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before him : he then entered the pre- by his Almighty Maker and God, be sence chamber, where his two crosses used? Why Divines make choice of were in waiting, and a numerous this method of description, I cannot levee of noblemen. The gentlemen imagine; but hoping that you will inushers exclaimed, “On, masters, be- form me, if any reason can be given in fore, and make room for my lord !!!” its defence, I remain your's, who descended into the hall, preceded

A CONSTANT READER. by a serjeant at arms with a silver mace, and two ge men with silver plates; his mule covered with crimson velvet waited for him at the door of his palace; and being mounted, he When these short-lived beauties, followed his two crosses and two pil. fade, place them in a vessel contain

which decorate our rooms, begin to lars, carried by persons on horseback, and was himself surrounded by four ing scalding hot water, covering about footmen, armed with pole-axes, and

one third part of their stems, where a considerable number of gentlemen they must remain until the water bas of various ranks.

grown cold. By this time, the leaves, Malcolm's Anecdotes.

that had appeared drooping and languishing but just before, will have recovered their freshness, and will stand

erect. In this state take them from Observations on Death.

the vessel, and after cutting off so much of the stems as had been injured

by the heat, place the flowers again in SIR,

fresh cold water, where for a considerI have often been struck with the man- able time they will retain their renoner in which Death is set forth by the vated virtues. Ministers or Clergymen of the present day,—described as a King of Terrors, which, with other personalities, such

Anecdote of her late Majesty. as cruel, relentless, tyrannizing with resistless sway, &c. would lead one to

MR. EDITOR, suppose, that there certainly is a being SIR, -Amongst the many benevolent whose business it is to hurl the darts of acts of the late Queen Charlotte, the disease, and to bring poor mortals following is known but to very few. It home. But as no thinking person can was communicated to me by a member suppose this to be the case, I should of the family benefited by royal municonceive it would be highly advan- ficence.tageous to reason and religion, to give About six-and-twenty years ago, a up this method of description, and distinguished merchant, in the city of have recourse to one more consonant London, became a bankrupt, through to truth and scripture.

the failure of several houses in GerAs death is the dissolution of our many, with which he was extensively compound nature, the separation of connected. His wife, an amiable and soul and body,—the spirit which accomplished woman, was known to God gave, takes its flight to the re- have employed her time and talents in gions of immortality, and its earthly educating a very numerous family, tabernacle is left to moulder in the which she continued to do with even dust. Would it not then be more increased exertion after their circumcongenial to truth and reason, in our stances were reduced. This became descriptions of death, to say that the known to the Queen by general report; voice of our God had gone forth, say- and having duly ascertained the fact, ing, “ Set thy house in order, for thou her Majesty settled four hundred shalt die, and not live.”-“ Dust thou pounds a year on this excellent wife art, and unto dust shalt thou return!” and mother, which sum was regularly

Why should the power which God paid till the time of her decease. But asserts, in commanding his guilty the Queen did not feel that even by creatures to the bar of his justice, be this liberal grant she had sufficiently called tyranny? or, why should so shewn her approbation of domestic many unseemly epithets in describing virtue: she interested the king, in fathe call of a frail mortal into eternity, Ivour of the family; and he gave apa

Information by Signs.

830 pointments to the sons as they grew “ One can hardly imagine the reup, from which they advanced them- spect, civility, and serious modesty, selves by their very superior talents. that is used among them (the Eastern Sir,

Ladies) whenever they are visited by Your obedient Servant, any one, as I have been informed by W. M. CRAIG. some ladies of the Franks, who have

been with several. No nuns or no

vices pay more deference to their abINFORMATION BY SIGNS.

bess or superior, than the maid slaves AMONG the many differences between to their mistresses; they are waited on, our own customs and those of the as are likewise their female visitors, Orientals, few are more distinct than with a surprising order and diligence, the opinions adopted by each, on the even at the least wink of the eye, or momodes of conveying ideas. Accustom-tion of the fingers, and that in a maned to the free intercourse of conversa- ner not perceptible to strangers.”—Motion, to the expression by words, of TRAYE, vol. I. 249. our thoughts as they rise within us, we Nobody appears on horseback but relate every thing verbatim; and ex- theGrand Seignior, in the second court, cept a sentiment be openly convey- and they observe so respectful a silence, ed by speech, we attribute no blame not only in the palace, when the Grand to those who do not regard or under-Seignior is in it, but in the court-yards, stand it. On the same principle, the (notwithstanding the number of people orders we give to our servants are di- who come there, especially into the rected to them in words, and accord- first, where, generally, a number of ing to our words we expect their obe- servants wait for their masters, who dience: but the case is altogether dif- are either at the Divan, or in some other ferent in the East; gravity and silence, part of the Seraglio), that, if a blind especially before superiors, are there man should come in there, and he did so highly esteemed as denoting re- not know that the most COURTLY way of spect, that many of the most im- speaking among the Turks, is in a low portant orders which a master can voice, and by signs, like mutes, which give, or a servant receive, are commu- are generally understood by them, he nicated in profound silence. This would believe it uninhabited. And I have mode of behaviour is the basis of the heard them say, in reference to other representation adopted in the 123d nations, that two Franks, talking merePsalm, which, as it is but short, is here ly of trifles, make much more noise inserted entire:

