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On the Earth's Inclination to the Plane of its Orbit.

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its influence, so constant and harmoni- state of matter, I have elsewhere enous in its operations, is brought about, deavoured to prove ; and if the reasonis hidden in profound obscurity; the ing there adduced be conclusive, I investigation of which, is the interest- take it for granted, that the earth, and ing subject of our present inquiry. its numerous appendages, were then To pursue this intricate subject with held in solution. Whether the univerany probable prospect of success, we sal menstruum were air or water, is of must carry our reflections back to the no importance to the present theory, primeval state of the earth, when days since, according to our popular views and nights began their endless rounds, of chemical affinity, a partial, and in when chaos triumphed over disordered many instances a complete state of soworlds.

lution, is essentially necessary in giving There appear to be but two states scope to the play of essences. From of matter which claim our attention, these premises we may safely infer, as candidates for priority of existence : that what we can denominate the one, where the elements may be sup- earth, was, in its original state, a soft, posed to have existed in a distinct and compressible, and yielding substance, separate manner, before the countless between that of a solid, compact, and assemblage of them, called aggregates, a complete fluid; and that during this was issued into being; the other, fluid consistence, the earth received where the aggregates made a primary its first impulse to move. Whether appearance, and were rendered capable the intestine motion of atomic forces of yielding, from the progressive de constituting the play of elements, arose velopment of their atomic parts, those from emanations, or spiritual imelements which now engross the ma- pulsions immediately from the Divine terial universe. In the first case, the mind, or was consequent upon the senumberless systems composing univer-condary agency of solar heat, I shall sal nature, resulted from the coa- not risk my opinion. Whatever may lesence or rendezvous of previously have been the nature of the immediate created scattered elements. In the influence, we are well assured, that the latter, the aggregates were first in or- primary agency was immaterial; and in der on the great theatre of being, with what way soever the moving agent their pregnant causes, and the virtual formed a contact with the body to be existence of those elements which, in moved, the result was certain and unitheir pleasing or terrific effects, alter- form, and the whole chaotic mass benately create in the mind of man, the came the scene of chemical alterations occasions of so much admiration or dis--sympathetic unions, the inarriage of may. To determine the seniority of essences, and the parade of elements, these candidates, is not our present in- in endless succession and variety. tention. It is more compatible with In the short interval of six succesthe structure of compound bodies, and sive days, the amazing whole was comcongenial with our notions of divided pleted; and God is said to have rested elements, to suppose that the aggre- from his labours. This is a metaphogates were formed from the coalescence rical idea, inapplicable to the immaof elements, than that the elements teriality of the Almighty, but beautishould have made their respective ag- ful in itself, and consistent with those gressions from the progressive involu- terms we are obliged to use, in defining tions of those unwieldy masses of or- ideas we derive from the contact of ganized matter, of which they were visible things. themselves the constituents. I shall Without annexing certain images not at present dispute to which of these to our perception of spiritual and invithe palm is due, because the interest of sible things, man could not be intellithe present subject is not involved in the gible to man. God rested; in other issue. I shall confine my remarks to words, he discontinued his creative the chaotic state of the earth, that con- operations. What he had previously geries of things blended in one con- formed, he now left, to follow the enerfused and indiscriminate mass of mat- gies or impulsions he had implanted in ter, to which the ancient Hebrews an- the original constitution of matter; nexed the terms tohoo and bohoo, and and these go on with the same undethe equally sagacious and critical viating regularity, as if God were Greeks the word chaos.

actually interposing his power at every That chaos was an unconsolidated subsequent event.

It is in this sense agency had

DOUBTS CONCERNING THE DOCTRINE
OF THE ETERNAL SONSHIP OF CHRIST.

I and the Father are one.

we say, that natural effects have their | pede their motion, would have easily proximate and natural causes; and that descended through softer bodies; while all the operations in nature which we subsequently formed masses, in their term phenomena, are to be explained approach to what has been called the on some material principle, and not as- centre of gravity, would be obstructed cribed to the immediate interposition in their course. In the latter case, no of mysterious agency or temporary ef- mechanical motion of rotatory velocity forts of Divine efficiency.

could deflect masses of matter through The science of chemistry consists in substances of equal density. The coma knowledge of these affinities, derived binations of elements, and the consefor the most part from analytical in- quent formation of substances going on, vestigation, by the operation of matter after the earth was put in motion, apon matter, and from the hostility of huge and ponderous compounds muladverse elements, termed re-agents; tiplied upon each other, which being instruments in the hands of the philo- unable to descend through inferior and sopher, which enable him to torture previously-formed strata, are mechaniconfession, by unlocking the charm cally sustained above their “ due which gave security to elementary al- level ;” and consequently the weight, liance, in which nothing can be said which would have otherwise surroundto perish; the internal constitution of ed the centre, accumulates laterally, essence remaining unchanged: so that and thus removes the centre of gravity not an inconceiveably minute atom at a distance from the mathematical can be annihilated. From the prin- centre of the whole mass. ciples here laid down, I think there

