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Reply to Pardon not an Acquittal.

958 of the Scriptures, it is an indisputable / spared ; because the plan recomfact, that vast numbers are unable to mended would be attended with very read; and even among those who can, little expense. And consequently, if considerable portions remain unpro- the same spirit of liberality with which fited, from an inability to bear in mind our nation has been blessed, should the import of what, with much diffi- continue to be exerted in this departculty, they endeavour to comprehend. ment of active benevolence, nearly the To such persons, reading is a task; whole of the money collected for the and it is natural to suppose, that what Bible Society, might be appropriated is performed with trouble, and thus to the use of foreign countries, in rendered unprofitable to themselves which this plan could not conveniently and others, will, in too many instances, be adopted. Of its practicability at be neglected.

home, no doubt whatever can remain; To supply all these deficiencies, and its simplicity recommends it to the and obviate every such difficulty, asso- attention of all classes of civil society, ciations might easily be formed in and all denominations of Christians.” every district throughout this town, by serious persons of every denomination; Reply to Pardon not an Acquittal.fixing stated times and places, for the sole reading of the Scriptures to such among the poor and ignorant as ght be induced to attend. The practica- Sir, bility of this plan has already been I beg leave to reply to Alexander's proved, by the numerous meetings letter of the 19th Sept. inserted in your which have been established in various | October Magazine. parts for prayer and praise.

He objects, “ that justification is not On a moderate calculation, it is acquittal from guilt,” and points his highly probable, that in the conducting objection against “the phrase acquittal of these prayer-meetings, from two to being used in that sense ;” and he three hundred persons are regularly reasons thus, “ if all the world is beengaged every Sunday evening, all of come guilty, I cannot see how the whom must have some talent for sing- Divine Being can ever pronounce ing and extempore prayer. If there- them innocent.But to have a title fore, so many can be found who are (he says) to immortal blessedness, it thus able and willing to engage in is indispensably necessary to expethese holy exercises, it is but reason- rience a pardon.And again, "he able to infer, that there would be no thinks no human soul can ever hope deficiency in finding persons to conduct to be acquitted either in this world, or the simple project thus recommend- in the world to come.” ed. The only qualifications required, Sir, this is not a sportive, but a sowould be seriousness of manners, a lemn theme. The laiter clause would correspondent conduct, and an ability consign all men to everlasting perto read distinctly.

dition ; for he that is not acquitted is Should this simple plan, or any condemned. That awful day apone of a similar nature, be adopted, proaches, when “ we must all stand and carried into execution on an ex- before the judgment-seat of Christ :"> tensive scale, the whole religious and for what purpose shall we stand population of Liverpool, both male before the Judge, but to receive acand female, at present unemployed, quittal or condemnation at his righmight assist in cultivating the vineyard teous hands? Or, when the judgment of Christ, become preachers of righ- is set, and the books are opened, will it teousness, and be rendered instru- be a scene of mockery and contempt? mental in turning many from darkness “ When the Son of man shall come in

his glory, and the holy angels with “As it is obvious, that by these him, and sit upon the throne of his means one Bible or Testament would, glory,” shall he not pronounce the in extent of real utility, be multiplied promised sentence, “ Come, ye blessed nearly in proportion to the number of of my Father,”—or,“ Depart

, ye curspersons regularly assembling to hear ed?" Yea, we must enter into the reading, a considerable portion of the joy of our Lord, or be cast into outer sums now expended in giving circu- darkness. If it be presumption to lation to the Bible at home, might be hope for this acquittal, why does


to light.

St. John the apostle encourage us to that of a violater of a penal law, or hope; for, “ herein (saith he) is our to that of an insolvent debtor; he has love made perfect, that we may have nothing to pay, but another discharges boldness in the day of judgment.” | the debt: the justice of the case is But final justification does not appear satisfied, and the debtor stands as to have been the subject of the dis- fully justified in the eye of the law, as course to which he alludes; and it if the debt had never been incurred. seems to be introduced by Alexander To justify, then, embraces the sense himself, merely to express the entire- of pardon, in respect of mercy, and ness of his disbelief of acquittal, that the sense of the forensic term, in is, of justification being acquittal from respect of the satisfaction made to guilt.

