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the times of Hipparchus and Ptolemy ; | times of Timocharis, Callippus, Hipbut as they made little or no advances parchus, and others: and concludes in the science, we shall pass them by, with a catalogue of the stars in the and come immediately to that prince northern hemisphere. of astronomers, Claudius Ptolemy, of The eighth book contains a cataPelusium. He is the most ancient logue of the stars in the southern astronomer, whose works have been hemisphere, as also a catalogue of the handed down to us.

stars in the twelve zodiacal constelIt is to his Almagest, or the great lations: this catalogue of the Stars is composition, that we are indebted, not the oldest extant; and therefore cononly for his own observations, but for stitutes a very valuable part of the almost all which remain of Hipparchus, work. This book concludes with a Aristyllus, Timocharis, and the ancient discourse on the Galaxy, or milkyBabylonians.

way; and an account of the rising and This learned person was born in the setting of the Sun and fixed Stars. year of Christ 69; and although the The ninth book treats of the order principles upon which his system is of the planets, and of their periodical founded are erroneous, yet his work revolutions : contains tables of their will always be useful to Astronomers, mean motions; and concludes with on account of the great number of the theory of Mercury, and that of acobservations which it contains, and counting for its various phenomena, as will, undoubtedly, perpetuate his name seen from the earth. to the latest posterity. It is divided Books ten and eleven treat also of into thirteen books: in the first he the various phenomena of the planets endeavours to shew that the earth is Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn; at rest in the centre of the universe; and shew how tables have been corthat it is spherical, and but a point in rected from the observations of precomparison of the distance of the fixed ceding astronomers. stars.

The twelfth book treats of the staIn the second, he treats of the habit-tionary and retrograde appearances able parts of the earth, and of the of the Planets; and the thirteenth of nature and positions of its circles in a their latitudes, the inclination of their right sphere.

orbits, rising, setting, &c. The third book treats of the true This work was first translated out of length of the year ; of the unequal Greek into Arabic, about the year 827, motion of the sun in the ecliptic; and and out of Arabic into Latin, by favour also of the unequal length of days and of the emperor Frederic II. about the nights; it likewise contains tables of year 1230. The Greek text of Ptolemy the sun's mean motion, and precepts was not known in Europe until the for using them.

beginning of the fifteenth century, In the fourth, he treats of the lunar when it was brought from Constantimotions; gives tables for computing nople (then taken by the Turks) by them; and exhibits the principles, George, a monk of Trapezond, who and observations on which they are translated it into Latin. This translafounded.

tion was published at Venice in 1527, In the fifth, he treats of the eccentri- and Basil 1541: at the latter place city of the lunar orbit, and the inequa- the Greek had been printed in 1538, lities of the moon's motion : assigns with a commentary by Theon the the magnitudes of the sun, and moon, Younger, and Pappus, both mathemaand earth; and their distances from ticians of Alexandria in the fourth one another.

century. In the sixth, he treats of the conjunc- It may also be remarked, that Ptotions and oppositions of the Sun and lemy has rendered gr at services to Moon; the limits of solar and lunar Geography, by collecting all the deeclipses; and gives tables for com- terminations of the latitudes and longiputing the times when they ppen. tudes of places then known; and by

In the seventh, he treats of the fixed his laying the foundation of the method Stars; describes the various constella- of projections, for the construction of tions, by means of an artificial sphere ; geographical charts, which was but rectifies their places to his own time; little known before his time. and shews how different they then With the labours of this great astrowere, from what they had been in the nomer ended the glory of the Alex

953

Address to Christophe,

954

andrian School, which had now sub-| rior has been succeeded by the wissisted for more than five centuries, dom of the legislator. Not only will with as much credit to itself as advan- the page of history tell to future ages, tage to the sciences; but the succes- that Henry I. gave liberty to the Haysors of Hipparchus and Ptolemy con- tians, but that from him also they retented themselves with commenting ceived their laws, the guarantee of on their works, without adding any its preservation to their posterity. thing remarkable to their discoveries. Your Majesty's renown will be even The knowledge of nature, which had greater than that of the intrepid pahitherto been cultivated with so much triot, whose bosom beat high with a success, gave way to the desolating generous ardour for the emancipation irruption of the Saracens, who were of his country from an ignominious led by a ferocious zeal to destroy the yoke, and on the point of whose sword celebrated library of Alexandria, liberty had staked her triumph: it will which contained so many treasures of also be that of the legislative sage, learning and genius.

