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so much vanity, become nutriment for manity dietate, for a season, a suspenworms to feed upon!

sion of all active operations, until new “ A sight like this, must doubtless channels of employment shall be be termed Awful, unaccompanied by opened, and due preparations are any of those sensations which we ex- made for all the changes which the perience at beholding an object which effects of inventions may introduce. comes under the description of the It will readily be allowed, that if on Sublime. Many more instances might any occasion the interposition of be adduced to enforce the distinction, power could prevent an enlightened were I allowed a sufficient portion of and fortunate individual from enjoytime; but perhaps I have already in- ing the fruits of his ingenuity, no sticurred the imputation of arrogance, mulus would be held out to excite for complying with a request so genius to action. But to obviate this strongly urged last night.”

inconveniency, under given circumI do not offer any apology, Mr. stances, the State might amply reward Editor, for submitting this specimen of successful ingenuity; even while it the reflecting powers of an enlightened suspended for a season the operations female to your inspection, though fully of a power which would prove injurious, aware it was never intended to meet if not ruinous, to the artisan, the methe public eye; yet, should it so far chanic, the handicraft, and the labourmeet your approbation as to be in- ing classes of society. serted in your judicious publication, I It has been recorded as an historishall endeavour to draw forth different cal anecdote, that shortly after the art opinions from the same young lady; of printing was discovered, and was and beg leave to subscribe myself gaining an establishment among the Your sincere well-wisher,

nations of Europe, a Jew, who was a EDWARD T

famous Dutch printer, carried some London, Oct. 11, 1819.

presses, together with type, and the necessary apparatus, to Constantinople, intending to introduce printing into

that city. The Grand Vizier, however, CURIOUS INVENTION.

on being informed of his business and It is a point much disputed, whether design, ordered him immediately to be the numerous inventions, which fre- hanged; declaring that this would be a quently take place, tending to lessen the less act of cruelty, than if he should demand for manual labour, ought to permit one man to enrich himself, by be considered as a real advantage or taking away the bread from eleven disadvantage to the community in which thousand scribes, who gained their livthey are cherished.

When nations ing by their pens. are placed in competition with each We read in the gospel of St. John, other, as commercial rivals, there can chap. xix. 23. that when the soldiers be no doubt, that the advantages, in had crucified Jesus, they took his garpoint of trade, will be in favour of that ments, and made four parts, to every community, in which manual labour soldier a part; and also his coat: “ has been most supplanted by the con- the coat,” we are informed, was withtrivances of art. But unless the po- out seam, woven from the top throughpulation of the country so benefited, out.” Calmet in his Dictionary of the can find employment in other depart- Bible observes, that“ this passage has ments, the labouring poor may lan- set many a mechanical head at work to guish in poverty, and pine in want, invent a loom in which such an article while the nation at large listens with might be completed; and that a good complacency to the trumpet, which plate of one may be seen in Chamechoes with the sounds of its mecha- | bers' Encyclopedia.” Calmet has also nical skill and commercial fame. given a drawing of such a loom, with a

That the inventive powers of genius person working at it; but the apparashould be carefully cherished, is a tus by no means exhibits such marks point on which two opinions can of ingenuity as appear to be necessary scarcely be expected: but in cases to produce such an article as the folwhich will materially affect manu allowing :labour, and discharge on a sudden from employment large masses of the We have been informed that an incommunity; prudence, justice, and hu- 1 genious linen-weaver in Ireland, named



1 en



Thomas Hall, has contrived a machine bly struck, when I observed with what
in which he has woven a shirt, and industry the Meechgalingus* heaped
given it completion without either re- small stones together, to make secure
quiring a needle or introducing a seam. places for their spawn; and all this
The cloth of which it is made, is said | labour they did with their mouth and
to be very neatly and accurately ga- body, without hands!
thered at the neck, shoulders, and Astonished, as well as diverted, I
wrists; and, what seems still more re- lighted my pipe, sat awhile smoking
markable is, that the neck and wrist- and looking on, when presently a little
bands are doubled and stitched. On bird not far from me, raised a song,
each side of the breast he has intro- which enticed me to look that way;
duced a regular selvage, and the shoul- while I was trying to distinguish who
der-straps and gussets correspond with the songster was, and catch it with my
the wrists, being as neatly stitched eyes, its mate, with as much grass as
as if the stitching had been the work it could hold in its bill, passed close
of the most expert sempstress. This by me, and flew into a bush, where I
shirt is said to have been inspected perceived them together, busily em.
carefully by many gentlemen in the ployed in building their nests, and
linen trade; and, it is added, that all singing as their work went on.
of them are perfectly satisfied it is ex- tirely forgot that I was hunting, in
clusively the production of the loom.

