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838 The light which thus shone with all things. When first he attempted clearness, was diligently followed. to escape out of Egypt, he calculated The truths of the gospel were, by the on the perils of the wilderness, and dear departed, received not merely as being determined to brave them, like subjects on which he might occasion- another Caleb, “ followed the Lord ally speculate for the purposes of fully.” He had learned to distinguish amusement ; they regulated the in- between the things which are seen, ductions of his mind, the decisions of and temporal; and those which are his conscience, and were brought to not seen, nd eternal. He then endeabear with all their sacred energies on voured to pursue them according to the movements of his affections. The their appropriate value. Thus, " for result was, a deep and lasting con- the joy that was set before him, he enviction of the total depravity of his na- dured the cross ;" “choosing rather to ture, and of the absolute necessity of a suffer affliction with the people of God, personal and saving interest in the than enjoy the pleasures of sin for a atonement. This he perceived was season; having respect to the recomthe only method by which he might pense of the reward.” And when in escape from guilt and pollution, and the midst of difficulties, he ever found secure a meetness for an inheritance
“the living spring amongst the saints in light. Hence,
Of joys, divinely sweet, and ever new, the sincere and ardent language of his
A peaceful conscience, and a smiling heaven.” soul now was,
“ God be merciful to In the course of the summer, (the me, a sinner !”
exact time is not known,) Mr. S. reWhat a noble object is presented to ceived much spiritual comfort and enthe view, when we contemplate a young couragement, while hearing Mr.Stokes, man, surrounded by the fascinating from John viii. 36: “If the Son, thereallurements of the world, possessed of fore, shall make you free, ye shall be every possible means of gratification, free indeed.” His mind was now reand kept in countenance by general lieved from a burden of guilt and unexample, breaking through every en- belief, and he enjoyed a happy meachantment; buffeting the violence of sure of that sweet and solid peace, temptation, and manfully repelling, which springs from a humble heartboth the treacherous smile, and lowr- felt appropriation of the pardoning ing frown, of an ungodly world. One mercy of God in Christ Jesus. The might be ready to think, that such a word, the ways, the house, and the person would command esteem and people, of God, were now his delight; love from all who had the happiness of and from this memorable time, he his acquaintance. But ah! ye fol- walked under the light of the Divine lowers of the despised Nazarene, countenance. “ marvel not if the world hate you.' Early in the following spring, (1814,) The carnal mind is still enmity against our dear friend was admitted a welGod; and, as a natural consequence, come member into the Dissenting “ all who will live godly in Christ Church at Stratford. In this important Jesus, must suffer persecution.” The step, his eye was single. Humbly detrials of this nature with which Mr. S. siring in all things to adorn the dochad to contend, were painful and se- trine of God his Saviour, he felt it vere: but the grace of God was suffi- his duty to avail himself of all the spieient for him; and he was enabled, in ritual helps which a kind Providence the midst of opposition, to pursue his had afforded; nor could he ever supway with cheerful patience and chris- pose for a moment, that the mere cirtian fortitude. Often would he speak cumstance, of these helps being withof persecution as the portion of God's out the walls of the Establishment, children; and remark, it was enough could either deprive them of their effithat the servant be as his Master, and cacy, or justfy him in the neglect of the disciple as his Lord. He had sat them. Yet he invariably evidenced a down and deliberately counted the spirit of meekness, forbearance, and cost: he saw it was through much tri- love, towards others. Claiming for bulation he must enter the kingdom. himself liberty of conscience, he wished But none of these things moved him; every man to enjoy and exercise the the excellency of the knowledge of same undoubted right. Where love Christ Jesus his Lord, reconciled him to the Saviour was manifestly the preto arising consequences, and the loss of vailing principle of the heart, names
and party distinctions had with him | black and white. Though our families but little weight. He could feelingly had long been in the greatest intimacy, and consistently adopt the Apostle's yet not having been more than three prayer: “ Peace be upon all them that or four times in her company, I had love the Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity.” the utmost difficulty in persuading her
About this time, Mr. S. received an at once to oblige and gratify me, by expostulatory letter from a minister of leaving her definition with my sister, as the Establishment. This was occasioned I was under the necessity of leaving by his seceding from the national the neighbourhood at an early hour church. His own reply will best de- on the following day. velop his views and principles.
