bed of a Paine, or the delirious pure, and natural, and elevated even war-whoop of the surviving fiends, who to inspiration—a book of morals, such would erect their altar on the ruins of as human wisdom

never framed for the society. In my opinion, it is difficult perfection of human happiness.' My | to say, whether their tenets are more Lord, I will abide by the precepts, ad ludicrous or more detestable. They mire the beauty, revere the mysteries, I will not obey the King, or the Prince,

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