order to contemplate the objects I had
before me.
I saw the birds in the air

, and the fishes in the water, working

diligently and cheerfully, and all this The Rev. John Heckewelder, of Beth- without hands. I thought it was lehem, published a history of the strange, and I became lost in wonder. manners and customs of the Indians of I looked at myself, and saw two long Pennsylvania, from which the follow- arms, provided with hands and fingers, ing Anecdote has been extracted, which and with joints that might be opened I think cannot but gratify your readers. and shut at pleasure. I could, when I

Seating myself once upon a log, by pleased, take up any thing with these the side of an Indian, who was rest- hands, hold it fast, or let it loose, and ing himself there, being at that time carry it along with me. actively employed in fencing in his walked, I observed, moreover, that I corn-field, I observed to him, that he had a strong body, capable of bearing must be very fond of working, as I fatigue, and supported by two stout never saw him idling away his time, as legs, with which I could climb to the is so common with the Indians. The top of the highest mountain, and deanswer he returned, made a very great scend at pleasure into the valleys. impression on my mind.

I have re

And is it possible, (said I,) that a membered it ever since, and I shall being so wonderfully formed as I am, try to relate it as nearly in his own was created to live in idleness; while words as possible.'

the birds, which have no hands, and noMy Friend,” said he,“ the fishes thing but their little bills to help them, in the water, and the birds in the air, work with cheerfulness, and without and on the earth, have taught me to being told to do so ? Has then the work:-by their examples, I have been great Creator of man, and of all living convinced of the necessity of labour creatures, given me all these limbs for and industry. When I was a young

no purpose? It cannot be: I will try man, I loitered about a good deal, do- to go to work. I did so, and went ing nothing, just like the other Indians, away from the village to a spot of good who say, that working is only for land; where I built a cabin, enclosed whites and negroes, and that the In- ground, sowed corn, and raised cattle

. dians have been ordained for other Ever since that time I have enjoyed a purposes, to hunt the deer, and catch good appetite, and sound sleep: while the beaver, otter, raccoon, and such the others spend their nights in danother animals. But it one day so hap- cing, and are suffering with hunger, I pened, that while hunting, I came to live in plenty ; I keep horses, cows, hogs, the bank of the Susquehannah, and and fowls. I am happy. See, my having sat myself down near the friend; the birds and fishes have water's edge to rest a little, and casting my eye on the water, I was forci

* The Sunfish.


When I


” which

brought me to reflection, and taught into Hell, (Magazine, No. 5.) which me to work !”

forms an article in the Creeds called A. W, K. the Apostles' and the Athanasian, I A. S

shall be obliged by your inserting the From the Baltimore Federal

following: Gazette, 29th July, 1819.

When the Christ is said to have de“ Thus man his sov'reign duty learns, in this

scended into Hell, it must not be sup“Material picture of reflection.”

posed, that the expression has any re

ference to the place of punishment. Observations on Possessive Cases. “Hell,” in these places, must be under

stood of that invisible world, to which TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

the souls of men depart, after they MAGAZINE, SIR,

quit the bodies to which they have The great variety of subscriptions to been united, and where they remain letters by your correspondents has led until the day of judgment. It is very me to the following remarks :

probable, that the doctrine of the All the different ways of spelling the Christ's descent into Hell, is taken plural possessive of the pronoun thou, which

St. Peter (Acts xi.) applies to

from that passage in the 16th Psalm, cannot be right; thus, yours, your's,

Jesus, “ Thou wilt not leave my soul yours'. The first is that given in our grammars.

in Hell;" i. e, as the Greek (the ori, . The adjective pronoun your admits of no variation of


ginal language) has it, in cea adns, and the nominative of your's is your.

Hades. Now this word “d

αδης.” If we are to follow the general rule of in our translation is rendered“ Hell,” forming the possessive case, it should and which occurs * eleven times in the be you's.

The possessive in use is New Testament, and is very frequently therefore irregular, and should be used in the Septuagint translation of spelled yours. The third mode, yours', the Old, never signifies the place to is still more exceptionable, because it which the wicked are to be consigned supposes (according to the rule for after the day of judgment, but either forming plural possessives) the nomi- simply the grave, when speaking of the native to be yours.

body, or the place appointed for the Again, there is as great variety in the common reception of departed souls, general forms of subscription, thus : in the intermediate time between death I am yours.— I am yours,8c.— I am, Sir, and the general resurrection.