justice; so that the Divine attributes In developing his own sentiments, of mercy and justice harmonize togeyou perceive, Sir, that he adopts, or ther in the justification of a sinner. rather substitutes, pardon for justifi- In the first case, the prisoner stands cation; and if they had been really upon his innocence, and, upon that synonymous, I should have passed it ground, is acquitted ; and justice has over, notwithstanding the expression no demand for satisfaction. But it is is not to be found in all the New Testa- not so with us; we are violaters of the ment. But pardon and justification law, we are insolvent debtors; and are no synonymous; for though par- justice demands the penalty, and don may express the same indication claims the debt: but, “ Jesus Christ of favour, through the mercy of God, gave himself a ransom for all;"_“ and yet it comes short of indicating the by him, all that believe are justified satisfaction made to justice, which is from all things from which they could the basis of the Christian's hope. To not be justified by the law of Moses." pardon, accords with mercy, but not How comprehensively expressive is with justice; and its synonym, to for- justification, of the ground of God's give, extends no farther. But, to reconciliation with guilty man; whilst justify, suggests, to pardon in respect it leaves no room for man to boast, of mercy, and to exonerate or acquit for he is not justified in himself, but in respect of the satisfaction made to in another. "Being justified freely by justice. “ For Christ hath once suf- his grace, through the redemption that fered for sins, the just for the unjust;" is in Jesus Christ;”—“ in whom we “ he is the propitiation for our sins ;” have redemption through his blood, “he bare our sins in his own body even the forgiveness of sins ;”—“ who on the tree:” wherefore, God can now was delivered for our offences, and “ be just, and the justifier of him that raised again for our justification.” believeth in Jesus.” This considera- But it is nowhere to be found that tion improves the condition of the sin- pardon is offered to man, except with ner; and, furnished with this plea, a condition ; that is, in reference to by faith he puts in his claim for mercy, God's mercy, independently of the and must needs be admitted to the satisfaction of his justice. To justify, promised possession, because the then, is properly to acquit from guilt; righteousness of God is pledged on not because the person is innocent, his behalf, Rom. iii. 25, 26.

but because his substitute has paid But, is justification acquittal from the debt and the penalty of the law, guilt?

and fully satisfied the justice of the To justify, is a forensic term in the case. original text, as well as in our version ; Alexander has considered acquittal that is, it is a term relating to courts to be the declaration of innocence, of judicature, and expresses acquittal resulting from the trial of one whom or absolving from guilt. Thus, a pri- the law pronounces to be innocent: soner acquitted at the bar of justice, but let him view it as the justification stands justified in the sight of all men; of the guilty; let him advert to God's that is, no man can impute to him way of saving sinners: “ for it is God unrighteousness or guilt; for he is that justifieth; who is he that confully, and to all intents, exonerated. demneth?" If man were righteous in But this is applicable alone to such as himself, he would not stand in need are considered innocent: whereas, we of the mediation of Christ; and the are to be justified as being guilty. atonement would be unnecessary and And our case may be compared to superfluous. But all have sinned and 961

A Remarkable Dream.



become guilty before God: wherefore, cording to this philosopher, they all salvation can be no more of works, but arise from three causes: namely, the of grace; and it is not the righteous' | impressions of ideas lately received; whom God justifies, but the ' ungodly.' the state of the body, particularly of Rom. iv. 5. When a sinner is justi- the stomach and brain; and associ. fied, he is counted righteous in the ation. Democritus and Lucretius sight of God; " for he that worketh strangely imagined, that dreams were not, but believeth in him that justifieth occasioned by certain spectres and the " ungodly,' his faith is counted for simulacra of corporeal things, conrighteousness:” his sins are blotted stantly emitted from them, and which, out; he is exonerated from all the floating up and down in the air, came consequences of his past transgres- and assaulted the soul in sleep. Mr. sions : “ he has redemption in the Baxter argues, that the phantasm or blood of Jesus Christ,” and stands vision is not the work of the soul itself, fully 'acquitted ;'

“ and their sins and and that it cannot be the effect of meiniquities (saith the Lord) will I re-chanical causes. He therefore ascribes member no more.

the phenomena to the influence of seIf these broken hints meet your parate spirits, having access to our approbation, an early insertion will minds, and furnishing us with ideas oblige, Sir,

while we sleep. Bishop Newton adopts Your obedient Servant, the hypothesis of Mr. Baxter, with

PudicUS. some trifling variation. Speaking of November 2, 1819.

dreams which seem to have been of a prognosticating nature, he asks as follows: “

Have not such dreams some

thing of divine in them, and do they Communicated by a Lady.

not plainly declare a spiritual origin?

and shall we ascribe some to spiritual Preliminary Observations.

