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were to him as springs of water, whose waters fail not. Destitute of their invigorating influence, he must often have fainted; but thus refreshed, though his path was frequently gloomy, he went on his way rejoicing. The writer of this imperfect sketch, recollects at this moment, with a lively but melancholy pleasure, with what holy resignation he adverted to some trials, under which the Divine arm only could afford sufficient support; sweetly concluding his remarks in the animated language of the Prophet Habakkuk :| Although the fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vine; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls; yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation."
A few extracts from his letters, written in the confidence of friendship, and designed for no eye but that of the person to whom they were addressed, will serve further to evince the spirituality of his mind.
"June 16, 1814. "Oh my whatever others do, may you and I seriously reflect on the immortal nature, and infinite value, of our souls. May we be divinely enabled to cultivate all the personal graces of the Holy Spirit; that we may be found in the number of the little despised flock of Christ. May we thirst after purity of heart; and strive to bring forth the blessed fruits of faith, hope, and love: that love which will cheerfully submit to the disposing power of God's providence; and with pious resignation bear the cross, however heavy, even saying: “Lord, thou doest all things well." "Not my will, but thy will be done." Then may we rely on this precious promise of the Saviour, "I will not leave you comfortless; I will come to you.'
"October 5, 1814. "You express in your letter a wish for more frequent seasons of retireIn this, my experience agrees with yours. I believe that, though we heard a faithful sermon every day, without serious meditation we should derive but little improvement. Indeed, without this, how can we humble ourselves, by solemnly calling to remembrance the evils of our past lives? how, with the blessed Mary, ponder in our hearts the sayings of our Lord?
how meditate with profit on his agony and death; that price of our peace, and eternal life? how weigh the value of our spiritual privileges; and contemplate the crown of glory, laid up for those who continue faithful unto death? or, how feel as we ought, the strength and multitude of our obligations to live in exemplary obedience, constrained by love passing knowledge?Let us constantly pray, that the God of all our mercies may fill our souls with all joy and peace in believing; and give us a well-grounded hope, through the merits of a dear Redeemer, that we shall, in his own good time, join that glorious company, which no man can number, in singing, and with more exalted strains than we have done to day,* “ Blessing, and honour, glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever, Amen."
"October 12, 1814.
"I trust I can truly say, that I feel stronger desires than ever, for grace to enable me, in my conduct and conversation, to please God; though I should thereby displease the whole world besides. Yes, I would rather suffer, than wilfully sin. But, alas! how soon the force of temptation overcomes our best resolutions! how soon the world takes hold of our poor treacherous hearts! how very weak our faith! how cold our feelings of redeeming grace and dying love! Should we not earnestly and perseveringly pray, "Lord, increase our faith" shed abroad thy love in our poor cold hearts: mortify our unbelief, our pride, and all the sins which interrupt us in the service and enjoyment of thee: make us more holy, and heavenly; and bring us nearer to thyself, by faith, hope, and love?"
Mr. S. had in early life cultivated habits of industry; and in the attainment of an object, he persevered with a resolute and unwavering step. From the period especially, that his mind became spiritually illuminated, he did indeed redeem the time. Generally rising early, and watching for opportunities, he endeavoured to improve every moment to the best advantage: even when walking over his fields, some divine author was usually his companion.
Mr. S. and his friend had on this day attended the Sacred Oratorio in Birmingham. He wrote the above in the evening after his return home.
Thus his active usefnl life, afforded a
"As if foreboding here his little stay,
ON JESUS CHRIST'S DESCENT INTO
disembodied spirits are destined to remain stationary, until summoned into the presence of their Maker, at the final judgment day. But this term being likewise applicable to the place of torment, observes, Bishop Horsley, “the genuine meaning of the word is misapplied, and the common people never hear the word Hell, but their thoughts are carried to that dismal place where the fallen angels are
Addressed to the Editor of the Imperial kept in chains, and everlasting dark
ON a question of so much importance to the confirmation of our faith, as the one suggested by your Bristol correspondent, I trust I shall not expose myself to the imputation either of tautology, or prolixity, by venturing to offer a few additional remarks; particularly when it is known, they are intruded upon the public by a lineal descendant of Bishop Hopkins, that orthodox pil
lar of the established Church.
I have recently perused, with a mixture of satisfaction and conviction, the sentiments of another dignitary* of the Protestant Church, no less celebrated for depth of learning, than for piety of principle; who, in one of his admirable sermons, has given the most elucidating definition of the important article in question; and whose remarks, in the course of my observations, I shall frequently venture to quote.
It ought to be recollected, that Christ's descent into Hell, is one of the first principles of piety or faith impressed upon the youthful imagination; and, as Bishop Horsley observes, "it should seem that what is thus taught among the first things which children learn, should be the plainest or easiest of comprehension; and that what every Christian is required to acknowledge as his own belief, should not require explanation."
