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sant aspect; nor was it difficult to per- tility arise, that, on one occasion, Mr. ceive, that a mine was preparing, which Brown was threatened with private asseemed to menace an explosion on some sassination; and this became the more future day. On one occasion, the mis. alarming, from its being too well known, sionaries were requested to visit the that this crime did not merely exist in president; who, on their arrival, ex- idle theory in this abode of vice. pressed a wish, that a native, whom he The reports, which were at first circunamed, might be instructed in the rou-lated in whispers, soon became audible tine of Lancaster's plan. To this they and general ; and the malignant spirit readily assented. He then, with some which followed the missionaries in the degree of abruptness, expressed his streets, soon found its way into their hope, that the letter with which he had places of worship. A favourable prefurnished them in the month of June, text, however, seemed wanting to call respecting a third missionary, had not outrage into actual existence; and it been sent to England. On being in- was not long before the enemies of the formed that it had, he appeared some- Gospel discovered an instance, which, what disconcerted, but made no obser- they conceived, would sanction their vation; and dismissed them.

designs. As the Catholic religion is that which Among the people who had occasionhas been established in the island, and ally attended the ministry of the miswhich all professed to have embraced, sionaries, there happened to be a young prior to the arrival of the missionaries, man, who, in the former part of his life, many of those who attended their had been deranged; and in whose family preaching were considered as apostates this affliction seems to have been heredifrom the theology of their ancestors; tary; it being well known, that his while the men by whose doctrines they mother was in a state of derangement had been proselyted, were deemed the during the time of her pregnancy of primary cause of that heresy which seem. him. This unhappy wretch, in one of ed to be rising among them. To check his wild paroxysms, seized an opportuits progress, and to prevent it from nity, and actually cut his mother's spreading further, several artifices were throat. For this crime he was taken invented, and many tales were thrown into custody, tried, found guilty, and into circulation. Among others, it was sentenced to be shot. To his state of whispered that the missionaries were insanity, no regard whatever was paid. spies, who held a secret correspondence In their penal code, the crime of matriwith Christophe, transmitting to him cide had been already determined; and occasional intelligence of such transac- no circumstance could mitigate the tions as, it was well known, were best punishment of death. On the day of calculated to provoke irritation. They execution, the culprit was conducted were also accused with instructing their to the spot, when three files of soldiers followers, in case some signals should were directed to fire. They did so; be made, to provide for their own safety, but the victim remained unhurt. А by retreating to the mountains. They circumstance so singular, awakened the were likewise reproached with preaching sympathy of the spectators, who beagainst the worship of saints, -against came clamorous for his liberation. But the profanation of the sabbath, - against this could not be granted. Nearly concubinage, -and of charging with fifty men rushed upon him, and, with criminality, all connexions which took | balls and bayonets, soon hurried him place, between the sexes, without mar. into eternity. riage.

This melancholy circumstance, with These heterogeneous accusations were all its effects and consequences, was all blended together, without any dis immediately carried to the account of crimination; and the result was, that the missionaries; who were not only the religion which was taught by the accused with being the instruments of missionaries was thought, by nearly all, his derangement, but with being the to be less expedient than that to which primary cause of his death, and that of they had been long accustomed.' Re- his mother. Even the singular incident ports to their disadvantage soon spread of his being missed by three files of throughout the city and its vicinity, so men, who discharged their pieces at that they could not even pass the streets him, was attributed to their incantawithout being insulted: and to such an tions; and it was but fair to conclude, alarming height did this spirit of hos- | that men who could instigate to murder,

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81
Return of Mr. Brown from St. Domingo.

82 and half defeat the ends of justice, were it is highly probable, that this would too dangerous to be cherished in this have been accomplished, had not some land of freedom.

respectable persons been present, who Assembling some time afterwards in assured the officers, that the accusation their place of worship, the missionaries was wholly unfounded. On receiving and their congregation were surrounded this assurance, the guards silently withwith a mob, who seemed to be insti. drew, without pretending to take any gated to some deed of outrageous vio- notice either of the mob that had been lence, by that principle of ungovernable collected, or of the soldiers who had fury, by which they were actuated. joined them. An officer, however, They did not, however, enter the room; shortly afterwards arrived; and by his but waited without, for a favourable entreaties, rather than his authority, moment to begin the assault. After a prevailed upon the multitude to disfew minutes, a person among them perse. A guard was some time afterexclaimed,-“ Some person in the meet- ward placed round their habitation, to ing has thrown a stone at us.” This protect them. But this tended more to was the signal for attack. Vollies of increase than to diminish their danger; stones, which had been previously col- as it was gathered from their conversaleoted, were instantly poured in among tion, that they would much rather be the people. Doors, windows, and par- employed in effecting their destruction, titions, were immediately assailed; so than in accomplishing their preservathat nothing but confusion and disorder, tion. accompanied with the shrieks of terror, It certainly would not be generous, and the menaces of brutality, could be without a sufficiency of reason, to trace distinguished in the blended tumult. this outrage to the instigation of any