(To be concluded in our next.) can be no doubt that the earth was thrown into motion, while the elements were yet in full play, and before the operation of chemical fixed them in their more permanent abodes. The effect of motion, from whatever cause it was derived, would

My Father is greater than I. be to precipitate newly formed sub- The Evangelists commonly speak of stances from the circumference to the our Lord as the Son of man, whilst he centre of the whole mass; and as the is generally designated the Son of God union of some elements produces more by the Apostles. But the terms are inponderous compounds than others, so differently used to denote one person, their respective influence operates Jesus, the Christ; and it is predicated more powerfully in bringing them to equally and indifferently, of the Son of the most depending part of the aggre- Man and of the Son of God, that “ he gate, if quiescent, and to the physical that believeth in me hath eternal life.” centre, if in motion.

But since the terms, the Son of man, Whether we suppose the consolida- and the Son of God, are employed tion of the earth, and arrangement of equally and indifferently to denote one its strata, to have taken place either be- Son, which is the Christ, they can be fore or after it was put in motion, the alone referrible to one Sonship. For result we imagine would have been if there be two Sonships, there must what it now is. If a principle of gra- be two Sons ; and since “ vity exist at all, it existed then, and conciled to God by the death of his was as much the quality of an atom as Son,” if there be two, which of them of a world. It is true, the scattered died upon the cross? particles had not brought together into But to escape this dilemma, we may one centre their individual quotas; for insist, without fear of contradiction, which reason the principle of gravity, that the Son of man and the Son of in that stage of creation, could not God are one; and it is predicated inbe so extensively influential as at differently of each, that the believer present. Be this as it may, in nei- hath eternal life in him. But since ther case could all the ponderous sub- there cannot be two Sonships, and one stances equally surround the centre. | is distinctly enunciated by the EvanIn the former case, while the earth is gelists, that is, the filiation in time; the supposed to be at rest, the primarily eternal Sonship must of necessity be formed modifications, resulting from false. hasty affinities, having nothing to im- The Lord Jesus Christ exists in the

John X. 30.

xiv. 28.

we are re

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Curious Incident.- Perpetuity of Misery. 926 unity of the two natures, human and this fearful omen. Was it a ghost he divine; but since the human nature had seen? No, it was the Devil, the had no existence previously to the in- Devil himself, who had possessed the carnation, the Logos, that was made dead Capuchin. The Monks laughed flesh, was not antecedently the Christ, at his fears, and persuaded him it was the Son of man. And because the Son a mere illusion of the imagination. of man and the Son of God are one, Hetherefore summoned up his courage that is, one Christ, one Son, the only to return; but took care to go to a difbegotten Son of the Father, and the ferent part of these extensive galleries, Logos was not antecedently the Son of where he remained awhile in anxious man, therefore he could not be ante- suspense. Finding, however, all still cedently the Son of God. For Jesus and motionless, he began to think he Cbrist exists alone in the unity of the must have been alarmed at his own divine and human natures; and since thoughts, and, resolving to convince nothing which is human can have a himself whether his fears were false share in the Eternal Sonship, the Son- or not, he returned to his former staship of Jesus Christ cannot be eternal. tion, and kept his eye fixed on the

The subject then seems to be more same dead Monk. Judge what was of a philological, than of a doctrinal his astonishment, when he once more nature: for it is not possible to raise saw the head move, and nod to him. the doctrine of the Eternal Sonship, be- Away he ran, as may be supposed, and fore it can be demonstrated that the declared that all the saints in the caSon of man and the Son of God are lendar should not persuade him to go terms equally and indifferently re- down again. He was so positive referrible to an eternal Sonship; which specting the fact that considerable seems in the nature of things to be an alarm prevailed. The Monks were inconsistency.

called up, and eight or ten went into October 30, 1819. PUDICUS. the apartment with candles and holy

water. They were brought opposite

this dead body possessed by the Devil. Curious Incident.