Upon entering the breakfast-room [To be continued.]
on the following morning, I perceived
a letter in an elegant female hand, Distinction between Awful and Sublime. addressed to me ; and when I reflected
upon the short time which had been TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL allowed the fair reasoner to define
the distinction, it convinced me that SIR,
her mind must possess great capaAllow me to inform you, that I have bility; and being an enemy to those not only perused your recently pub- who wish to degrade the intellectual lished work with sensations of plea- powers of females, I offer it to your sure, but with a mixture of improve- inspection in the same form it was ment and delight, particularly so, from presented to me. finding you admit Queries, which I consider one of the most rational A casual definition of the Distinction be
tween the terms AWFUL and SUBLIME. sources of instruction to the human mind.
“ When I contemplate the starry Having passed, a short time since, Firmament, that admirable scene of (what I considered) a rational evening, wonder, and reflect upon the brilliant where Biography, History, and Anec- splendour of those myriads of headote, took precedence of that propen- venly bodies which illuminate its way, sity to scandal, so ungenerously sup- (with the particular 'nature of which, posed to prevail amongst a female we are but imperfectly acquainted,)my party, a brother officer of mine, (though soul is impressed with ideas of its there were only two gentlemen to six sublimity, and yields to sensations of ladies,) after expatiating upon synony- admiration and delight! yet my feelmous expressions, asserted that Awful ings are unmixed with awe: no dread and Sublime were inseparable, though pervades them. My Creator, in this not synonymous.
stupendous work, manifests Himself in One young lady in particular, to effulgent beauty, and fills my heart whose sentiments I had listened with with sensations of wonder, admiration, pleasure throughout the whole even- and delight! I am raised, as it were, ing, modestly, yet decidedly, asserted to a communion with heavenly spirits; she thought they differed in an emi- and this lower world, with all its pleanent degree.
sures, pains, and follies, seems to vaA servant at the same moment an- nish from my sight! nouncing supper upon the table, de- “ But how different are my emotions prived me of an intellectual, by substi- at the bare idea of Death! Terrible tuting a corporeal regale; but as it was in its approach, Awful in its consemy good fortune to be seated by this quences; dread must fair caviller for proper distinctions, I concomitant, yet unaccompanied by conjured her to indulge me with that that grandeur to which our ideas of definition she was going to give the sublimity are attached. His unerring company, when so unseasonable an stroke dissolves the union of soul and interruption took place. The mistress body, and ushers us into the presence of the mansion, however, having re- of the great Creator of the world, to quested one of the ladies to sing, har- receive that fiat which our deeds demony superseded conversation for that serve! His fatal shaft severs the night; but upon accompanying my fair bonds of affection, and separates the friend to the place of her destination, ties of blood, consigning our perishI entreated her to indulge me with her able frames to moulder in the dust
, definition of the two expressions in whilst those forms which give rise to
ever be its 841
so much vanity, become nutriment for manity dietate, for a season, a suspenworms to feed upon!
sion of all active operations, until new A sight like this, must doubtless channels of employment shall be be termed Awful, unaccompanied by opened, and due preparations are any of those sensations which we ex- made for all the changes which the perience at beholding an object which effects of inventions may introduce. comes under the description of the It will readily be allowed, that if on Sublime. Many more instances might any occasion the interposition of be adduced to enforce the distinction, power could prevent an enlightened were I allowed a sufficient portion of and fortunate individual from enjoytime; but perhaps I have already in- ing the fruits of his ingenuity, no sticurred the imputation of arrogance, mulus would be held out to excite for complying with a request so genius to action. But to obviate this strongly urged last night.”
inconveniency, under given circumI do not offer any apology, Mr. stances, the State might amply reward Editor, for submitting this specimen of successful ingenuity ; even while it the reflecting powers of an enlightened suspended for a season the operations female to your inspection, though fully of a power which would prove injurious, aware it was never intended to meet if not ruinous, to the artisan, the methe public eye; yet, should it so far chanic, the handicraft, and the labourmeet your approbation as to be in- ing classes of society. serted in your judicious publication, I It has been recorded as an historishall endeavour to draw forth different cal anecdote, that shortly after the art opinions from the same young lady; of printing was discovered, and was and beg leave to subscribe myself gaining an establishment among the Your sincere well-wisher, nations of Europe, a Jew, who was a EDWARD T
famous Dutch printer, carried some London, Oct. 11, 1819.
