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$18 miles from the Labrador coast. When | wind was in a direction, that it apthe sailors hear it, they know that they peared scarcely possible to keep clear are not far from the ice. It flies about a of it, the ship being likewise beset on ship chiefly in the night, and is known all sides with fields of ice. In about by its singular voice, which resembles an hour's time the fog dispersed, and a loud laugh.
we perceived, that we had just passed “ On the 6th, the weather was re- by at a short distance; which excited markably fine. In the afternoon, the us to praise our almighty Saviour for wind shifted to the south-east, and our preservation. during the night brought us into the “ 14th. Land was discovered a-head. ice. We tacked, and stood off and on. It was the coast of Labrador, sixty or
7th, the morning was cold and eighty miles south of Hopedale. We rainy. In all directions drift-ice was were close to the ice, and as a small to be seen. In the afternoon it cleared opening presented itself, the captain up a little, and we entered an opening ventured to push in, hoping, if he could in the ice, looking like a bay. The penetrate, to find open water between continual rustling and rvaring of the the ice and the coast. For some time ice reminded us of the noise made by we got nearer to the land, but were the carriages in the streets of London, obliged at night to fasten the ship with when one is standing in the golden two grapnels to a large field. This was gallery of St. Paul's cathedral. The elevated between five and six feet mountains and large flakes of ice take above the water's edge, and between all manner of singular forms, some re- fifty and sixty feet in thickness below sembling castles, others churches,wag- it. It might be 300 feet in diameter, gons, and even creatures of various flat at the top, and as smooth as a meadescriptions. As we or they changed dow covered with snow. The wind positions, the same objects acquired has but little power over such huge a quite different appearance; and masses, and they move very slowly what had before appeared like a with the current. There are small church, looked like a huge floating streams and pools of fresh water found monster. Sitting on deck, and con- on all those large pieces. Our situatemplating these wonderful works of tion now defended us against the God, I almost lost myself in endea- smaller flakes, which rushed by and vouring to solve the question,—“For were turned off by the large field, what purpose these exhibitions are without reaching the ship. We were made, when so few can behold them, all well pleased with our place of as they so soon vanish by returning to refuge, and lay here three whole days, their former fluid and undefined state?” with the brightest weather, and as safe But surely every thing is done with as in the most commodious haven; design, though short-sighted man can- but I cannot say that I felt easy, though not comprehend it. Having in vain I hid my anxiety from the party. "I exerted ourselves to penetrate through feared that a gale of wind might overthe ice, we returned at night into the take us in this situation, and carry open sea.
fields larger than that at which we lay, 8th, the wind was north and strong, when the most dreadful consequences and we hoped that it would open a might ensue ; and the sequel proved, way for us to Hopedale, for we were that I was not much mistaken. in the latitude of that place.
“ On the 17th, the wind came round “ From the 9th to the 13th we were to the south, and we conceived fresh continually on different tacks, 'some- hopes of the way being rendered open times on the outside, and again among for us. the ice, with various kinds of weather, “ 18th, the weather was clear, and and often prayed to the Lord to grant the wind in our favour; we thereforo us soon to reach the end of our voyage. took up our grapnel, got clear of our
13th, towards evening, we disco- floating haven, and again endeavoured vered an ice-mountain of immense to penetrate through some small openheight and length, flat at its top. As ings. Both we and the ship's comwe approached it, we were enveloped pany were peculiarly impressed with in a thick fog, and could not see a yard gratitude for the proteotion and rest from the ship, which increased the we had enjoyed, and the warmth of a danger we were in of running foul of summer's sun felt very comfortable it and being lost, especially as the among these masses of ice. The clear No. 9,- VOL. I.
