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unity of the two natures, human and this fearful omen. Was it a ghost he divine ; but since the human nature had seen? No, it was the Devil, the had no existence previously to the in- Devil himself, who had possessed the carnation, the Logos, that was made dead Capuchin. The Monks laughed flesh, was not antecedently the Christ, at his fears, and persuaded him it was the Son of man. And because the Son a mere illusion of the imagination. of man and the Son of God are one, Hetherefore summoned up his courage that is, one Christ, one Son, the only to return; but took care to go to a difbegotten Son of the Father, and the ferent part of these extensive galleries, Logos was not antecedently the Son of where he remained awhile in anxious man, therefore he could not be ante- suspense. Finding, however, all still cedently the Son of God. For Jesus and motionless, he began to think he Cbrist exists alone in the unity of the must have been alarmed at his own divine and human natures; and since thoughts, and, resolving to convince nothing which is human can have a himself whether his fears were false share in the Eternal Sonship, the Son- or not, he returned to his former staship of Jesus Christ cannot be eternal. tion, and kept his eye fixed on the

The subject then seems to be more same dead Monk. Judge what was of a philological, than of a doctrinal his astonishment, when he once more nature : for it is not possible to raise saw the head move, and nod to him. the doctrine of the Eternal Sonship, be- Away he ran, as may be supposed, and fore it can be demonstrated that the declared that all the saints in the caSon of man and the Son of God are lendar should not persuade him to go terms equally and indifferently re- down again. He was so positive referrible to an eternal Sonship; which specting the fact that considerable seems in the nature of things to be an alarm prevailed. The Monks were inconsistency.

called up, and eight or ten went into October 30, 1819. PUDICUS. the apartment with candles and holy

water. They were brought opposite

this dead body possessed by the Devil. Curious Incident.

But just as they drew up, a nod of his head put them all to flight. When the

Superior was informed of this alarmSIR, Bristol, October 19, 1819. ing affair, he was extremely angry, and If you think the following sufficiently said some English heretic had got in, interesting, and that it will add to the and contrived this trick; for he would amusement of the readers of your va- neither admit the Devil to be concernluable Magazine, I shall feel obliged ed, nor allow that the dead Capuchin by your inserting it.

could possibly stir; and therefore went Yours, respectfully,

down himself with another party. As J. S. W.

they descended to the galleries, their

courage in some degree abated; but It is the custom among the Capuchin after advancing cautiously to the place, Monks, to spend part of the night in the Superior held up his lamp to the the abode of the dead; but whether Monk. It was no illusion; life had this is a penance, or a duty undertaken indeed actually again entered the frail by the brethren in rotation, I could not tenement of mortality. At that very molearn. The following circumstance ment the head shook violently, and fell happened a few years since.--A Monk, from the body;when out sprang, not the passing a part of the night in this dis- soulof the Monk, but a living rat, which mal apartment, sitting by his lamp, had made its nest in the skull! - This surrounded by the shrivelled and dis- fact is well known at Palermo. torted countenances of the dead, thought he heard now and then, in the interval of his devotional exercises, ON THE PERPETUITY OF MISERY. an unusual noise; and looking sted. In the eighth number of the Imperial fastly at that part of the room whence Magazine, col. 762, a question was init proceeded, he perceived one of the serted on the subject of “ Perpetual dead Monks nod to him : he held up Misery.” Since that query was pubhis lamp, and the head nodded again: lished, the following paper has reached he then instantly ran up stairs to the our hands. Its date, however, sufficiconvent, to aequaint the brethren with ently proves that it could not have

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE,

been written with any reference to the but I hope it will not be deemed foobservations of Tyro, although it has reign from my subject. The question an immediate bearing on the point of which I wish now to submit to discusinquiry.-EDITOR.

sion, through your Magazine, is, Whe

ther or not we can gather from the Wells, Norfolk, Oct. 20, 1819. Scriptures, that the punishment of the MR. EDITOR,