whose powerful reason placed a barrier By a singular turn, however, of between the ennobling passion for human affairs, this people became freedom, and the intoxication of licenafterwards the protectors and culti- tiousness. vators of literature and science, and In ages yet remote, the people of were then sensible that this frantic this country will feel their bosoms measure had deprived them of the most swell at the name of Henry; and will precious fruits of their victories. hail him as their deliverer from a dis(To be continued.)

graceful thraldom, and the founder of their commonwealth. They will say,

he shewed the white men'we were Address to Christophe.

brave, when he led our forefathers to MR. Editor,

victory and triumph; and taught our Sir,--I enclose you a copy of a trans- proud calumniators, that as our arms lated address to Christophe. It may were powerful, our intellect was equal tend to throw some light on a country, to their own; he filled our port with of the manners and institutions of the ships of the stranger, and gave us which we are confessedly too ignorant. to participate in the commerce of the If it should come within the subjects world; he instituted the schools in admissible into your Magazine, its which our youth were instructed; insertion will be esteemed.

To its brought the Bible in our native tongue authenticity I can safely pledge my- within our hands the inspired volume,

from the shores of the Briton, and put self. Yours, most truly,

J. W.

from which we receive the sublime

doctrines of religion, and are taught to To His Most Excellent Majesty. practise the holy precepts of morality; The humble and respectful address of he restrained the unhallowed intercongratulation, on the sixteenth anni- course of the sexes, the badge and versary of Haytian Independence, of mark of slavery and degradation; and the Rev. Wm. Morton, Professor of in uniting our fathers and our mothers Languages in the Royal College of in the sacred rites and indissoluble Hayti.

bands of marriage, opened the chanThe commencement of a new year nels of the social affections, and renhas brought round another anniversary dered our homestead abodes of reciproof the independence of Hayti; a coun- cal benevolence, and solid enjoyment. try over which your Majesty has been Our nobles trace their descent from called to reign, as over a people in those illustrious youths, who received whose cause your sword had been un- in colleges of his establishment knowsheathed; for whose liberties your ledge, and wisdom, and virtue: in blood had been shed. In the assertor fine, he led us to peace, to plenty, and of their claims to the unalienable rights to happiness, by teaching us to fulfil of humanity, the people have recog- our duties to our Maker, and to yield nized their king.

a willing obedience to salutary laws. The sword has been replaced within Such, Sire, will be the retrospections its scabbard; but your Majesty's zeal of the people of Hayti, long after your has found another channel for its ex- Majesty shall have been gathered to ertion; and the bravery of the war- your forefathers : for the glory of the

he

brave and the good can never die. people,—the education of the rising Should your beatified spirit be per- generation; and, while permitted to mitted to become acquainted with the live, shall rejoice in having contritransactions of those who shall then buted my humble labours in so gloriinhabit the country over which your ous an undertaking. Majesty now reigns with so much lus- I humbly beg your Majesty to actre, how will it exult in the effects of cept my respectful offering of congrayour exertions !

tulation on the return of this day, and Permit me, Sire, to present a re- your gracious permission to assure spectful tribute of admiration of your your Majesty of the sentiments of virtues, and an expression of that sin- profound respect and veneration with cere devotedness with which I labour which I am, and shall continue to be, in your Majesty's service,-a service your Majesty's which has for its object the true and Most devoted, most obedient, highest happiness of your people.

and most humble servant, Nursed in a land of freedom, and (Signed) WM. MORTON, exulting in the name of Briton, I feel Professor of Languages in the Royal College of Hayti. myself, on this great day, filled with reverence for those brave patriots who

REPLY. drove their tyrannical enslavers from the soil of liberty. I repeat to myself

Palace of Sans Souci, Jan. 12, 1819, the names of those brave nobles and

the 16th year of Independence. officers who have died in the field, The King, to the Rev. Wm. Morton, and of those, who, on this day, after Professor of Languages in the Nahard-earned triumphs, exult in renew- tional College of Cape Henry. ing the remembrance of their glorious Sir, I am grateful for the wishes deeds in your Majesty's presence, of which you have formed for me, on whom to distinguish any were invi- occasion of the commencement of the dious. I content myself with presenting my petitions to the God of battles, year. I thank you for the sentiments who has given the victory to the side expressed in your letter: depend upon of justice, and triumph to the cause of my esteem and protection, and be outraged humanity; who has asserted, assured that I wish you happiness in the success of your arms, the eter

equal to your merits.