ness of the atmosphere to-day caused a distance, towards which we were them to appear singularly picturesque. driving, without the power of turning It seemed as if we were surrounded by aside. Between six and seven, we immense white walls and towers. In were again roused by a great outcry the afternoon we had penetrated to the on deck. We ran up, and saw our open water, between the ice and the ship, with the field to which we were land, but we durst not venture nearer, fast, with great swiftness approaching as the sea is here full of sunken rocks, towards the mountain ; nor did there and the captain knew of no harbour on appear the smallest hope of escaping this part of the coast. Having found being crushed to atoms between it and another large piece of ice convenient the field. However, by veering out as for the purpose, we fastened the ship much cable as we could, the ship got to it. In the evening a thick fog over- to such a distance, that the mountain spread us from the north-east, and we passed through between us and the were again quite surrounded by ice, field. We all cried fervently to the which, however, was soon after dis- Lord for speedy help in this most pepersed by a strong north-west wind. rilous situation; for if we had but
“ In the night between the 19th and touched the mountain, we must have 20th we were driven back by a strong been instantly destroyed. One of our current to nearly the same situation we cables
was broken, and we lost a graphad left on the 17th, only somewhat nel. The ship also sustained some danearer to the coast. On the 20th the mage. But we were now left to the morning was fine, and we vainly en- mercy of the storm and current, both deavoured to get clear, but towards of which were violent; and exposed evening the sky lowred, and it grew likewise to the large fields of ice
, very dark. The air also felt so very which floated all around us, being oppressive, that we all went to bed, from ten to twenty feet in thickness. and every one of us was troubled with The following night was dreadfully uneasy dreams. At midnight we heard dark, the heavens covered with the a great noise on deck. We hastened blackest clouds, driven by a furious thither to know the cause, and found wind; the roaring and the howling of the ship driving fast towards a huge the ice, as it moved along, the fields ice-mountain, on which we expected shoving and dasbing against each every moment to suffer shipwreck. other, was truly terrible. A fender The sailors exerted themselves to the was made of a large beam, suspended utmost, but it was by God's merciful by ropes to the ship's sides, to secure providence alone that we were saved. her in some measure from the ice; but T'he night was excessively cold with the ropes were soon cut by its sharp rain, and the poor people suffered edges, and we lost the fender. Remuch. We were now driven to and peated attempts were now made to fro, at the mercy of the ice, till one in make the ship again fast to some large the morning, when we succeeded in field; and the second mate, a clever fastening the ship again to a large young man, full of spirit and willing. field. But all this was only the pre-ness, swung himself several times off, lude to eater terrors. Delive ce and upon such fields as approached from danger is so gratifying, that it us, endeavouring to fix a grapnel to raises one's spirits above the common them, but in vain, and we even lost level. We made a hearty breakfast, another grapnel on this occasion. The and retired again into our cabins. At storm indeed dispersed the ice, and one, the cook, in his usual boisterous made openings in several places; but way, roused us by announcing dinner, our situation was thereby rendered and putting a large piece of pork, and only still more alarming, for when the a huge pudding upon the table, of ship got into open water, her motion which we partook with a good appe- became more rapid by the power of tite, but in silence, every one seem- the wind, and consequently the blows ingly buried in thought, or only half she received from the ice more violent. awake. Shortly after, the wind changed Whenever therefore we perceived a to north-east and north, increasing field of ice through the gloom, towards gradually, till it turned into a furious which we were hurried, nothing apstorm. Topmasts were lowered, and peared more probable, than that the every thing done to ease the ship. We violence of the shock would determine now saw an immense ice-mountain at
our fate, and be attended with imme
Voyage to Labrador.
diate destruction of the vessel. Such | ice, out of which we soon got again shocks were repeated every five or into open water. The wind also turnten minutes, and sometimes oftener, ed in our favour, and carried us swiftly and the longer she remained exposed forward towards the Hopedale shore. to the wind, the more violently she ran Every one on board was again in full against the sharp edges and spits of expectation of soon reaching the end the ice, not having any power to avoid of our voyage, and ready to forget all them. After every stroke, we tried former troubles. But alas, arriving at the pumps, whether we had sprung a the same spot, from which we had been leak; but the Lord kept His hand over driven yesterday, we found our way us, and preserved us in a manner al- anew blocked up with a vast quantity most miraculous. In this awful situa- of ice. The wind also drove us irtion we offered up fervent prayers to resistibly towards us. We were now Him, who alone is able to save, and in a great dilemma. If we went bebesought Him, that if it were His di-tween the islands, where the sea is vine will, that we should end our lives full of sunken rocks, we were in among the ice, He would, for the sake danger of striking upon one of them of his precious merits, soon take us and being instantly lost; again, if we home to Himself, nor let us die a mi. ventured into the ice, it was doubtful serable death with cold and hunger, whether the ship would bear many more floating about in this boisterous ocean. such shocks as she had received. At
“ It is impossible to describe all the length the former measure was deterhorrors of this eventful night, in which mined on, as in case of any mishap, we expected every approaching ice- there might be some possibility of esfield to be fraught with death. We caping to shore. were full ten hours in this dreadful 66 On such occasions, it is seen how situation, till about six in the morning, strongly the love of life operates. when we were driven into open water, Having entered in among the islands, not far from the coast. We could we found the sea more free from ice, hardly believe, that we had got clear and our hopes began to revive anew, of the ice; all seemed as a dream. We till from the mast-head the passage to now ventured to carry some sail, with Hopedale was discovered to be ena view to bear up against the wind. tirely blocked up. The weather turnThe ship had become leaky, and we ed to fog and rain, and we were obliged to keep the pump a-going, perceived ourselves beset with ice with only about ten minutes rest at a mountains, which betrayed themselves time. Both the sailors and we were through the mist by a white glare. We thereby so much exhausted, that when- tacked against the wind between them ever any one sat down, he immediately and the rocks, the proximity of the latfell asleep.
