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Various parts of the island exhibit the south side of the island, to see some volcanic appearances; the rocks are caves, which we were informed were ponderous, black, and appear to have there. We, however, missed our obbeen fused, and the shores seem as if ject, but found a coast wild and rugformed by streams of liquid matter ged in the extreme; black rocks of suddenly cooled by the water. In one the most dreary aspect, overhung with place was shewn us a piece of wood, a vast elevation, the ocean that dashed buried at least forty feet beneath this with prodigious violence and noise at mixed mass, which, from its broken their feet. The summits of some which appearance, plainly shews that it has stood insulated from the rest, were been thrown together by some violent covered with flocks of sea-fowl, whose convulsion of nature.

mournfuland incessant screams, joined The general appearance of the with the roaring of the waves, formed a island is fertile; the lower parts co-concert well adapted to the scenery. vered with corn-fields, and the higher The low strands were here and parts (for mountains there are none) there strewed with small fragments of clothed with a fine verdant pasture. some vessel, which had been dashed At a distance, Cannay appears low and on this rugged coast; a melancholy flat, but it is only the comparative proof of the dangers of a navigation height of the adjacent islands which through these narrow channels, assailgives it that appearance; the shores are ed by violent currents and sudden extremely high, and their summits are and furious tempests, against which uniformly composed of 'upright rocks the most experienced mariner cannot split into irregular squares, and ge- always sufliciently guard. nerally wearing the appearance of Thomson pictures these scenes, basaltes.

their wildness, their occasional place Above the rock alluded to, is the of resort to immense flocks of sea-birds, Compass Hill, so called from the qua- with his usual beauty and fidelity. lity it has of changing the direction of

Where the northern ocean in vast whirls the needle. I took a small compass, Boils round the naked melancholy isles and walked to the top; but though I of farthest Thule, and the Atlantic surge tried it in various places, it had no

Pours in among the stormy Hebrides;

Who can recount what transmigrations there effect. The stone, however, was sen

Are annual made? what nations come and go? sibly impregnated with iron; a small

And how the living clouds on clouds arise, piece of it drew the needle completely Infinite wings! till all the plume-dark air, round-a plain indication of the cause

And rude resounding shore, are one wild cr; ? of the phenomenon ascribed to it, A wet afternoon confined us aboard which, in the situation I tried it, would for the rest of the day. no doubt have had a great effect on the Tuesday, 261h.-Sailed early in the dipping needle. In the boat, however, morning, and were soon becalmed in we had more success; rowing pretty the sound between Sanda and Rum: near a high rocky point, the needle our progress being of course extremely immediately varied from north to slow, we took the boat, with an intensouth, and remained fixed there. I af- tion of landing on the latter island, terwards found a similar effect in other but a heavy surge setting in on the parts of the island.

rough beach, prevented us; we had, In the afternoon we walked along however, a fine view of its rugged sides, the shore, and were much pleased with towering to an immense height, with a the grand effect of a heavy swell from degree of steepness that seemed to the westward, breaking on this rocky preclude all possibility of ascent; yet coast: a small cave in particular drew we could observe several sheep hangour attention ; into this the sea rolled ing, as it were, to the green herbage, with great violence, and compressing which every where mingled with the the air at the upper end, was driven barren soil. Towards the extremity back with a velocity that reduced it to of this side, the rocks had a peculiar vapour, accompanied with a dull ex-appearance, jutting out into parts from plosion, like the sound of distant ar- the main body, which they seemed to tillery.

prop like the heavy buttresses of an Monday, 25th.-Went on shore at ancient building. Sanda, which is separated from Can- The same light winds continued nay by a shallow channel, impassable during the day, and by the evening we except in boats; and walked over to were only abreast of the south end of

789

Journal of a Voyage to the Hebrides, &c.