By order of his Majesty, nal truth of that divine declaration,

(Signed) CHEVALIER DE PREGEAUX. that he made of one blood all nations to dwell on the earth. I bow before the mighty God, and supplicate, that

BIBLE MULTIPLICATION. he would be the guardian of Hayti; that it may be ever free, as it is at this Means of multiplying the Usefulness of

the Bible. day; that he would add many years to your Majesty's life, and to the The paper from which the following lives of the faithful sharers in your article is extracted, has been in our victories; that your august consort, possession several months; but for and royal offspring, may long con- reasons of a local nature, its publicatinue to contribute to your Majesty's tion has been postponed until the prepersonal enjoyment, and to the happi- sent time. ness of the country; and that, full of To the author, who lives in Paradays, of glory, and of virtue, your dise-street, Liverpool, and calls himMajesty may descend in calm uninter- self“ Experience,” it may be necesrupted peace into the tomb, only to sary to observe, that whatever excelreascend to the enjoyment of an ever- lence his preliminary remarks may in lasting crown; and may the diadem themselves contain, as they have only which your Majesty now wears, long an indistinct bearing on the subject of adorn the brows of your descendants. his communication, he may easily

When I return to the land of my judge why they are omitted. On the birth, I shall bear with me the recol- methods which he recommends for lection of having exerted myself, in rendering the Bible more beneficial to however insignificant a measure, to the community, he speaks as follows: the accomplishment of one of your “ Great and unprecedented as the Majesty's most important and admir- exertions are, which have lately been able designs, for the happiness of your | made for communicating a knowledge

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE,

957
Reply to Pardon not an Acquittal..

958 of the Scriptures, it is an indisputable spared; because the plan recomfact, that vast numbers are unable to mended would be attended with very read; and even among those who can, little expense. And consequently, if considerable portions remain unpro- the same spirit of liberality with which fited, from an inability to bear in mind our nation has been blessed, should the import of what, with much diffi- continue to be exerted in this departculty, they endeavour to comprehend. ment of active benevolence, nearly the To such persons, reading is a task; whole of the money collected for the and it is natural to suppose, that what Bible Society, might be appropriated is performed with trouble, and thus to the use of foreign countries, in rendered unprofitable to themselves which this plan could not conveniently and others, will, in too many instances, be adopted. Of its practicability at be neglected.

home, no doubt whatever can remain; To supply all these deficiencies, and its simplicity recommends it to the and obviate every such difficulty, asso- attention of all classes of civil society, ciations might easily be formed in and all denominations of Christians.” every district throughout this town, by serious persons of every denomination; Reply to Pardon not an Acquittal.fixing stated times and places, for the sole reading of the Scriptures to such among the poor and ignorant as might be induced to attend. The practica- SIR, bility of this plan has already been I beg leave to reply to Alexander's proved, by the numerous meetings letter of the 19th Sept. inserted in your which have been established in various October Magazine. parts for prayer and praise.

He objects, “ that justification is not On a moderate calculation, it is acquittal from guilt,” and points his highly probable, that in the conducting objection against “the phrase acquittal of these prayer-meetings, from two to being used in that sense ;” and he three hundred persons are regularly reasons thus, " if all the world is beengaged every Sunday evening, all of come guilty, I cannot see how the whom must have some talent for sing- Divine Being can ever pronounce ing and extempore prayer. If there- them innocent.” But to have a title fore, so many can be found who are | (he says) to immortal blessedness, it thus able and willing to engage in is indispensably necessary to expethese holy exercises, it is but reason- rience a pardon.And again," he able to infer, that there would be no thinks no human soul can ever hope deficiency in finding persons to conduct to be acquitted either in this world, or the simple project thus recommend in the world to come. ed. The only qualifications required, Sir, this is not a sportive, but a sowould be seriousness of manners, a lemn theme. The latter clause would correspondent conduct, and an ability consign all men to everlasting perto read distinctly.