"He descended into Hell, is a declaration as positive as the power of language is able to invent; and we might as well doubt our Saviour's birth, death, or sufferings, as hesitate a moment upon the subject." Your correspondent's hesitation upon this important article, Mr. Editor, seems to have arisen from his misapprehension of the word hades; which, according to the Greek and Hebrew definition, signifies an unseen and covered place, where
No. 10.-VOL. I.
ness, until the great and awful judgment-day." ""This word, in its natural import, signifies only that invisible spot which is the appointed habitation of departed souls, between death and the general resurrection; for when man dieth, his soul dieth not, but returneth to Him that gave it, to be disposed of at his will and pleasure; which is clearly implied in that admonition of our Saviour, Fear not them that kill the body, but cannot kill the
The inspired writers of the Old Testament repeatedly allude to the secret mansions in the inner parts of the earth ; and the authors of the New, at once strengthen and corroborate their important remarks; with this imposing distinction, that there are distinct mansions for the righteous and the reprobate.
"The English word Hell," observes the enlightened author I have just quoted, "signifies nothing more than the unseen and covered place," without any regard to suffering, or bearing any affinity to pain. But in
this unseen abode it cannot be ima-
cross should be transported to the realms of light.
Though the term paradise could never have been applied to a place of torment, such as St. Luke has so affectingly described, yet to those secret mansions where the souls of the righteous repose until the day of judgment, it is impossible that any objection can be made. That the Saviour of mankind descended into this abode, Mr. Editor, is the sense in which I comprehend that article of our creed; for, as Doctor Horsley farther observes," it is horrible to think for a moment that the immaculate Son of God should be exposed to the torments of that dreadful place;" or that the companion of his sufferings should receive a promise of being with him there, as a reward for the penitence he exhibited, during the latter moments of his life.
When we reflect upon the various inspired writers which had foretold the coming of a Messiah, and observe to what a degree of nicety their distinct prophecies were fulfilled, it appears but a part of the projected scheme of redemption, that the Saviour of mankind should descend into Hell; "Thou wilt not (says the Psalmist) leave my soul in hell, neither wilt thou suffer thy holy One to see corruption." When the Son of God condescended to take our nature upon him, he exposed himself to all our trying situations; and from the commencement of life in his mother's womb, to the extinction and renovation of it, he proved himself the great Captain of our salvation! The same wonderful scheme of humiliation which required that Christ should be conceived born, and put to death," says Bishop Horsley, “made it equally necessary that his soul should pass into that intermediate state, where the souls of the righteous are to remain until the day of judgment."
That learned prelate, Mr. Editor, whose authority I have so frequently quoted, not only declares his firm opinion of the Saviour of Mankind's descent into Hell, but assigns those convincing reasons for it, which make faith the handmaid of judgment; strengthening his arguments by the words of St. Peter, which, in the sermon alluded to, he chose for his text: "Being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit, by which also he went and preached to the spirits in prison," &c. &c. After expatiating in
the fullest manner upon this important passage of scripture, he assigns a variety of reasons for this additional act of our Saviour's loving-kindness. The Patriarchs and Prophets, had foretold the appearance of a Messiah, and, doubtless, hope and expectation had for ages been upon the wing; and the learned Prelate supposes that one of our Saviour's motives for descending into those lower regions was, to convince his faithful believers that the glorious plan of redemption had been accomplished:-that the Son of God had not only taken our nature upon him, but that he had been wounded for our transgressions, that he had been bruised for our iniquities, that the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we were healed.
That Christ should have imparted this gratifying intelligence to those faithful believers, who had in former ages predicted his appearance upon earth, is only an additional proof of the mercy and loving-kindness of our blessed Lord; for though St. Peter says, "being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit, by which he also went and preached to the spirits in prison," yet none of those virtues which he so strongly inculcated upon earth, could be applicable in their situation; for St. Paul, in the sixth chapter of Romans, tells us, “that he that is dead, is freed from sin."
"It is scarcely necessary to observe, (remarks the Bishop,) that the spirits mentioned by St. Peter, can be no other than the souls of men, and the term prison has no other reference than its being an invisible mansion, or place of confinement; a place of unfinished happiness, consisting in rest, security, hope, more than in positive enjoyment.”
I am fully aware, Mr. Editor, that your Bristol correspondent is not singular in his ideas respecting the Son of God's descent into the place of torment; but in the sense in which the learned prelate has expounded that important article of our faith and conviction, the literal sense of our Creed can no longer be doubted.
"Know ye not," (says St. Paul'in his epistle to the Romans,)" that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death? therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death, that, like as Christ
was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life; for if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be, also, in the likeness of his resurrection."
| shall the soul of every true believer descend. In that place, the soul of our Redeemer, in its separate state, possessed and exercised its active powers; in the same place, therefore, shall the believer's soul possess and exercise a similar kind of animation."
I shall neither apologize, Sir, for the frequency or the variety of the preceding extracts, convinced that the sentiments of our author, so justly ce
and that they may make a lasting impression upon the hearts of your numerous readers, is the sincere wish of Your obedient Servant,
AN UNKNOWN CORRESPONDENT, London, Oct. 11, 1819.