and some to material causes? or shall There are not many phenomena of we not rather be more consistent with frequent occurrence, that seem more ourselves, and suppose that good spiinexplicable than Dreams. The im- rits may inspire some, and evil spirits pressions, of which our minds are may inspire others?” In his Elesusceptible during the season of re- ments of the Philosophy of the Human pose, are certainly a branch of intel- Mind,” Professor Dugald Stewart has lectual philosophy; but as the science discussed the subject of dreaming with of the human mind is still in a state his usual acuteness and perspicuity. of comparative infancy, the light by According to the hypothesis of this which we are guided in our researches, justly celebrated philosopher, our respecting the cause of dreams, is little dreams are frequently suggested by more than that which the sanctions of bodily sensations, with which particu. authority enable plausible conjecture lar ideas are strongly associated. to impart.

They are also, he conceives, influIt was the opinion of Aristotle, that enced by the peculiar temper of the dreams were the reappearances of mind, varying in their complexion, things, arising from the previous mo- according as our habitual disposition tions excited in the brain, and remain at the time inclines us to cheerfulness ing after the objects were removed. or melancholy. Of many important Hobbes has adopted this hypothesis, facts immediately connected with making to it this addition, that various dreaming, this learned Professor has dreams are occasioned by different taken particular notice; so that his distempers to which the body is sub- various observations tend in the aggreject. Wolfius conceives, that dreams gate, to throw more light on this intearise from sensations, which are con- resting but obscure phenomenon, than tinued by the succession of phantoms perhaps those of any of his predein the mind. Mr. Locke contends, cessors. that “ the dreams of the sleeping man But whatever opinions we may form are made up of the waking man's of the origin and nature of dreams, the ideas, though oddly put together.” evidence of their existence will admit Dr. Hartley explains all the pheno- of no dispute. Among those which mena of the imagination by his theory have been recorded, many appear ton of vibrations and associations. Ac- striking in their coincidences wii No. 10,-VOL. I.



subsequent facts, not to arrest the ministry, that can bear testimony to attention of every thoughtful reader. the truth as it is in Jesus, which they And in cases where they precede have received from my lips: but it is events which could not have been because I have been accumulating to anticipated, but which afterwards myself the applause of men, more than arise, and almost prove them to have the honour which cometh from above; been prophetic, we find ourselves at a and verily I have my reward.” Having loss how to account for them on any uttered these expressions, he hastily hypothesis, to our own rational satis- disappeared, and was seen no more. faction.

The minister awaking shortly afterThe following is the substance of a wards, with the contents of this dream remarkable Dream, related by the late deeply engraven on his memory, proRev. R. Bowden of Darwen, who com- ceeded, overwhelmed with serious remitted it to writing from the lips of the flections, towards his chapel, in order person to whom the dream happened to conduct the evening service. On on the evening of May 30, 1813. his way thither, he was accosted by a

friend, who inquired whether he had

heard the severe loss the Church had A Gospel minister of evangelical sustained in the death of that able principles, whose name, from the minister *******. He replied, "No." circumstances that occurred, it will but being much affected at this singube necessary to conceal, being much lar intelligence, he inquired of him fatigued, at the conclusion of the after the day, and time of the day, when noon service, retired to his apartment his departure took place. To this, in order to take a little rest. He had his friend replied, “ This afternoon, not long reclined upon his couch, before at Twenty-five minutes after Three he fell asleep and began to dream.- o'clock !” He dreamed, that on walking into his garden, he entered a bower that had been erected in it, where he sat down TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL to read and meditate. While thus employed, he thought that he heard

SIR, some person enter the garden; and The prejudices of Education serve as leaving his bower, he immediately an Apology for your able correspondhastened towards the spot whence the ent's adherence to the philosophical sound seemed to come, in order to phantoms of the 17th century. One discover who it was that had entered.

can only wonder that a gentleman so He had not proceeded far, before he capable of comparing propositions, discerned a particular friend of his, a can so palpably surrender his judg. Gospel minister of considerable talents, ment; but he learnt in his youth, that, who had rendered himself very popular this is the ATTRACTION, which causes a by his zealous and unwearied exertions planet to fall to the Sun; that this is the in the cause of Christ.