dition ; for he that is not acquitted is “ Should this simple plan, or any condemned. That awful day apone of a similar nature, be adopted, proaches, when “ we must all stand and carried into execution on an ex- before the judgment-seat of Christ:” tensive scale, the whole religious and for what purpose shall we stand population of Liverpool, both male before the Judge, but to receive acand female, at present unemployed, quittal or condemnation at bis righmight assist in cultivating the vineyard teous hands? Or, when the judgment of Christ, become preachers of righ- is set, and the books are opened, will it teousness, and be rendered instru- be a scene of mockery and contempt? mental in turning many from darkness " When the Son of man shall come in to light.

his glory, and the holy angels with “ As it is obvious, that by these him, and sit upon the throne of his means one Bible or Testament would, glory," shall he not pronounce the in extent of real utility, be multiplied promised sentence, “Come, ye blessed nearly in proportion to the number of of my Father,”—or, “ Depart, ye curspersons regularly assembling to hear ed ?" Yea, we must enter into the reading, a considerable portion of the joy of our Lord, or be cast into outer sums now expended in giving circu- darkness. If it be presumption to lation to the Bible at home, might be hope for this acquittal, why do

66

REPLY.

Multiplication. 956 brave and the good can never die. people,-the education of the rising Should your beatified spirit be per- generation; and, while permitted to mitted to become acquainted with the live, shall rejoice in having contritransactions of those who shall then buted my humble labours in so gloriinhabit the country over which your ous an undertaking. Majesty now reigns with so much lus- I humbly beg your Majesty to actre, how will it exult in the effects of cept my respectful offering of congrayour exertions !

tulation on the return of this day, and Permit me, Sire, to present a re- your gracious permission to assure spectful tribute of admiration of your your Majesty of the sentiments of virtues, and an expression of that sin- profound respect and veneration with cere devotedness with which I labour which I am, and shall continue to be, in your Majesty's service,--a service your Majesty's which has for its object the true and Most devoted, most obedient, highest happiness of your people.

and most humble servant, Nursed in a land of freedom, and (Signed) WM. Morton, exulting in the name of Briton, I feel Professor of Languages in the Royal College of Hayti. myself, on this great day, filled with reverence for those brave patriots who drove their tyrannical enslavers from the soil of liberty. I repeat to myself

Palace of Sans Souci, Jan. 12, 1819, the names of those brave nobles and

the 16th year of Independence. officers who have died in the field, The King, to the Rev. Wm. Morton, and of those, who, on this day, after Professor of Languages in the Nahard-earned triumphs, exult in renew- tional College of Cape Henry. ing the remembrance of their glorious Sir, I am grateful for the wishes deeds in your Majesty's presence, of which you have formed for me, on whom to distinguish any were invi- occasion of the commencement of the dious. I content myself with presenting my petitions to the God of battles, year. I thank you for the sentiments who has given the victory to the side expressed in your letter: depend upon of justice, and triumph to the cause of my esteem and protection, and be outraged humanity; who has asserted, assured that I wish you happiness in the success of your arms, the eter

equal to your merits.

By order of his Majesty, nal truth of that divine declaration,

(Signed) CHEVALIER DE PREGEAUX. that he made of one blood all nations to dwell on the earth. I bow before the mighty God, and supplicate, that he would be the guardian of Hayti; that it may be ever free, as it is at this Means of multiplying the Usefulness of

the Bible. day; that he would add many years to your Majesty's life, and to the The paper from which the following lives of the faithful sharers in your article is extracted, has been in our victories; that your august consort, possession several months; but for and royal offspring, may long con- reasons of a local nature, its publicatinue to contribute to your Majesty's tion has been postponed until the prepersonal enjoyment, and to the happi- sent time. ness of the country; and that, full of To the author, who lives in Paradays, of glory, and of virtue, your dise-street, Liverpool, and calls himMajesty may descend in calm uninter- self“ Experience,” it may be necesrupted peace into the tomb, only to sary to observe, that whatever excelreascend to the enjoyment of an ever- lence his preliminary remarks may in lasting crown; and may the diadem themselves contain, as they have only which your Majesty now wears, long an indistinct bearing on the subject of adorn the brows of your descendants. his communication, he may easily

When I return to the land of my judge why they are omitted. On the birth, I shall bear with me the recol- methods which he recommends for lection of having exerted myself, in rendering the Bible more beneficial to however insignificant a measure, to the community, he speaks as follows: the accomplishment of one of your Great and unprecedented as the Majesty's most important and admir- exertions are, which have lately been able designs, for the happiness of your made for communicating a knowledge

BIBLE MULTIPLICATION.

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