790

Rum, becalmed in the same situation stinately opposing elements, which, in where, on a preceding night, we had three different attempts to visit these been compelled to bear away in a islands, have constantly frustrated our heavy gale.

design. The surrounding islands were seen Whatever regret, however, we might in the most placid state of serenity, experience on our own account, it was but a heavy shower rested on the lat- unavoidable not to feel for the distress ter, diffusing over it a deep purple which seemed to threaten the wretched gloom, before which some light fleecy inhabitants of this inhospitable cliclouds hung at mid-height, and added mate. The kelp weed, or wreck, as it a high degree of wildness to the ge- is called, which forms in general the neral grandeur of the scene.

most profitable part of their harvest, Towards dark, we observed a large was spoiling on the coast by the rain, shoal of fish, which continued playing and seemed likely to be wholly destroyround the vessel for a very consider-ed; but what was of still greater imable time. We now steered direct for portance, the corn on the lands was Icolmkill, having had, for the first time, retarded in its growth by a wet and a continuance of light winds for the cold summer; and the prospect, if any, whole day.

of a winter harvest, with its attendant Wednesday, 27th.--The night became loss, was all that remained open to the squally and tempestuous, with heavy dejected husbandmen. The inconvenirain and a great swell, and the wind ences which we had endured from the changed to the northward. The sea badness of the weather, were forgotwe were entering abounded with small ten in the comparison; and we could islands and sunken rocks; and the only deeply lament the unfortunate lot land, from the obscurity of the rain, of those whom fate had placed in this was scarcely visible at a ship's length. inauspicious region. Under these circumstances, it was Passing through the sound of Mull, deemed most prudent, after being toss- we retraced the passage we had before ed about till four in the morning, to seen; the accompaniment of a heavy abandon our design, and bear away rain, made, however, some variety, for the sound of Mull, which was yet pouring down in a multitude of caswithin our power.

cades from mountainous Morvern. In leaving Stasia and Icolmkill, we Proceeding on,we passed Dunstafnage, could not but feel the most lively re- a venerable castle, surrounded by trees, gret: the singular and curious forma- and situated on a rock; and entering tion of the one, and the venerable re- the Liunhe Loch, came to an anchor lics of the latter, were sufficient to give under a small island to the eastward poignancy to our disappointment; and of Lismore, and opposite to Appin. it may be justly said, we lost the view The Marquis of Tweedale has a of the two most interesting islands of small seat here, pleasantly situated; the Hebrides.

and the adjacent lands are well covered But the most discouraging circum- with wood. stances operated to drive us away; had My voyage was now terminated, and we been enabled to keep the sea for my solitary pedestrian expedition the night, the great swell would have about to commence ; the former had totally precluded all hopes of landing, occupied near six weeks, during which and of course the only object of con- we had run something more than 1000 sequence must have been relinquish- miles of direct course. ed. To have remained at Tobermorey

(To be continued.) with a view of returning the first opportunity would have been tedious, and METHOD OF PRESERVING BIRDS. most probably fruitless in the end, in [Concluded from No. 4.col. 334.] weather which had, in the course of Having in my former paper detailed near six weeks in the height of summer, my method of preserving small birds, yielded only a continued series of calms viz. from the humming bird to the or tempests. We were now also on starling, it will easily be conceived, the eve of August, a time when the in- that the use of æther would be too habitants look for the commencement expensive for birds of a large size, of irregular and wet weather.

and of course would prevent many Thus circumstanced, it seemed use- from indulging themselves in this less to strive further against these oh- amusing pursuit.

But for birds that are truly valuable necessary adjustments, it must be and rare, such as the Chinese peacock, placed in a stove heated to 180° of pheasant, the golden oriole, the large Fahrenheit, and must remain there emerald bird of Paradise, &c., no ex- till all its moisture is evaporated; it pense should be spared that would in may then be removed, and the artifiany measure contribute to their pre- cial eyes placed in the sockets. servation. To those who have not The skins of birds, with their pluseen these rare and beautiful birds, no mage, may be preserved by tawing adequate idea can be given. The them with alum, which will give them dazzling splendour, richness, and har- all the elasticity of glove leather ; and mony, of their inimitable plumage, to- if stuffed with judgment, they will have gether with their native elegance, at a very natural appearance. Most of once completely annihilates every at- our collections are only skins stuffed, tempt at description. Those, into without any preparation, which is the whose hands these beautiful birds may cause of their dry and shrivelled apcome, should, at all events, make use pearance. of æther, and in the same manner as Let the skins be taken off the birds already directed for small birds, with in the following manner: make a cut this difference only--after the first eva- from below the thighs to the rectum, poration, which for birds of a small and with a sharp knife separate the size is sufficient, a second, and even a rump from the body, leaving only as third injection of æther, should be ap- much as will secure the tail; then turn plied, according to the size of the the bird out of its skin, in the same bird.