presses, together with type, and the necessary apparatus, to Constantinople, intending to introduce printing into that city. The Grand Vizier, however,
on being informed of his business and It is a point much disputed, whether design, ordered him immediately to be the numerous inventions, which fre- hanged; declaring that this would be a quently take place, tending to lessen the less act of cruelty, than if he should demand for manual labour, ought to permit one man to enrich himself, by be considered as a real advantage or taking away the bread from eleven disadvantage to the community in which thousand scribes, who gained their livthey are cherished. When nations ing by their pens. are placed in competition with each
We read in the gospel of St. John, other, as commercial rivals, there can chap. xix. 23. that when the soldiers be no doubt, that the advantages, in had crucified Jesus, they took his garpoint of trade, will be in favour of that ments, and made four parts, to every community, in which manual labour soldier a part; and also his coat: has been most supplanted by the con- the coat,” we are informed, was withtrivances of art. But unless the po- out seam, woven from the top throughpulation of the country so benefited, out.” Calmet in his Dictionary of the can find employment in other depart- Bible observes, that“ this passage has ments, the labouring poor may lan- set many a mechanical head at work to guish in poverty, and pine in want, invent a loom in which such an article while the nation at large listens with might be completed; and that a good complacency to the trumpet, which plate of one may be seen in Chamechoes with the sounds of its mecha- bers' Encyclopedia.” Calmet has also nical skill and commercial fame. given a drawing of such a loom, with a
That the inventive powers of genius person working at it; but the apparashould be carefully cherished, is a tus by no means exhibits such marks point on which two opinions can of ingenuity as appear to be necessary scarcely be expected: but in cases to produce such an article as the foiwhich will materially affect manual lowing :labour, and discharge on a sudden from employment large masses of the We have been informed that an incommunity; prudence, justice, and hu- / genious linen-weaver in Ireland, named
A SHIRT WITHOUT A SEAM.
Thomas Hall, has contrived a machine | bly struck, when I observed with what in which he has woven a shirt, and industry the Meechgalingus* heaped given it completion without either re- small stones together, to make secure quiring a needle or introducing a seam. places for their spawn; and all this The cloth of which it is made, is said labour they did with their mouth and to be very neatly and accurately ga- body, without hands! thered at the neck, shoulders, and Astonished, as well as diverted, I wrists; and, what seems still more re- lighted my pipe, sat awhile smoking markable is, that the neck and wrist- and looking on, when presently a little bands are doubled and stitched. On bird not far from me, raised a song, each side of the breast he has intro- which enticed me to look that way; duced a regular selvage, and the should while I was trying to distinguish who der-straps and gussets correspond with the songster was, and catch it with my the wrists, being as neatly stitched eyes, its mate, with as much grass as as if the stitching had been the work it could hold in its bill, passed close of the most expert sempstress. This by me, and flew into a bush, where I shirt is said to have been inspected perceived them together, busily emcarefully by many gentlemen in the ployed in building their nests, and linen trade; and, it is added, that all singing as their work went on. of them are perfectly satisfied it is ex- tirely forgot that I was hunting, in clusively the production of the loom.
order to contemplate the objects I had before me.
I saw the birds in the air, and the fishes in the water, working
diligently and cheerfully, and all this The Rev. John Heckewelder, of Beth-without hands. I thought it was lehem, published a history of the strange, and I became lost in wonder, manners and customs of the Indians of I looked at myself, and saw two long Pennsylvania, from which the follow- arms, provided with hands and fingers, ing Anecdote has been extracted, which and with joints that might be opened I think cannot but gratify your readers. and shut at pleasure. I could, when I
Seating myself once upon a log, by pleased, take up any thing with these the side of an Indian, who was rest- hands, hold it fast, or let it loose, and ing himself there, being at that time carry it along with me. When I actively employed in fencing in his walked, I observed, moreover, that I corn-field, I observed to him, that he had a strong body, capable of bearing must be very fond of working, as I fatigue, and supported by two stout never saw him idling away his time, as legs, with which I could climb to the is so common with the Indians. The top of the highest mountain, and deanswer he returned, made a very great scend at pleasure into the valleys. impression on my mind.
I have re
“ And is it possible, (said 1,) that a membered it ever since, and I shall being so wonderfully formed as I am, try to relate it as nearly in his own was created to live in idleness; words as possible.'
the birds, which have no hands, and noMy Friend,” said he, “ the fishes thing but their little bills to help them, in the water, and the birds in the air, work with cheerfulness, and without and on the earth, have taught me to being told to do so ? Has then the work:-by their examples, I have been great Creator of man, and of all living convinced of the necessity of labour creatures, given me all these limbs for and industry. When I was a young no purpose? It cannot be: I will try man, I loitered about a good deal, do- to go to work. I did so, and went ing nothing, just like the other Indians, away from the village to a spot of good who say, that working is only for land; where I built a cabin, enclosed whites and negroes, and that the In- ground, sowed corn, and raised cattle. dians have been ordained for other Ever since that time I have enjoyed a purposes, to hunt the deer, and catch good appetite, and sound sleep: while the beaver, otter, raccoon, and such the others spend their nights in dan. other animals. But it one day so hap- cing, and are suffering with hunger, I pened, that while hunting, I came to live in plenty; I keep horses, cows,hogs, the bank of the Susquehannah, and and fowls. I am happy. See, my having sat myself down near the friend; the birds and fishes have water's edge to rest a little, and casting my eye on the water, I was forci
* The Sunfish.