αδης,” yours.-I am, Sir, yours,8c.--I am, Mr. i.e.“ a place unseen,” (derived from Editor, yours: and so forth. Yours, a, not, and idewv, to see,) might indeed must refer either to an antecedent or be used, without impropriety, to exa consequent, expressed or under press the place of punishment; for the stood. Generally, it refers to an an- places of punishment, and of reward, tecedent expressed. Thus, I am, dear are equally in “ądns,” i.e. in different friend, yours sincerely: i.e. your sin regions of it; but it is very observable, cere friend. Let us try the above ex- that when the writers of the New Tespressions. I am yours. Here there is tament speak of the place of punishno antecedent or consequent express- ment, they use + “

γεννα, ," ed, and therefore the phrase means times I

γεεννα τα πυρος :” added to nothing. Yours,&c. is still worse. I am, which, Homer, Hesiod, Plato, and Sir, yours, means, I am Sir, your Sir: other ancient Greek writers, use not &c. makes it more ridiculous. Mr. Editor, yours, means your Editor. what they considered the place of pu

“adns,” but “ Taglagos,” to express I am, Mr. Editor,

nishment for the wicked. It Your Correspondent,


then, that the word “ Hell,” which is Aberdeen, 21st Sept. 1819.

always understood by us of the place of punishment, is a very inaccurate

* Matt. xi. 23.-xvi. 18.—Luke x. 15.

xvi. 23.--Acts xi. 27 & 31.-1 Cor. xv. 55. Wells, Norfolk, Sept. 15, 1819. Rev. i. 18. vi. 8.-XX. 19. & 14. MR. EDITOR,

† Matt. v. 29 & 30.-X. 28.--xxiii. 15. & should have received no more 33.--Mark ix. 43. & 45.-Luke xii. 5.-- James satisfactory answer to “ A Searcher's” ii. 6. inquiry respecting the Christ's descent # Matt, v, 2.---xviii. 9.-Mark ix. 47.

” and some

I am,




If you


translation of the word fading;” and na; but, when only the state of the it is much to be lamented, that so im- dead in general is meant, it is always proper, at any rate so unequivocal, a expressed by the word Hades, which, word, should be used in our confession though it is rendered by the same of faith. Unlearned Christians can word, Hell, yet signifies only the input no other construction upon it, than visible state, or the state of the dead what they are continually hearing ap- in general. St. Peter, in the 2d chapplied to it from the pulpit; and even ter of the Acts of the Apostles, and too many, without doubt, far above the 27th and 31st verses, speaking of our common class, understand it in no Blessed Saviour's soul being not left other sense.

in Hell, uses this word.—In one of my If it be not going beyond the limits bibles, printed in the year 1599, it is which you allow to articles of this de- rendered the grave in both those passcription, I should wish to say a few sages; and it is extraordinary that so words in defence of the doctrine in obvious a translation should not have question. That the Christ“ descended been continued. into Hell,” is not indeed expressly as- I am, yours, &c.

CHRISTIANUS serted by any one of the Evangelists; Birmingham, Aug. 20, 1819. but they all relate, that He expired on the cross: as, then, there must have been a separation of his soul and body, as his soul could neither have been ex

QUEENSBERRY, tinct, nor in a dormant state, and as

Not generally known, and, as far as I it did not re-animate his body until the know, never before published.-W.L. third day, it must have been some- A labouring man, in one of the extenwhere during that interval ; and we sive breweries in London, happened may reasonably infer, that he “ de- by some accident to fall into a pan of scended into Hell ;" i. e. that his soul boiling liquor, and was not missed went to the common abode of spirits, until some of the workmen discovered who were waiting for the general re- something floating on the surface

, surrection : indeed, our Lord's address which, upon examination, proved to to the thief upon the cross, “ To-day be the fragments of a human body. thou shalt be with me in paradise, Search was instantly made, and the is no small proof of the truth of this bones of the unfortunate man were doctrine. Bishop. Tomline says, that found at the bottom of the pan, as this doctrine of the Christ's descent clean as if they had been scraped with into Hell, was first introduced into a knife. These being carefully colCreeds, for the purpose of declaring lected together, were conveyed home the actual separation between the soul to his disconsolate widow, then in an and body of our Lord, in opposition to advanced state of pregnancy. The those heretics, who asserted, that the shock was so great, that she was imcrucifixion produced only a trance, or mediately taken in labour, and deliverdeliquium, and that the Christ did not ed of twins, making in all a family of really suffer death. I am, Sir, thirteen, without any means of sup, Your obedient servant, port. A petition was drawn up, and

CLERICUS. presented to the Duke of Queensberry,

who then resided at one of his places

of abode on the banks of the Thames. On the Descent of Christ into Hell.