As the government of this department particular set of men. But the fact is is perfectly military, they have no other unquestionable, that immediately after method of dispersing a mob than by the dispersion of the mob, the principal calling out the soldiers. Mr. Brown, aggressors were observed to repair to who thought both himself, his house, the houses of some priests; which sugand all who were within it, in a state of gests an idea, that their conduct was danger, repaired, in company with the not viewed with disapprobation. And president's secretary, to the command- it is furthermore worthy of regard, that ant of the troops, stating his complaint, although the principal actors in this outand imploring protection. He was rage were well known, and notwithreceived in a manner which was not standing the evidence against them was calculated to cherish his hopes that the unquestionable, yet no one was called storm would soon subside. The com- to any account for the transactions of mandant informed him, that he had the day, or even threatened with the been unwell, and had not been able to interposition of justice. attend parade that day, and that he Mr. Brown and his colleague had could not enter into the affair which now only one resource left; and this he had stated. But, on turning to the was, to make their appeal to the presisecretary, he inquired somewhat into dent, who was gone into the country, the nature and cause of the uproar; It was, however, impracticable for them and from his representation, a few sol- to preach under existing circumstances; diers were ordered to repair to the spot. and they had nothing to do, but to make On their arrival, they found the mob in out a statement of their case, to await much the same state that has been his return, and finally to act as events described ; but, instead of attempting to should deterinine. In the mean while, disperse them, they grounded their arms, although no outrage of any consequence and then joined them in their outrages. was repeated, because the mission

Scarcely had this portentous union aries had desisted from preaching, the been effected, before a small party of same spirit was distinctly visible; and the guards arrived, who instantly beset nothing but the avowed protection of the house, which was now closed, and the president could sanction them in the demanded an entrance. The reason resumption of their labours, but at the they assigned was, that information had risk of their lives. The moment, howbeen received, stating the people in ever, was at hand, that brought this the house to have been the aggressors, affair to its final issue. in consequence of which they were On the arrival of Boyer, Mr. Brown come to take them into custody: and waited on him, and stated his business. No. 1.-VOL. I.

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CHARACTER AND MANNERS WHICH PRE

He was received with politeness; but occasionally spoken in public; and the bis complaint procured little more than other had assisted in prayer-meetings. a languid hearing. He had, however, To those natives who are mulattos, it both the candour and the dignity to is presumed that the law will extend a declare, that “ having found, on in- degree of protection, which, to foreignquiry, the people were not altogether crs, it has indirectly denied; and, from pleased with their doctrines, he could the manners which prevail among the not think of interfering; especially as people, it has been inferred, that the every one under his government was at difficulties which they have to encounter full liberty, on the subject of religion, will be considerably diminished. to think for himself. That he was ex- The parting scene was of a most ceedingly sorry affairs had taken this affecting nature. Both preachers and unfavourable turn; but, under existing people took their leave of each other, circumstances, his advice was, that they under a full conviction that they should should leave the island, and endeavour meet no more, until they entered into a to establish themselves in places where world of spirits. About the close of their preaching would be more accept- the year 1818, they sailed from Hayti; able." of their personal conduct, dur- Mr. Brown embarking for New York, ing their residence in his dominions, he and his colleague for one of the West expressed the highest satisfaction; and, India Islands. Mr. Brown reached as a proof of his sincerity, he gave a New York in safety; and from thence testimonial in writing, accompanied taking his passage for England, reached with his signature; which plainly evin- Liverpool, as already stated, on the 14th ced, that he had not been induced to of March, 1819. credit the various tales which had been circulated, apparently, with no other design than to injure their characters. He also offered to reimburse them, for

VAIL IN THE REPUBLICAN PART OF any expenses they might have incurred in their attempts to establish the mission; but as this was declined, he observed, that he “ should not think of There is scarcely an inhabitable region dismissing the subject from his thoughts, in any portion of the globe, in which until he had communicated with the such striking contrasts are conspicuous, society in London, whence they came." as the manners which prevail in the