wicked in a future state will be neverI am very glad to find that several of ending? If we are guided by our transyour correspondents have interested tion, and the meaning which we invathemselves, in the consideration of riably attach to the words“ eternal" the Christ's descent into Hell. It and“ everlasting," we must confess shews that there is among them a love that it will be so; for there are many of biblical discussion. This, Sir, is texts to that effect. But the doctrine the only way to arrive at truth. This in question must entirely depend upon is the only way ultimately to vanquish another point, namely, whether the that monster Bigotry, which has done original word “ áswr.oy" will bear this more harm to the cause of Christianity, sense or not. than Infidelity itself. Your Magazine Without going so far as to consider professes to be “ slave to no sect;" and the signification of the substantive áswr, I doubt not, that if your correspond from which it is derived, and from ents will regularly supply it with a por- which it must derive its true import, tion of theological matter, many a I shall content myself with shewing, serious and inquisitive Christian will that the English adjectives “eternal be well pleased at seeing discussed, and“ everlasting," as they are used in subjects which are dearest to his heart, several passages of scripture, cannot as being so intimately connected with bear the sense of never-ending; and his best interests. There are very the conclusion must therefore be, that many, who have not time to give these the translation of the word ównior canmatters a deep investigation; and there not be uniformly correct. We read of are very many others also, who, from

“ the land of Canaan being an evernot being acquainted with the lan- lasting possession ;(a) of the priestguages in which the Scriptures were hood of Aaron being an everlasting originally written, are unable to search priesthood;” (b) of “ circumcision befor the real meaning of words: both

ing an everlasting covenant; (c) of the classes are therefore in obliged to understand the expressions nance;(d) and of “Sodom and Go

passover being an everlasting ordiof Scripture as they find them.

morrah suffering the vengeance

of In our translation, we meet with many eternal fire.”(e) It requires

no great words and expressions, which cannot degree of penetration to see, that in be understood in the sense in which these passages, the adnouns they have been translated ; this arises lasting” and “eternal” cannot bear probably from the alteration in mean the meaning which we invariably affix ing, which many words of our language to them: they can only mean, may bave undergone since, and from tinuance for some certain period of the comparative deficiency of learning, time.” especially of Oriental learning, at the time the translation was made. Why which favour the doctrine of never

Now, let us examine a few texts the governors of our Church do not ending punishment. “ Who amongst introduce a new translation, is to me inexplicable. It certainly is of great ings?" (f) “ It is better to enter into

us can dwell with everlasting burnimportance, that every one who reads life halt or maimed, than having two the Scriptures, and more particularly hands or two feet to be cast into everthose of the lower classes, who have no lasting fire." (9) “Who (i. e. they that other opportunity of knowing them obey not the Gospel of the Lord Jesus than by hearing them read once a week Christ) shall be punished with evera in our Churches, should, as far as pos-lasting destruction, from the presence sible, understand them; and it is as of the Lord.(h) Why, I ask, may certainly the duty of the governors of our Church, to have them made as in

(a) Gen. xvii. 8. & xlviii. 4.—(6) Exod. xl

. telligible as possible.

15. & Numb. xxv. 13.-(c) Gen. xvii. 7,13 I have been led on to a greater (a) Exod. xii. 14.-(e) Jude 7:-(f)Isaiah length of exordium than I intended, | xxxiii. 14.-(!) Mat. xviii.

8.--()efkesi.9.

a manner

66

ever

con

not“ everlasting.” hear the same cir- | vessel. Thus, if a canister of tinned cumscribed sense in these passages, iron be used, then a certain quantity that it does in those above quoted ? of heat radiates from it: if the said Indeed we must so understand the pas- vessel be covered with black paint, sage taken from the prophet Isaiah, as paper, glass, &c. it will then radiate the prophet is there evidently speak- eight times as much heat in like ciring of the distress of the Jews, upon cumstances. It appears, therefore, Jerusalem's being taken by the king that from a metallic surface, 13 parts of of Assyria.

heat are conducted away by the air, Having briefly examined this side of and 1 part radiated; from a vitreous the question, I think it my duty, (as or paper surface, 13 parts are conmy own mind is not made up upon the ducted, and 8 parts radiated, in a subject,) to take a cursory view of the given time. other. The duration of the future pu- The obvious consequences of this nishment of the wicked, is also ex- doctrine, in a practical sense, are, pressed in Scripture without the use In every case where heat is wanted of the disputed word “dowvior," “ ever- to be retained as long as possible, the lasting;” e.g. They shall be cast“ into containing vessel should be constructed fire that never shall be quenched.(i) of metal, with a bright clear surface. But what I consider as by far the Where heat is required to be given strongest support of this doctrine is, out by a body with as much celerity as that in the sentences which our Blessed possible, the containing vessel, if of Lord has declared will be passed upon metal, ought to be painted, covered the righteous and upon the wicked at with paper, charcoal, or some animal the last day, the same adjective or vegetable matter; in which case, «αιωνιον is used to express the dura- the heat given out will be as three tion of life or happiness, and the dura- parts for two, from a metallic surface. tion of punishment, “ The wicked