than a hundred Turks in treating of A SONG OF DEGREES.

affairs of consequence, in making a 1 Unto thee lift I up mine eyes, O thou that bargain ; and they add, in speaking dwellest in the heavens !

against our manner of saluting, by % Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto pulling off our hats, and drawing our the hand of their masters,

feet backward, that we seemed as if As the eyes of a maiden to the hand of her mistress :

we were driving away the flies, and So our eyes wait upon the Lord our God, wiping our shoes; and they extol' their until that he have mercy upon us.

custom of putting their right-hand up3 Have mercy upon us, O LORD! have mercy

on their breast, and bowing a little,

as much more natural and reasonable. For we are exceedingly filled with contempt. When they salute a superior, they 4 Our soul is exceedingly filled with the scorn- take the bottom of his caftan, or vest, ing of those who are at ease,

that hangs down to his ankle, and And with the contempt of the proud! bending down, they lift it about two

An illustration of this part of scrip- feet, and kiss it.-MoTraye, Vol. I. ture, more happy than the following, p. 170. can hardly be expected. I know, in- BARON DU Tott gives the following deed, that some have supposed the remarkable instance of the authority chastening hand of the master, or mis- attending this mode of commanding, tress, to be that to which the servant and of the use of significant motions : attends; but it should be noted, that “ The customary ceremonies on these the Psalmist is not complaining to the occasions were over, and Rocab (the person who chastises him, but of the new Vizier) continued to discourse facontempt and scorn, not strictly per- miliarly with the ambassador, when secution, of the proud, &c.

the Muzur-Aga, (or High Provos i

upon us !

coming into the hall, and approaching they did little or nothing more than the Pacha, whispered something in what was done every day, in the his ear; and we observed that all the countries where they resided. Action, answer he received from him was a

as a system of indication, was familiar slight horizontal motion with his hand; to the spectators; and though calcuafter which, the Vizier, instantly re- lated to excite their curiosity and atsuming an agreeable smile, continued tention, yet it was not, by its novelty the conversation for some time longer. and singularity, either beyond their We then left the hall of audience, and understanding, or beside their applicacame to the foot of the great staircase, tion of it to themselves, or to circumwhere we remounted our horses; here, stances; nor did it seem crazy to them, rine heads cut off, and placed in a row as it might to us, who are not accuson the outside of the first gate, com- tomed to such a mode of communipletely explained the sign which the cating ideas. Vizier had made use of in our pre- When Isaiah says, he and his chilsence.”—Vol I. page 30.

dren are for signs ;-—when Jeremiah These extracts prove, that not only found his girdle marred, as a sign ; in private and domestic concerns, but when Ezekiel was a sign to the people, also in those of public importance, on in not mourning for the dead, chap. occasions of life or death, inferiors in xx. iv. in his removing into captivity

, the East do actually“ look to the hands and digging through the wall, chap. of their superiors,” and receive orders xii.- these and similar actions, were from them. The Orientals have even not only well understood, but they had a kind of language for the fingers, and, the advantage of being in ordinary use by various positions of them, they give among the people to whom they were silent orders to their domestics, who addressed.—Calmet's Dictionary of the are watching to receive them.

Bible, Fragments first Hundred, No. But this article has an aspect still xxix. more important, on a usage frequently alluded to in scripture, and regarded as nothing uncommon, although it ap

ANSWER TO A QUERY, pears strange to us.