But just as they drew up, a nod of his head put them all to flight. When the

Superior was informed of this alarmSIR,

Bristol, October 19, 1819. ing affair, he was extremely angry, and If you think the following sufficiently said some English heretic had got in, interesting, and that it will add to the and contrived this trick; for he would amusement of the readers of your va- neither admit the Devil to be concernluable Magazine, I shall feel obliged ed, nor allow that the dead Capuchin by your inserting it.

could possibly stir; and therefore went ,

down himself with another party. As J. S. W.

they descended to the galleries, their

courage in some degree abated; but It is the custom among the Capuchin after advancing cautiously to the place, Monks, to spend part of the night in the Superior held up his lamp to the the abode of the dead; but whether Monk. It was no illusion; life had

this is a penance, or a duty undertaken indeed actually again entered the frail by the brethren in rotation, I could not tenement of mortality. At that very molearn.

The following circumstance ment the head shook violently, and fell happened a few years since.-A Monk, from the body;when out sprang,

not the passing a part of the night in this dis- soulof the Monk, but a living rat, which mal apartment, sitting by his lamp, had made its nest in the skull ? - This surrounded by the shrivelled and dis- fact is well known at Palermo. torted countenances of the dead, thought he heard now and then, in the interval of his devotional exercises, an unusual noise; and looking sted. In the eighth number of the Imperial fastly at that part of the room whence Magazine, col. 762, a question was init proceeded, he perceived one of the serted on the subject of “ Perpetual dead Monks nod to him : he held up Misery.” Since that query was pubhis lamp, and the head nodded again: lished, the following paper has reached he then instantly ran up stairs to the our hands. Its date, however, sufficiconvent, to aequaint the brethren with ently proves that it could not have

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

MAGAZINE,

ON THE PERPETUITY OF MISERY.

66

been written with any reference to the but I hope it will not be deemed foobservations of Tyro, although it has reign from my subject. The question an immediate bearing on the point of which I wish now to submit to discusinquiry.-Editor.

sion, through your Magazine, is, Whe

ther or not we can gather from the Wells, Norfolk, Oct. 20, 1819. Scriptures, that the punishment of the MR. Editor,

wicked in a future state will be neverI am very glad to find that several of ending? If we are guided by our transyour correspondents have interested tion, and the meaning which we invathemselves, in the consideration of riably attach to the words “ eternal” the Christ's descent into Hell. It and “everlasting,” we must confess shews that there is among them a love that it will be so ; for there are many of biblical discussion. This, Sir, is texts to that effect. But the doctrine the only way to arrive at truth. This in question must entirely depend upon is the only way ultimately to vanquish another point, namely, whether the that monster Bigotry, which bas done original word “ áwnicy” will bear this more harm to the cause of Christianity, sense or not. than Infidelity itself. Your Magazine Without going so far as to consider professes to be “sh ve to no sect;" and the signification of the substantive aww, I doubt not, that if your correspond- from which it is derived, and from ents will regularly supply it with a por- which it must derive its true import, tion of theological matter, many a I shall content myself with shewing, serious and inquisitive Christian will that the English adjectives eternal” be well pleased at seeing discussed, and “ everlasting," as they are used in subjects which are dearest to his heart, several passages of scripture, cannot as being so intimately connected with bear the sense of never-ending; and his best interests. There are very the conclusion must therefore be, that many, who have not time to give these the translation of the word e.Wrior canmatters a deep investigation; and there not be uniformly correct. We read of are very many others also, who, from

“ the land of Canaan being an evernot being acquainted with the lan- lasting possession ;(a) of " the priestguages in which the Scriptures were hood of Aaron being an everlasting originally

written, are unable to search priesthood ;(b) of “ circumcision befor the real meaning of words: both

ing an everlasting covenant;(c) of “the classes are therefore in

passover being an everlasting ordiobliged to understand the expressions nance;(d) and of “Sodom and Goof Scripture as they find them.

morrah suffering the vengeance of Inour translation, we meet with many eternal fire.”(e) It requires no great words and expressions, which cannot degree of penetration to see, that in be understood in the sense in which these passages, the adnouns “ they have been translated ; this arises lasting" and "eternal” cannot bear probably from the alteration in mean the meaning which we invariably affix ing, which many words of our language to them: they can only mean, may have undergone since, and from tinuance for some certain period of the comparative deficiency of learning, time.” especially of Oriental learning, at the

Now, let us examine a few texts time the translation was made. Why which favour the doctrine of neverthe governors of our Church do not

ending punishment.