These facts, when collectively sur- West Indies exhibit. The dominion veyed, convey an idea, that so far as which is exercised by the Whites over his own judgment was consulted, he the enslaved Negroes, in every island, would much rather for them to have is too well known to require an illustrastaid than to depart. But filling an tion, either from fact or comment. But official situation, he had to consult the in the island of Hispaniola, now deno general feeling which prevailed among minated Hayti, in which the Blacks his subjects. In this he discovered a have obtained the ascendancy, the order degree of hostility, which he saw no of things stands reversed. means of subduing, but by such an In this island, so jealous are the swarinterposition of power as he was unwill- thy inhabitants of those rights which ing to risk.

they have acquired, that every white 'The opinion of the president, thus man is viewed with suspicion; and to unequivocally delivered, finally decided prevent his gaining any degree of supethe fate of the mission. Mr. Brown riority, he is placed under a variety of and his colleague accordingly made disabilities by the laws which have been such arrangements for the welfare of established. White men may reside on their little society, and the serious the island; but they are expressly foramong the congregation, as lay in their bidden to purchase land, or even to power; and prepared for their depar- inherit any such permanent property, tore. The society, (which, but for this in what manner soever it may have been disaster, would have been augmented acquired. A white merchant may im. to fifty members,) and the congrega- port cargoes, and ship them off to other tions, were consigned to the care of two islands, but the produce of the country natives, who had been active in pro- is placed under an interdiction, and moting the welfare of the infant cause. secured from his unhallowed touch. One of these men had, for some time, He may procure a livelihood by his

ST. DOMINGO : DRAWN FROM RECENT
OBSERVATION.

85 Prevailing Manners in the Republican Part of St. Domingo. 86 labour; but the merchandise which he turpitude, and knows nothing of responis permitted to import, he dares not sell sibility. Among these domestic hordes, as a retailer. He is viewed as a being quarrels frequently happen; and when who is degraded from his forfeited rank they occur, the man takes bis departure in society; and the descendants of his with indifference, leaving the women father's slaves exact from him that ho- and children to load his memory with mage, which his progenitors once extort- reproaches, and to provide for their own ed from their ancestors. To a mulatto support. or negro, whether male or female, who But, notwithstanding these melanhas acquired wealth and respectability, choly instances, no provision is made he is expected to pull off his hat, when by law for the maintenance of the poor; he meets either in the streets; and, to and this furnishes a reason why legislaavoid disagreeable consequences, he tive authority has never interposed in reluctantly submits to this ordeal of these departments of domestic life. Rehumiliation.

siding in a climate which seems conA white gentleman, not long since, genial to demi-nakedness, they view happening, in Port-au-Prince, to pass clothing as an article of subordinate near a place in which a black officer was consideration; and while they can proswinging in his hammock, on omitting cure plantains and a little fish, they to perform the ceremony, was reminded | feel but little solicitude for other food. of his duty in a surly tone, mixed with In this state of indolent tranquillity, and a degree of irony, which added to the moral depravity, bearing a striking redegradation. “ Good morning, Sir,” semblance to that of the aboriginal insaid the black officer. “I say, Good habitants, many thousands spend their morning, Sir. What! had you forgot- days, with but few anticipations either ten ?" The negligent white man took for time or cternity. the hint, and returned to do the morti- Among the higher orders, vice has fying penance. The black ladies are not resigned its dominion. Polygamy particularly alive to these punctilios, is not considered as dishonourable; and and consider themselves insulted when other modes of life are scarcely branded the etiquette of homage is not paid. with the name of sensuality. The interThey rarely omit to remind the sons of course, however, is less promiscuous their oppressors of their new duties; and than among the inferior classes ; and express themselves in the language of marriage is a term that exists in someindignity, which, however unpleasant thing more than the mere name. to hear, must not be resented. The The island at large is exceedingly poprincipal object which they seem to pulous, notwithstanding disease is prehave in view, in suffering white men valent, and human life consumes with to reside among them, is, on account much rapidity. To the constitutions of of their superior attainments in the arts, Europeans, the climate is not congenial, which they find it necessary to cultivate. unless they live with much temperance. But, on all occasions, they are taught The soil is rich, almost beyond examto know their station; and little doubt ple; and possesses capabilities of being can be entertained, that, when their rendered productive in abundance, of services are no longer required, their every article of West India produce. presence will be dispensed with alto- But a considerable portion of its lands gether.