No account of In our Number for September, col. any such attendants on the court of 669, a question was inserted, to which Judea, as dumb men, or mutes, occurs we flatter ourselves the following reply in scripture, but it is certain that the will be deemed satisfactory. Grand Seignior has a number of such persons ; “ who,” says Knolles, p. MR. Editor, 1487. “ will understand any thing If you think the following letter writthat shall be acted unto them by signs ten by Dr. Johnson, which contains an and gestures; and will themselves, by account of the Authors of the different the gestures of their eyes, bodies, parts of the Ancient Universal History, hands, and feet, deliver matters of great worthy of insertion in the Imperial difficulty, to the great admiration of Magazine, it is at your service. strangers.'

I am, yours, &c. From these and similar accounts, Hebden Bridge, near

W.V. taken together, it may be inferred, Halifax. that language by signs forms a common and ordinary manner of directing

A Letter from Dr. Johnson, dated in the East; that the most difficult

Dec. 6th, 1784. matters are thus related; and very “ The late learned Mr. Swinton of probably by means of the mutes, (in Oxford, having one day remarked, the Turkish Seraglio, especially,) mat- that one man (meaning, I suppose, no ters not always of the most agreeable man but himself) could assign all the nature, are communicated to person- parts of the Ancient Universal Hisages whom they immediately concern, tory to their proper Authors; at the although they fill the most important request of Sir Robt. Chambers, stations.

myself, gave the account which, I now The result of the whole is, that when transmit to you in his own hand, being the Prophets under the Old Testa- willing that of so great a work the ment, were divinely directed to act a history should be known, and that portion of the information they had in each writer should receive his due charge to communicate to the people, I proportion of praise from posterity.

or of

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8:33 Reply to a Query, &c.—Query on Electricity. 834 I recommend to you to preserve this | let them also remember the scarcity scrap of literary intelligence in Mr. of trees in general, (as your inquirer Swinton's own hand, or to deposit it R. observed,) and certainly of the in the Museum, that the veracity of greater scarcity of the vegetable lothis account may never be doubted. cust in particular. Isaiah seems to imI am, Sir,

ply the great paucity of trees in the Your most humble servant, deserts, in chap. xli. 19; “I will plant

SAML, JOHNSON. in the wilderness the cedar, the shittah“ The History of the Carthaginians, tree, and the myrtle, and the oil-tree; Numidians, Mauritanians, Gaetulians, I will set in the desart the fir-tree, and Garamantes, Melanogaetuli, Nigritae, the pine, and the box-tree together.” Cyranaica, Marmarica, the Regio Syr

I am, &c.

AdoleSCENS. tica, Turks, Tartars, and Moguls, In- This short reply has given rise to dians, Chinese, Dissertation on the another Query, which I should be very peopling of America, Dissertation on glad to have answered by any of your the Independency of the Arabs, by Mr. able correspondents. Goldsmith says, Swinton. The Cosmogony and a small when speaking of the animal locust, part of the History immediately fol- They are caught in small nets prolowing, by Mr. Sale. To the birth of vided for that purpose. They (the Abraham chiefly by Mr. Shelvock. Oriental nations) parch them over the History of the Jews, Gauls, Spaniards, fire in an earthen pan; and when their and Xenophon's retreat, by Mr. Psal- wings and legs have fallen off, they manazar. History of the Persian and turn reddish, of the colour of boiled Constantinopolitan Empire, by Dr. shrimps. The natives of Barbary also Campbell. History of the Romans, eat them fried with salt, and they are by Mr. Bower.”

said to taste like cray-fish.' Did John The original of the above letter, eat them thus prepared or not? how agreeably to Dr. Johnson's desire, is had he the means of dressing them ? deposited in the British Museum. It and are there any at the present time, was also printed at the time it was who eat them unprepared ?-are they sent, by the Dr.'s express desire, in the then palatable ? Gentleman's Magazine, fol. 54, p. 892. --See the Literary Anecdotes of the 18th Century, fol. 2, page 553, by J. Nichols.


What is the reason of the frequent REPLY TO A QUERY, ETC.

use of“ Glory be to the, &c." and, “ As

it was in the Beginning, &c.” in the Reply to a Query on the Food of John the Church service? and is it not frequently Baptist, inserted No. 7, col. 667.

very inapplicable ? MR. Editor,

ADOLESCENS. Sir,-In endeavouring to reply to your querist' R. I shall do it as briefly as possible.-Both the vegetable and ani

Query on Electricity. mal locust are eatable; only I believe

MR. EDITOR, the latter to be in more general Dr. Priestley, in his work on Electriuse, it being light and easy of diges- city, Vol. II. page 26. under the artion. It appears from Scripture, that, ticle “Queries and Hints to promote under the Mosaic dispensation, ani- farther discoveries in Electricity,” says, mal was in more general use than ve