This important fact, therefore, may shall go away, éış xordon áswvior; but be made exceedingly useful, in the the righteous éis [wno downov.(k) And convenient distribution of heat, in difI humbly think, that if we understand be applied; as, in a long range of

ferent parts of a building where it may the adjective to signify“ never-ending” in the one text, we cannot put a limit- pipes, that may merely be wanted as ed construction upon it in the other. I conductors, by covering them with tin have trespassed much upon your pages, band, made from hay and plastered

plate, or tin foil, (or, if lapped with and therefore will say no more at pre-smooth,) the radiation of heat will be sent, than that I shall be glad to see this (to me at least) interesting subject there will be a less condensation and

greatly prevented ; and, consequently, discussed more fully, by more able

consumption of Steam. hands. I am, Sir, yours, &c. A Friend to INQUIRY. is required, the pipes should be covered

In those parts where the most heat (i) Mark ix. 43 to 48.-(k) Matt. xxv. 46.

with a coating of dead black paint; and in this way, by a proper attention

to the exterior surface of the pipes, As Steam Heating in Mills, and other may a great saving of fuel be effected, large fabrics, has now become so very as well as considerable convenience general, and is daily increasing, even and comfort experienced. in small buildings, the following re- Steam-pipes made of tin-plate, were marks, from actual experiments, may much used soon after the first applicaprobably not be thought uninteresting; tion of Steam Heating, in order to especially as the principles to which save expense, and from a supposition, they refer, do not appear to have been that, from their thinness, they would sufficiently known, or acted upon by emit heat more rapidly than cast-iron. practical mechanics. The following Thin copper ones were also tried upon are some of the principal facts, which the same principle ; but, contrary to were discovered or confirmed by Pro- expectation, it was soon found, that fessor Leslie:

the same surface of cast-iron gave out If a vessel be filled with hot water, much more heat, than either the tinthe quantity of heat which radiates plate or copper. from it, depends chiefly upon the na- Experiments have also been made ture of the exterior surface of the to ascertain the difference between tinNo. 10.--Vol. I.

30

ON HEATING BY STEAM.

was

FIGURE OF JUGGERNAUT.

plates and cast-iron, with respect to | Gideon his, Jehovah-shalom. This their effects in emitting heat; and it was done evidently to mark out these was found, by measuring the quantity places as memorials of what Jehovah of Steam condensed in equal lengths had done, or what it was expected he of pipe, or, in other words, by measur- would do. And in the same manner, ing the water of condensation, that, Jerusalem, as a type of the Gospel taking the effect of tin-plate in emitting Church, called Jehovah-tsidheat as one, the effect of cast-iron was kenu, to point out what the Lord equal to two and a half.

would do for that church of which Cast-iron, has likewise been found every member can say, “ In thee have much more durable, and convenient I righteousness and strength.” in its application, than any other Dublin, July 9, 1819. Amicus. metals which have been tried. And it appears, when durability is required, that it is the only substance which seems properly applicable to the purpose.

Indeed it has been adopted in all the late cases of warming by Steam.

O With regard to the thickness of pipes, it appears not to be limited, but by expense; for a thick pipe acting as a reservoir of heat, preserves a more uniform temperature than a thin one. It is usual, in order to save unnecessary expense, to make the pipes as thin as they can be conveniently cast, which varies from one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch, according to their diameter and length. The sizes now mostly in use, are four inches internal diameter, and about three-eighths of an inch in thickness.

The following fact will give some idea of the effect of Steam, in produc- History and Description of Jugünnaing expansion in metallic substances. thủ, usually written Juggernaut. A copper steam-pipe, 160 feet long, Since the time that Dr. Buchanan was two inches longer when filled with published his “Christian Researches steam, than when cool: and in prac- in Asia," the name of this Idol has tice, the expansion of steam-pipes of been well known in England, associcast-iron, may be taken at about one-ated with those bloody and indecent tenth of an inch, in every ten feet of rites, which are inseparably connected length, or

one 'inch to thirty-three with his abominable worship. The yards.* BENJAMIN Hick.

figure of Juggernaut has also been deBolton, Nov. 1819.

lineated in various descriptions, but his real image has been presented only

in a partial manner to the public eye. RIGHTEOUSNESS."