“ Who amongst introduce a new translation, is to me

us can dwell with everlasting burninexplicable. It certainly is of great ings?" (f) “ It is better to enter into importance, that every one who reads life halt or maimed, than having two the Scriptures, and more particularly hands or two feet to be cast into everthose of the lower classes, who have no lasting fire."(9) “ Who (i. e. they that other opportunity of knowing them than by hearing them read once a week obey not the Gospel of the Lord Jesus

Christ) shall be punished with everin our Churches, should, as far as pos- lasting destruction, from the presence sible, understand them; and it is as of the Lord.”(h) Why, I ask, may certainly the duty of the governors of our Church, to have them made as in

(a) Gen. xvii. 8. & xlviii. 4.-(6) Exod. xl. telligible as possible.

15. & Numb. xxv. 13.--(c) Gen. xvii. 7,13. I have been led on to a greater (a) Exod. xii. 14.-(e) Jude 7.-) Isaiah length of exordium than I intended, xxxii, 14.—(8) Mat. xvüi.8.-(h)?Thes.i. 9.

a manner

ever

46

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Heating by Steam.

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everlasting” bear the same cir- | vessel. Thus, if a canister of tinned cumscribed sense in these passages, iron be used, then a certain quantity that it does in those above quoted ? | of heat radiates from it: if the said Indeed we must so understand the pas- vessel be covered with black paint, sage taken from the prophet Isaiah, as paper, glass, &c. it will then radiate the prophet is there evidently speak- eight times as much heat in like ciring of the distress of the Jews, upon cumstances. It appears, therefore, Jerusalem's being taken by the king that from a metallic surface, 13 parts of of Assyria.

heat are conducted away by the air, Having briefly examined this side of and 1 part radiated; from a vitreous the question, I think it my duty, (as or paper surface, 13 parts are conmy own mind is not made up upon the ducted, and 8 parts radiated, in a subject,) to take a cursory view of the given time. other. The duration of the future pu- The obvious consequences of this nishment of the wicked, is also ex- doctrine, in a practical sense, are, pressed in Scripture without the use In every case where heat is wanted of the disputed word awwrior,' "“ ever- to be retained as long as possible, the lasting;" e.g. They shall be cast“ into containing vessel should be constructed fire that never shall be quenched.(i) of metal, with a bright clear surface. But what I consider as by far the

Where heat is required to be given strongest support of this doctrine is, out by a body with as much celerity as that in the sentences which our Blessed possible, the containing vessel, if of Lord has declared will be passed upon metal, ought to be painted, covered the righteous and upon the wicked at with paper, charcoal, or some animal the last day, the same adjective or vegetable matter; in which case, “ áowron” is used to express the dura- the heat given out will be as three tion of life or happiness, and the dura- parts for two, from a metallic surface. tion of punishment, 6. The wicked

This important fact, therefore, may shall go away, łış xorzony áowroov; but be made exceedingly useful, in the the righteous évs Sway aswesov.(k) And convenient distribution of heat, in difI humbly think, that if we understand be applied ; as, in a long range of

ferent parts of a building where it may the adjective to signify“ never-ending” in the one text, we cannot put a limit- pipes, that may merely be wanted as ed construction upon it in the other. I conductors, by covering them with tin have trespassed much upon your pages, band, made from hay and plastered

plate, or tin foil, (or, if lapped with and therefore will say no more at pre-smooth,) the radiation of heat will be sent, than that I shall be glad to see this (to me at least) interesting subject there will be a less condensation and

greatly prevented ; and, consequently, discussed more fully, by more able

consumption of Steam. hands. I am, Sir, yours, &c. A FRIEND TO INQUIRY.

In those parts where the most heat

is required, the pipes should be covered (i) Mark ix. 43 to 48.-(k) Matt. xxv. 46. with a coating of dead black paint;

and in this way, by a proper attention

to the exterior surface of the pipes, As Steam Heating in Mills, and other may a great saving of fuel be effected, large fabrics, has now become so very as well as considerable convenience general, and is daily increasing, even and comfort experienced. in small buildings, the following re- Steam-pipes made of tin-plate, were marks, from actual experiments, may much used soon after the first applicaprobably not be thought uninteresting; tion of Steam Heating, in order to especially as the principles to which save expense, and from a supposition, they refer, do not appear to have been that, from their thinness, they would sufficiently known, or acted upon by emit heat more rapidly than cast-iron. practical mechanics. The following Thin copper ones were also tried upon are some of the principal facts, which the same principle ; but, contrary to were discovered or confirmed by Pro- expectation, it was soon found, that fessor Leslie:

the same surface of cast-iron gave out If a vessel be filled with hot water, much more heat, than either the tinthe quantity of heat which radiates plate or copper. from it, depends chiefly upon the na- Experiments have also been made ture of the exterior surface of the to ascertain the difference between tin No. 10,--Vol. I.

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ON HEATING BY STEAM.

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