is now destitute of cultivation. Their of the state of their morals, it will be sugar has much degenerated in quality; almost unnecessary to make any thing and few efforts are made to recover its like a comparative estimate, until a former honours. The principal article previous question is decided; namely, which they export is coffee. The inhawhether or not they have any? Among bitants manifest a disposition to crowd the lower orders, the intercourse be- into the towns, preferring the vices of tween the sexes is almost promiscuous. their streets, to the innocent simplicities Not one, scarcely, out of a hundred, of a country life. To prevent the perknows any thing about marriage. For nicious consequences of this mode of a man to have as many women as he conduct, some legislative regulations can procure, is tolerated by law, and have been recently adopted, which seem sanctioned by established custom. To to promise many advantages : but time these he may adhere, if he thinks pro- alone can mark the result with cerper; but should he spend his time with tainty. others, he has little consciousness of In almost every part under the government of Boyer, the French language themselves acquainted with European is spoken; and in most places, I'rench discipline; but with the untrained hordes customs and manners, air and action, that collected together, and rallied round prevail. In the maritime towns, the the standard of independence, stakes, English language, however, is partially pitchforks, clubs, and bludgeons, were understood. This has been introduced among the implements of destruction. by the vessels which trade from this Of all these, they readily acknowledge country and America. Those who deal the inefficiency. They view the pestiwith these traders, find it necessary to lence which destroyed their enemies, as understand their tongue; but beyond the their greatest friend ; and speak of it as necessities of commercial intercourse, an instrument in the hand of Omnipoit is but little known.

tence, appointed to seize their invaders With the state of morals, of which when they landed, and to conduct them we have spoken, we may connect through the hospital to the grave. the principles which seem to prevail. Between the territories of Boyer, and Among the higher orders, the mask of those of Christophe, there is no commuCatholic parade conceals the carcase nication. On each side jealousies preand the soul of Infidelity. They view vail; and an armed neutrality, borderreligion as a political regulation, and ing on fierceness, and nursing the spirit estimate its value on the ground of of determined warfare, characterize both expediency. They seem to have no parties. As enemies to the French, and particular predilection to any one sys- to every nation that would presume to tem, in preference to another, any fur- invade their dominions, their interests ther than the political interests of the are mutual; and, probably, an expedistate can be secured by it. Hence they tion from Europe, that should menace conceive the Catholic to be as well as any their liberties, would destroy their doother. Whether it be congenial to the mestic animosities; and ultimately renword of God, or hostile to it, is rarely der them essential service, by giving with them a point of inquiry; as they , unity to their designs, and concentraview both with the most perfect indiffe- tion to their power. At present, howrence, in relation to moral duty, and ever, they appear like rival nations, their connexion with an hereafter. ready to contend for exclusive empire,

In the lower ranks of society, it is which can only be established on the not so easy to determine, whether infi- annihilation of the vanquished. delity prevails or not. Thousands among Of the various events which take them never yet thought whether Chris- place in the dominions of each other, tianity were true or false. But this they know so little, that their intelliignorance generates superstition, in al- gence is frequently received through the most every form. With the whole family medium of America; and, in many inof good and bad luck,-with bugbear, stances, they obtain from the nations of omen, and presage,- they seem well ac- Europe, their knowledge of transactions quainted; and although the general mass which occur in the neighbouring dishave no fear of God before their eyes, tricts. Should this portentous spirit unthey have their imaginary terrors and happily generate an actual war, France their hopes.

will not be inattentive to the contest. Amidst this general delinquency of She will wait for a season, till they have character, one thing, however, is sin- wasted their blood, and drained their gularly remarkable.

In adverting to resources, in these conflicts of domestic the disadvantageous struggle between ambition; she will then seize the inausthemselves and the French, during that picious moment, throw her legions on eventful conflict which terminated in their shores, and, unless the elements their independence, they uniformly as again conspire to protect their liberties, cribe their deliverance to the interpo- will reduce them to the dominion of the sition of God. In arms, in military cowskin, under which the backs of their discipline, and in knowledge, they seem fathers smarted. Of these consequendeeply sensible, that they were vastly ces, many belonging to each party are inferior to their vanquished oppressors; not insensible; but, amidst the storms and although they far exceeded them in of ambition, their voices are but indispoint of number, they never consider tinctly heard. With existing facts, we this circumstance as the primary cause have some acquaintance; but those disof their triumph. Some among them tant issues, which lie buried in futurity, had been trained to arms, and had made / nothing but the lapse of time can develop.

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