845 On Possessive Cases.- Descent of Christ into Hell. 846 brought me to reflection, and taught | into Hell, (Magazine, No. 5.) which me to work !”
forms an article in the Creeds called A. W, K. the Apostles' and the Athanasian, I A. S
shall be obliged by your inserting the From the Baltimore Federal
following: Gazette, 29th July, 1819.
When the Christ is said to have de« Thus man his sov'reign duty learns, in this
scended into Hell, it must not be sup“ Material picture of reflection.”
posed, that the expression has any re
ference to the place of punishment. Observations on Possessive Cases. Hell,” in these places, must be under
stood of that invisible world, to which TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
the souls of men depart, after they MAGAZINE. SIR,
quit the bodies to which they have The great variety of subscriptions to been united, and where they remain letters by your correspondents has led until the day of judgment. It is very me to the following remarks :
probable, that the doctrine of the All the different ways of spelling the Christ's descent into Hell, is taken plural possessive of the pronoun thou, from that passage in the 16th Psalm, cannot be right; thus, yours, your's, which St. Peter (Acts xi.) applies to yours'. The first is that given in our
Jesus, “ Thou wilt not leave my soul grammars.
in Hell;" i.e, as the Greek (the oriThe adjective pronoun your admits of no variation of case; | ginal language) has it, in “*
adms," and the nominative of your's is your. Hades. Now this word “ądns,” which If we are to follow the general rule of in our translation is rendered “ Hell,” forming the possessive case, it should and which occurs * eleven times in the be you's. The possessive in use is New Testament, and is very frequently therefore irregular, and should be used in the Septuagint translation of spelled yours. The third mode, yours', the Old, never signifies the place to is still more exceptionable, because it which the wicked are to be consigned supposes (according to the rule for after the day of judgment, but either forming plural possessives) the nomi- simply the grave, when speaking of the native to be yours.
body, or the place appointed for the Again, there is as great variety in the common reception of departed souls, general forms of subscription, thus : , in the intermediate time between death I am yours.- I am yours, &c.—Iam, Sir, and the general resurrection.
qons," yours.-I am, Sir, yours, fc.- I am, Mr. i.e.“ a place unseen,” (derived' from Editor, yours: and so forth. Yours, a, not, and ideov, to see,) might indeed must refer either to an antecedent or be used, without impropriety, to exa consequent, expressed or under press the place of punishment; for the stood. Generally, it refers to an an- places of punishment, and of reward, tecedent expressed. Thus, I am, dear are equally in “ądns," i. e. in different friend, yours sincerely: i.e. your sin regions of it; but it is very observable, cere friend. Let us try the above ex- that when the writers of the New Tespressions. I am yours. Here there is tament speak of the place of punishno antecedent or consequent express- ment, they use † “ yeerva," and someed, and therefore the phrase means times I " yeEva T8 Tugos:” added to nothing. Yours,&c. is still worse. I am, which, Homer, Hesiod, Plato, and Sir, yours, means, I am Sir, your Sir: other 'ancient Greek writers, use not &c.' makes it more ridiculous. Mr. Editor, yours, means your Editor. what they considered the place of pu
adns,” but “ Taglagos,” to express I am, Mr. Editor,
nishment for the wicked. Your Correspondent,
then, that the word “ Hell,” which is Aberdeen, 21st Sept. 1819.
always understood by us of the place of punishment, is a very inaccurate
* Matt. xi. 23.-xvi. 18.—Luke x. 15.
xvi. 23.-Acts xi. 27 & 31.-1 Cor. xv. 55.Wells, Norfolk, Sept. 15, 1819.
Rev. i. 18.-di. 8.-XX. 13. & 14. MR. EDITOR,
† Matt. v. 29 & 30.-X. 28.--xxiji. 15. & you
should have received no more 33.–Mark ix. 43. & 45.—Luke xii. 5.-James satisfactory answer to “ A Searcher's” ü. 6. inquiry respecting the Christ's descent # Matt, v. 2.---xviii, 9.-Mark ix. 47.
ON THE DESCENT OF CHRIST INTO