PROJECTILE FORCE which counteracts On approaching his friend, he was the ATTRACTION that draws a planet to surprised to find that his countenance the Sun; and that this is the VACUUM was covered with a gloom which it had which confers perpetuity (eternity) on not been accustomed to wear, and the force called PROJECTILE, which prethat it strongly indicated a violent vents the ATTRACTION from drawing the agitation of mind, apparently arising planets to the Sun :" and this philosofrom conscious remorse. After the phical “ House that Jack built," seems usual salutations had passed, his friend in truth to be so deeply riveted in bis asked the relater the time of the day? mind, that it would be a waste of to which he replied, “Twenty-five words, to insist to him on the reasonminutes after Four.” On hearing this, ableness of a theory of TRANSFERRED the stranger said, “It is only one Motion, which, acting with sublime hour since I died, and now I am simplicity on matter, in its various damned.”—“ Damned, for what?" in- forms and under its various circumquired the dreaming minister.-" It is stances, is capable of producing every not,” said he, “because I have not variety of material phenomena. preached the Gospel, neither is it be

As, however, the questions at issue cause I have not been rendered useful; between Mr. Exley and me, are but for I have now many seals to my imperfectly before your readers, and I


965 Philosophy of Material Phænomena, by Sir R. Phillips. 966 doubt whether he has himself taken the atoms, it is the object of Chemical Phi. trouble to investigate the principles to losophy. which he replies, I request you, as a 5. As no accident of matter can tribute to truth; to give place to the create motion, so all motion may be enclosed brief view of the general traced to some previously-existing moprinciples of the Physical Philosophy tion, which has been transferred by me which I am desirous of substituting chanical combination; and, as existfor that of BEHMEN, DIGBY, Hooke, ing motions are necessarily transferred NEWTON, and their numerous train of and diffused, so no motion is tost; ilustrious followers.

though, by its equal diffusion, it may I am, Sir,

cease to exhibit sensible phenomena. Your very humble servant, 6.-The facility of receiving motion

R. PHILLIPS. being equal to the facility of diffusing Bridge-street, Nov. 3.

it, and motion in bodies constituting their power, all action and re-action

are necessarily equal; and motions Brief Synopsis of the Philosophy of Ma- being inversely as the number of atoms,

terial Phenomena, promulgated by Sir all bodies act, therefore, on other Richard Phillips, 1817-18.

bodies, at such distances asto produce

equal momenta in the agent and pa1.–The universe consists of exten- tient: consequently, if free to move, sion of matter under various expansive, or uninfluenced by paramount motions, gazeous, fluid, and fixed, forms of body, their reciprocal actions and re-actions proceeding in relative density from the oblige them to revolve round a fulrarest and most extended fluid media, crun or eentre of the masses, necésto the most condensed aggregates of sarily produeing equal momenta by fixed atoms.

forces of impulse, which, diverging 2.—Body is susceptible of two va- through a sphere, are in divers bodies rieties of motion; (1) a motion or to each other inversely as the squares impulse of an aggregate, which occa- of their distances. sions it to change its place in regard 7.--The motion of masses round a to other aggregates; and (2) a motion fulcrum or centre of the masses proves of the atoms of an aggregate, created its mechanical origin, and that it is the when any impulse from any cause effect of equilibrium of momenta, in' cannot produce commensurate change which the masses, being constant quanof place in the aggregate and diffuse tities, the distances from the centre of the motion, so that, by re-action, the motion must be inversely as those quanimpulse terminates within the body in tities. the mutual actions of its component 8.-Hence it is that the earth and atoms.

moon revolve mechanically round the 3.-Motion of both kinds continues centres of their masses, at such disto affect a body, until it has been im- tances, that their action and re-action parted or transferred to aggregates in on and through the medium of space, contact, or has been diffused or ra- or their momenta, are equal'; and, as diated through the medium in' which it the earth revolves at the same time is immersed; and this law of the equa- round its'own axis, and the centres of lization of motion, by the contact of both these rotations do not accord, so moving aggregates and atoms with librations of the moveable fluids of the others susceptible of receiving and earth restore the balance, and occadiffusing the motion, is the proximate sion what are called Tides of the sea cause of all varieties of material phe- and atmosphere, corresponding in dinomena.

rection and quantity with the varied 4.-Motion appears, therefore, to positions of those two centres of terconstitute the life, power, and energy restrial rotation, in relation of both to of matter; and is the active soul of the the sun or to the line of the earth's orUniverse. Matter is its patient; and bit. Thus, at the new and full moon, the relative phenomena of bodies the distances are greatest from the are the results. As it acts on aggre- orbit, and then the oscillations are gates by contaet, or by impulse, on and greatest; and at the quarters they cothrough media, it constitutes the ob- incide with the orbit, and then the ject of Physical Philosophy'; and, as oscillations are weak continuations of it affects compounds or structures of former oscillations.

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