ter being known by breakers. During the afternoon, the wind “ In this situation we spent the 23d abated, and towards evening it fell and 24th ; the weather continued rainy calm. A thick mist ensued, which, and cold; we were in an unknown sea, however, soon rsed, when we among hidden dangers, and the poor found ourselves near a high rock, to- sailors without a dry shred upon them, wards which the current was fast carry- and not able to get any rest, being uning us. We were now in great danger der constant alarm, whenever any exof suffering shipwreck among the traordinary noise was heard in the fog. rocks, but by God's mercy, the good “ 25th. The sky was clear, and we management of our captain succeeded found ourselves nearly in the same in steering clear of them; and after place where we had spent the 22d, but sunset the heavens were free from a large bay opening to view, we steerclouds. A magnificent north-light il- ed into it. lamined the horizon, and as we were “26th. The morning was fine, but our again among floating pieces of ice, its hearts were heavy. We were all filled brightness enabled us to avoid them. with deep concern and sorrow, when we I retired to rest, but after midnight reflected on the continual disappointwas roused by the cracking noise ments we experienced, and that while made by the ice against the sides of on this day our brethren and their Esthe vessel. In an instant I was on quimaux congregations were surrounddeck, and found that we were forcing ing the Lord's table, and partaking of our way through a quantity of floating the Holy Sacrament, we were still de
tained at sea, and prevented reaching a strong wind from the shore cleared their peaceable habitations, and join the bay of ice ; and on the 6th, the ing in their devotions. We turned to mate and Brother Körner, having the Lord our Saviour, with prayer for climbed the highest hill, and discoverresignation to His holy will, and that ed open water towards Hopedale, came we might be delivered from every kind running back with the pleasing intelof impatience, knowing that His ways ligence. But our frequent discourageare full of wisdom, and that we should ments had rendered us so unbelieving, find cause at length to praise Him for that it made but little impression upon His goodness and mercy towards us, us. We however set sail, and reached even under every afllictive dispensa- the entrance into the Hopedale islands. tion. He heard our prayers, and spoke In the evening the wind turned against peace to our troubled hearts.
us; our way was again choaked with “ 27th. We discovered open water ice, and we lay all night fastened to a on the other side of the ice, and large field, and spent the day following wind and weather being favourable, in tacking between the ice and the we penetrated through the ice, and got land. At night we made fast again, on well; but after all found the passage but the field breaking into five pieces, to Hopedale still choaked up. We we were carried back to the southward were therefore obliged to keep tack- by the current, and obliged to disening all night in a narrow channel. gage ourselves from the fragment, and
“ 28th. Having worked our way, by suffer the wind to drive us out to sea. God's good providence, through some As soon as it was light on the 8th, we very heavy ice, and considering whe- used every exertion to get again withther we should again make fast to in the Hopedale islands, which, at some large field; the dread of the ice length, after much uncertainty, owing seemed so forcibly to have possessed to variable winds, we effected, and cast all our minds, that we resolved rather anchor between eight and nine o'clock to endeavour to find an anchoring at the island Ukkalek, two bours sail place in an adjoining bay. The water, from Hopedale. Here we were soon however, was so deep, that it was six visited by Brother Stock and several in the morning before we could cast | Esquimaux. Words are too weak to anchor in twenty-two fathoms. Being describe the joy we felt on this occahere defended against the wind, our sion, and we spent the evening very ship’s company could enjoy some rest. happily together. On the 9th, about In the afternoon, the mate went in the eight o'clock, we cast anchor at Hopeboat farther into the bay, to search dale. In the words of the text apfor a better anchoring place, in which pointed for this day, we could say he succeeded. Towards evening we with truth and from experience, “ The anchored in it, but were closely pur- heavens declare the glory of God, and sued by floating ice, which soon beset the firmament sheweth his handy us all around, and gave us little rest. work.” Wonders of his power had Fearing that it might cut our cable, been displayed before us, but also we strove by every means to turn it off. wonders of his mercy and truth.” “ 31st. I'accompanied Brother Beck N. B. The captain and mate report
, and the captain on shore. We climbed that though for these three years past up the highest hill, from whence we they have met with an unusual quancould plainly see the Hopeland islands lity of ice on the coast of Labrador, and bills, but also the sea yet filled yet, in no year, since the beginning of with ice. We kindled a large fire, the Mission, in 1769, has it appeared hoping that perhaps the Missionaries, so dreadfully on the increase. The or the Esquimaux, might thereby dis- colour likewise of this year's ice was cover our arrival. The island, on different from that usually seen, and which we landed, was almost entirely the size of the ice-mountains and covered with wood and brushwood of thickness of the fields immense, with almost impenetrable thickness. The sand-stones embedded in them. As a musquitoes troubled us much.