As the Saviour of mankind literally took our nature upon him, and evidently participated in all our emotions, we may naturally conclude, that when our thread of life is severed, our spirits will remain in that place of safe keep-lebrated, cannot fail to be acceptable; ing, into which he descended, until summoned into the presence of their Maker, to receive their final sentence. Into that place, it is to be presumed, he went, not only to proclaim the glad tidings, that he had actually offered the predicted sacrifice for their redemptiom, but that he was about to reappear before the Father as their intercessor, offering the atoning sacrifice of his precious blood. "This (says Bishop Horsley) was a preaching fit to be addressed to departed souls, as it would impart new animation and assurance to their hopes, that the consummation of their bliss would take place in due season; and it gives to the declaration of St. Peter, a clear and satisfactory definition."
ON BRIBERY AND PERJURY.
Northampton, October 15, 1819.
I am your's respectfully,
At an Election of Members of Parliament, the Oath to be taken by the Electors is as follows:
I shall conclude my remarks upon this important article of our faith, Mr. Editor, by a few more of this learned prelate's observations; fully aware they must carry greater weight with them than those which I am capable of offering. Having now, I trust, shown that the article of Christ's descent into Hell, is to be taken as a plain matter of fact, in the literal expression of the words, I shall, with great brevity, demonstrate the great use and importance I, of the fact itself, as a point of christian doctrine. Its great use is this, that it is a clear confutation of the dismal notion of death, as the temporary extinction of the life of man; and what is no less gloomy and discouraging, the notion of the sleep of the soul, in the interval between death and the general resurrection. Christ was so completely man, that whatever took place in the human nature of him, may be considered as a model and example of what must, in a certain degree, take place in the soul of every man united to him. Christ's soul survived the death of his body; therefore shall the soul of every true believer, survive the body's dissolution. Christ's disembodied soul descended into Hell; thither therefore
A. B. do swear I have not received, or had by myself, or any other person whatsoever in trust for me, or for my use or benefit, directly or indirectly, any sum or sums of money, office, place, or employment, gift or reward, or any promise or security for any money, office, employment, or gift, in and that I have not been polled at this order to give my vote at this election; election. So help me God.
A direct receiving, &c. is, when a person gives or promises you money, employment, or reward; and asks you at the same time, in plain words, to give your vote for this or that gentleman.
An indirect receiving, is when a per son gives you money, or any thi
else; and though he do not expressly tell you what it is for, yet you have reason to believe that his intention is thereby to influence or engage you to give your vote conformably to his wishes.
"So help me God," signifies, Let God Almighty bless or curse me, save or destroy me, according as what I swear be true or false.
proposed to all those who are chargeable with bribing the voters at elections.
1. If you teach a person to think lightly of an oath on one occasion, can you expect him to regard it as sacred on any other occasion?
the souls in purgatory, but in particular for the deceased subscribers, the parents, friends, and relations of its members."
The above was found in a field near Dublin, dated March the 1st, 179-, filled up with 2s. 2d. for two masses, and signed PATRICK CALLAGHAN.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
Westhoughton, October 5, 1819.
SIR, the Algebraical Problem proposed, SHOULD the following solution to col. 523, in the sixth number of your valuable Miscellany, be deemed 2. If a person forswear himself to worthy of a place in any subsequent serve your purpose, is it to be sup-number, the insertion would be gratiposed that he will make any scruple fying to your very humble servant, of doing the same, when it is to serve his own?
3. What man's property or life can be safe amongst persons who have been taught by their superiors to perjure themselves?
4. Who is the most infamous character, a poor man who accepts a bribe, and perjures himself; or a rich man who gives it, and thereby tempts
him to do so?
5. Can that man be a good member of society who encourages perjury, or has he a claim to be believed upon his own oath, in any case whatsoever?
6. Is not an oath the most sacred pledge which can be given by one man to another; and if its obligation be destroyed, is not the security of the civilized world at an end?
7. Has not perjury been classed amongst the most heinous crimes in all ages, not only by believers in divine revelation, but also by pagan idolaters and heathen philosophers?
Solution:-Because the sum of each pair of numbers is equal to the same number, viz. 20, the question amounts to this: To divide a given number (20) consisting of two squares, 4 and 16, into two other square numbers, two and y for the roots of the required ways; put a 2, b=4, and r squares, then by the problem x2+y= a2+b2 and, per art. 219, Euler's Alge2 b pq + a (q2-p2) bra, x = p2 + q2
2 a pq + b (p2— where
8. Is it possible to mention any crime which is more likely to bring the curse of Almighty God upon the 382 individual who is chargeable with it, since he hath declared that "his curse shall enter into the house of him that sweareth falsely by his name, and that it shall remain in the midst of his house and consume it?" Zech. v. 4.
other pair of numbers; hence 5776 1 444 and
289, 841, bers required.
289, are the num
From what is done above, it evidently appears that the principle employed in the solution will solve the problem, when it has the following very general enunciation, viz. To divide a given number, consisting of