The history of this monster has also The Jews acknowledge that this ap- even to many who affect to doubt the

been comparatively but little known, pellation, Jer, xxiii. 6. belongs to the propriety of sending Bibles and Mis

: Messiah: and we can easily discern sionaries to India, for the purpose of in it the dignity of our Lord, as Jeho- diffusing a knowledge of Christianity vah; and the nature of his office, as our righteousness. It has often been

throughout those populous and exten

sive regions. asked, Why is the same appellation bestowed on Jerusalem? (xxxiii

. 16.) ficiency, we have been induced to

To supply in some measure this deAbraham called the mount, Jehovah-hibit a sensible representation of this jireh ; Moses his altar, Jehovah-nissi ; Asiatic Moloch, accompanying the

* For a more particular acconnt of these figure, with an outline of his history, experiments, see Leslie on Heat, Dalton's and an account of some of those effects Chemical Philosophy, and Buchanan's Essays which result from the influence of his on Fuel.

long established dominion.

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OBSERVATIONS ON

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Jugunnathu, or Juggernaut, is a dei- | have been joined by several large bofied hero, complimented with the title dies of pilgrims, perhaps 2000 in numof “ Lord of the World,as his name ber, who have come from various parts signifies; he is a form of Vishnoo. The of Northern India. Some of them, with image of this god has no legs, and only whom I have conversed, say, that they stumps of arms; the head and eyes have been two months on their march,

are very large. Krishnu, it seems, had travelling slowly in the hottest season accidentally been killed by a hunter, of the year, with their wives and chilwho left his body to rot under a tree ; dren. Some old persons are among his bones, however, were collected, them, who wish to die at Juggernaut. and kept in a box, till a pious king Numbers of pilgrims die on the road; was directed by Vishnoo to form the and their bodies generally remain unimage of Jugunnathu, and put into its buried. On a plain by the river, near belly these bones. Vishwukurmu, the the Pilgrim's Caravansera at this place, architect of the gods, undertook to there are more than a hundred skulls. make the image; but declared, that The dogs, jackals, and vultures, seem if disturbed while he was about it, he to live here on human prey. The vulwould leave it unfinished. The king tures exhibit a shocking tameness. The who employed him, being impatient to obscene animals will not leave the see the image, went to the spot, when body sometimes till we come close to the artist desisted from the work, and them. This Buddruck is a horrid left the god without hands or feet. The place. Wherever I turn my eyes, I king was much discouraged, but on meet death in some shape or other. praying to Brumha, he promised to Surely Juggernaut cannot be worse make the image famous in its present than Buddruck.' shape. Brumha himself gave eyes and 'Juggernaut, 14th June, 1806. a soul to it. He has many temples ;

I have seen Juggernaut. The one of the most famous is in Orissa. scene at Buddruck is but the vestibule

The annual Car Festival is the most of Juggernaut. No record of ancient popular; the car is in form of a taper- or modern history can give, I think, an ing tower, between 50 and 60 feet in adequate idea of this valley of death ; height: it has sixteen wheels, two it may be truly compared with the 'valhorses, and a coachman, all of wood. ley of Hinnom.' The idol called JuggerThe crowd draw the carriage by means naut, has been considered as the Moof a hawser; he is supposed to pay an loch of the present age; and he is justly annual visit to his brother; and while so named; for the sacrifices offered up the car remains empty near his bro- to him by self-devotement, are not less ther’s'temple, immense crowds flock to criminal, perhaps not less numerous, gaze at the indecent pictures which than those recorded of the Moloch of are painted on it. At the end of eight Canaan. Two other idols accompany days, he is drawn back again to his Juggernaut, namely, Boloram and Shuown temple.

budra, his brother and sister; for there Unnumbered multitudes of pilgrims, are three Deities worshipped here. from all parts of India, attend this fes- They receive equal adoration, and sit tival, among whom a great mortality on thrones of nearly equal height.' frequently prevails; and hundreds,

This morning I viewed the perhaps thousands of persons, diseased Temple: a stupendous fabric, and or distressed, have cast themselves un- truly commensurate with the extensive der the wheels of this ponderous car, sway of the horrid king. As other and have been crushed to death. temples are usually adorned with

figures emblemátical of their religion, Dr. Buchanan, in his Christian re- so Juggernaut has representations searches, speaking of this horrid idol, (numerous and varied) of that vice this Moloch of India, has transmit- which constitutes the essence of his ted to posterity the following observa- worship. The walls and gates are tions.

covered with indecent emblems, in Buddruck, in Orissa, May 30, 1806. massive and durable sculpture.--I have • We know that we are approaching also visited the sand plains by the sea, Juggernaut (and yet we are more than in some places whitened with the bones fifty miles from it) by the human bones of the pilgrims; and another place a which we have seen for some days little way out of the town, called by strewed by the way. At this place we | the English, the Golgotha, where the

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