great part of the coast of Greenland, August 2d. We saw a large black which for centuries has been choaked bear on shore, and set off after him up with ice, apparently immoveable
, with proper weapons, but he escaped has, by some revolution, been cleared, into the wood.
perhaps this may account for the great “ From the 3d to the 5th of August, quantity alluded to.
826 THE PRIDE OF CARDINAL WOLSEY. each of those had two or three foot
men, and the Earl of Derby was folWolsey being raised to the dignity lowed by five. of Cardinal, in addition to his arch- At meals, he had gentlemen carvers, bishopric and chancellorship, felt him and cupbearers ;
" and of the Privy self superior to all spiritual control, Chamber forty persons,” exclusive of and passed from place to place in all the six yeomen ushers, and eight grooms pomp allowed by the Romish church. of his chamber, twelve doctors in diIndeed such was his ambition in this vinity, a clerk of the closet, two secreparticular, that he selected two of the taries, and two clerks of his signet, tallest priests in the kingdom, to bear besides four learned counsel. his crosses before him. His house- The attendants of his temporal office hold consisted of a steward, who was were, a riding clerk, a clerk of the in priest's orders, a treasurer, who had crown, of the hanaper, and a chafer, the honour of knighthood, a comptrol and those of the cheque, and four runler, an esquire, a confessor, a doctor in ning footmen richly habited; a herald divinity, three marshals, three ushers and serjeant at arms, a physician, an of the hall, two almoners, and a num- apothecary, an armourer, an instrucber of grooms.
tor of his wardrobe, a keeper of his The officers of his kitchen were two chamber, a surveyor of York, and a clerks, a clerk comptroller, a surveyor clerk of the green cloth. of the dresser, a clerk of the spicery, The chapel of this establishment two cooks, their assistants, and chil- was most honourably appointed; and dren, amounting to twelve individuals; the ornaments of it were extremely four scullions, two yeomen of the pan- grand and expensive. The service try, and two paste-layers. The master was performed by a dean, a man of cook who presided in the kitchen, eminence, a sub-dean, a repeater of wore a superb dress of velvet, or satin, the choir, a gospeller, an epistler of and was decorated with a chain of the singing theists, and a master of gold; he had six assistants, and two the children; the vestry had a yeoman deputies.
and two grooms. The larder had a yeoman and The gentleman who gave the subgroom; the scullery and buttery, an stance of the above account declares, equal number of persons each; the that he had seen in procession fortyewry the same; the cellar three yeo-four crosses of one set, besides the men, and three pages; the chandery superb candlesticks and other necestwo yeomen, and the waifery two. sary ornaments; and that the number
The wardrobe of beds was superin- of persons on the “Cheque Roll” of tended by a master, with twenty assist the household was Eight HUNDRED. ants; the laundry, a yeoman, a groom,
GOING TO WESTMINSTER. and thirteen pages, two yeomen surveyors, and a groom surveyor; in the When Cardinal Wolsey first issued bakehouse, were two yeomen and from his Privy Chamber in term, he grooms; in the wood-yard one, and a generally heard two masses in his groom ; two porters, two yeomen, and chapel. Returning there, he inquired two grooms, waited at the gates. of his attendants whether themselves
His bargc had a yeoman; and for where ready, and had prepared the the care of his horses, there was a waiting and presence chambers? About master, a clerk of the stables, a yeo- eight o'clock he again left his private man of the stirrup, a farrier, a malt apartment, in the Cardinals habit of tour, and sixteen grooms,
crimson taffeta, or crimson satin, with of them keeping four geldings." a scarlet pillion, and tippet of sable
For the purposes of state, he had round his neck; bearing in his hand, two cross and two pillar bearers, for as was his constant practice on those his great chamber; and the privy occasions, an orange deprived of its chamber was under the direction of a contents, and filled with a sponge imchamberlain, a vice-chamberlain, and pregnated with vinegar, &c. to pretwo gentlemen ushers : six gentlemen serve him from infection, when passwaiters, and twelve others, were added ing through the crowds which his to ten lords, who did not think them- splendour or office attracted. selves dishonoured by attending the A lord, or person of eminence, bore movements of the arrogant Cardinal ; | his hat; and another the great seal