“ Dr. Franklin observed, that iron getable food, and in Lev. xi. 22, the was corroded by being exposed to reanimal locust is expressly mentioned. peated electric sparks. Must not this “ Even these, of them ye may eat, the have been effected by some acid ? locust after his kind;" while the word of What other marks are there of an God is comparatively silent on vege- acid in the electric fluid ? May not its table food. They on the vegetable phosphoreal smell be reckoned one?” side of the question assert, that honey I do not think that there has been any is deposited in trees; and, says Dr. reply made to the above: if there has, A. Clarke,

more particularly in the you will oblige me by the information; vegetable locust.' I allow it; but let if not, the opinion of your corresponda me remind my friends, that it is also ents would be much esteemed. deposited in rocks, see Deut, xxxii.13.;

Ελεκτρονο No. 9.--VoL, I.

3 H





Memoir of Mr. Smith, of Snitterfield, the plain declarations of Scripture on Warwickshire.

this momentous particular, and learn to distinguish between things so essen

tially different. SIR,

In the year 1811, Mr. Smith underIt is with peculiar pleasure the be- took the superintendence of a farm believer meditates on the memory of the longing to his father, and went to reside just, and often contemplates, with joy at Tiddington, a village contiguous to unspeakable, the blessedness of those Stratford-on-Avon. Providence thus who have died in the Lord. Here he placed him near to a society of Chrisviews, as in a glass, the vanity of the tian friends, with whom he aftewards world, the uncertainty of life, the took sweet counsel, and walked to the nearness of eternity, the inestimable house of God in company. The folvalue of religion; and is thus power- lowing particulars, which under God fully stimulated to be a follower of led to this delightful union, must not those, who through faith and patience be omitted. The Rev. Mr. Frey having now inherit the promises. These are to pass through Stratford, had engaged important lessons, and when thus car- to preach an occasional sermon: this ried to their practical results, promote was made public; and Mr. Smith was the happiness of all who attend to induced, probably from mere curiosity, them. Besides, the pious lives and for the first time in his life to enter a triumphant deaths, which we hope to Dissenting Chapel. The text selected see frequently recorded on your pages, was Psalm Ixxxix. 15: “ Blessed is form a standing evidence of the di- the people that know the joyful sound: vinity of the Scriptures, of the power they shall walk, O Lord, in the light of of divine grace, and of the riches of thy countenance.” Under this serinfinite mercy.

The following brief mon, the Lord was graciously pleased and imperfect Memoir was under- to open his heart, as he did that of taken, with a desire to perpetuate the Lydia, to attend to the things which memory of a dear departed friend, were spoken by his servant, and to reand with a hope of affording instruc- ceive with meekness the word of life. tion and encouragement to many who Turned from darkness to light, he persurvive him. If convenient, an early ceived his ignorance of the way of salinsertion will greatly oblige,

vation through faith in a crucified ReDear Sir, your's, &c. deemer, and from that time became an

humble, sincere, and diligent inquirer Mr. Richard Smith, eldest son of Ri- after truth. Should not the pious and chard Smith, esq. of Snitterfield, a zealous ministers of the gospel, take small village in the county of Warwick, encouragement from such cheering was born on the 30th of May, 1789. circumstances, to “sow by all waters,"

. His childhood and youth were passed to “ be instant in season and out of under the paternal roof. Of this early season;" at the same time rememberperiod, nothing particular is known; ing who has promised : “ Lo, I am but as he advanced to the age of man- with you alway, even unto the end of hood, he was remarked for his steady the world.” deportment, the early maturity of his Our dear friend, now became a reunderstanding, and especially for his gular attendant on the ministry of the dutiful and affectionate behaviour to- Rev. J. Stokes, then stated pastor of wards his parents. His attendance the Dissenting Church in Stratford. with the family at the parish church, A divine power accompanied the word, was regular and constant; and by the and Mr. Smith's profiting evidently appreventing grace of God, he was mer-peared. The eyes of his understandcifully preserved from those crimes ing were opened, to discern the differwhich too frequently attach to this pe- ence between a mere educational beriod of life. But though it is believed lief of the doctrines of the Bible, which that not a single individual could have is ever cold and inert, and that holy truly charged him with acts of immora- operative principle of faith, which, lity; yet, according to his own testi- working by love, removes guilt and mony, he continued destitute of the impurity, overcomes the world, dispower of vital godliness, until he had arms death, and presents to the enattained the age of twenty-three. Oh! raptured soul the substantial glories of that mankind would at last attend to leternity.

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