His Grace being struck with the me

lancholy circumstance, seemed to peMAGAZINE.

ruse the paper with deep attention;

and, with tears in his eyes, calling for In reply to the inquiry of your corre- pen and ink, subscribed his name for spondent, A Searcher, respecting the One Thousand Pounds! Such an inmeaning of the word Hell, in the stance of almost unparalleled generoApostles' Creed, and that of St. Athan-sity, was soon followed by handsome asius, he may rest perfectly assured, subscriptions from others: a committhat it does not mean there, the place tee was formed; the widow received a appointed for the final punishment of decent allowance for life ; the children the wicked. Whenever that is spoken were well educated; and, at the death of in the New Testament, the word of the mother, the remaining money Hell in the original, is always Gehen was equally divided among them,




them. Now, as all the strata were [Continued from col. 780.]

produced by separate successive depo

sitions, it is manifest, that the shells Of all the rocks which I have men- which are found in any particular strationed, the granite is the most ancient; tum must have belonged to the fishes it is therefore the foundation of the which existed when that particular rest. But although it lies beneath stratum was deposited. It is equally every other rock, its summit towers evident, that the shells, or bones of above them all. The second rock rests quadrupeds, which are found in any on the first, the third on the second, particular alluvial soil, must have bethe fourth on the third, and so on. longed to the fishes which inhabited Almost all of the primitive, the tran- the water, or to the quadrupeds which sition, and the flætz rocks, are strati- lived on the earth, at the period when fied. A rock is said to be stratified, the deluge which destroyed them hapwhen it is divided by parallel seams pened. We are thus enabled to ascerinto masses, of which the length and tain the precise order in which all breadth are much greater than the these animals have existed, and conthickness. These extended, or tabu- sequently the precise order in which lar masses, are called strata. In the they were created. By a careful exmore ancient formations, they are from amination of the earth's contents, we four to six feet in thickness; but in are enabled to settle that most importthe more recent, their thickness is less ant question: whether Moses was diconsiderable. The strata of the primi- vinely inspired, or whether he was an tive and transition rocks are either artful, though an ignorant, impostor? vertical or inclined. In the flætz, they In almost every part of Europe, and are horizontal, as the name implies. in several parts of America, the strata Cuvier thinks, that all strata must ori- of the earth have now been explored ginally have been formed in a horizon- with more or less accuracy. But in tal position, and that the vertical and Germany, France, and England, they inclined strata have been thrust up at have been subjected to the most carea subsequent period by some violent ful investigation, the most elaborate : commotion. Jameson thinks, that they research, and the most rigid scrutiny:

were formed in their present situation; in Germany, by the immortal Werner; but, with due deference, I must say, in France, by the illustrious Cuvier; that the former opinion appears most in England, by the indefatigable Farey probable. All the rocky strata were and the ingenious Parkinson.-The formed separately, by regular succes- result has been, that wherever an sive depositions. They were formed accurate knowledge of facts could be in the bosom of the ocean; and it ap- | obtained; the most exact agreement pears, that in general they were pro- between the words of Moses and the duced by a calm and gradual operation. phænomena of nature was discovered. In a few cases, however, there appears -Hallelujah! to have been a sudden rising and a O ye, who, ignorant of all sciences violent swelling of the waters; and in save only the knowledge of Christ, one or two instances, formations seem have believed the Bible in the simplito have originated from fresh water. city of your hearts, how must ye glow The alluvial rocks, or rather, the allu- with holy rapture, on being inforined vial soils, were formed, not in the of an event like this! ye required no ocean, but on dry land. They have other proof than the still small voice generally been produced by sudden of the enlightening Spirit: yet, meand violent inundations, sometimes of thinks it must be grateful to you to the sea, sometimes of rivers.

reflect, that philosophy laih deinon*Almost all the transition and flætz strated wbat faith admitted. strata, and almost all the allavial soils, We learn from the observations of abound with shells in a petrified state; Farey and of Parkinson, that in the and the bones of animals, in a state of lowest sti atum, in which fossil shellst petrifaction, are found in some of are found, coal is also discovered.

* The primitive rocks contain nu organic application of this fuct; for the coal wbich remains.

Werner found is not a vegetable production, + I am informed by an eminent Mineralogist, but is evidentiy a wweral substance. If this that Parkinson has committed a mistake in the I be true, we are certainly deprived of m

No. 9,--VOL. I.


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