way in which rabbits are skinned, Large land birds, viz. from the pea- leaving the legs a little above the cock to the jay, may be preserved in knees attached to the skin of the the following manner, provided they thighs: the wings must be separated have been recently killed, and are free close to the body underneath the skin, from putrefaction.-Wrap the body of and thus proceed till you come to the the bird in a broad bandage of cotton head. The head must be separated cloth, which is intended to prevent the from the neck, at the last vertebre plumage from being injured during joining the head, and the brain carethe operation. The intestines are to fully taken out. The skin, which is be drawn out at the rectum, and also now inside out, must be washed with the heart, liver, and lungs, &c.; after warm water, to separate the coaguwhich, warm water must be introduced, lated blood from its surface. The cato wash away the coagulated blood, vity of the skull may now be stuffed and other impurities. The eyes also with cotton which has been moistened are to be extracted, and the brain with the arsenic solution; in the mean scooped out at the sockets; after time, provide a strong solution of alum which, the cavity of the skull must be in water. The water should boil, and well stuffed with cotton, moistened the alum be added in a state of powwith a saturated solution of arsenic der, till the water will dissolve no in water. The neck of the bird should more. When cooled to nearly that of now be stretched out, and a piece of blood heat, the skin should be well strong wire passed down the throat, washed over every part with it. Then and brought out at the rectum. Then, take a piece of flannel, and soak it in with a piece of whalebone, force a little the alum solution, and wrap the skins cotton, previously damped with the up in it, and let them remain for half arsenic solution, in such a manner and a day, at which time they may be quantity as to give it its natural form. taken out, and partially dried.

In After which, proceed to stuff' the body, this state, the skins will be covered taking care to make the bird appear with small crystals, which must be more plump than when alive.

The rubbed off. Then, with a sponge rectum is now to be sewed up, and wetted with the arsenic solution, wipe the bird put into its natural form. It over the whole surface of the skins, must here be observed, that the wire and allow them to dry as before. Then must be of sufficient strength to re- provide two small pieces of wood, of tain the form into which the bird must proper dimensions, suitable to the be put; by which means the neck may size of the bird, the ends of which be raised, or bent into any position wood must be fitted into the holes in which fancy may suggest. After these the thigh bones, and of suficient

ON THE UTILITY OF THE MATHE

MATICS.

793
On the Utility of the Mathematics.

794 length to reach into the body of the cient number of data for mathematical bird, to give firmness to the attitude inquiry to proceed upon. Whether in which it may be placed. Proceed they will ever become, like most of in every respect as has been pointed the other sciences, a part in the train out before, taking care not to omit the of Mathematics, is matter of doubt; wire, as by the artfully bending of this, but Sir H. Davy, whose name, as an the character of the bird is given, authority on this point, it is quite which is peculiar to the species. enough to mention, expects they will ;

Sea-fowl of every description, from and seems to look forward to the union the albatross to the widgeon, should be as “ a consummation most devoutly to preserved by this last method, on ac- be wished.” I am sorry, that not havcount of the large quantity of oil ing his works at hand, I am deprived which they contain, not only in their of the opportunity of giving you his muscular mass, but in their bones opinion in his own words: but your also, which becomes exceedingly ran- readers may find it somewhere near cid and offensive.

the end of Vol. I. of his “ Elements of Although I have given these various Chemical Philosophy.” I now proceed methods, all of which will be found to to your correspondent's second query. answer the

purpose of the naturalist; 2dly.—He asks, have these sciences yet much depends upon the fancy and“ any tendency to promote the cause taste of the operator. The wings may of Christianity?” The charge insinube artfully extended by concealed ated against them in this query is a wires, by which many beautiful and very serious one; and yet I intend to pleasing attitudes may be given by the say but little in reply to it. For, if judicious observer of nature.

the querist means at all to identify the cause of Christianity with the cause of general civilization and improvement, an answer to the charge, considered in

reference to this connection, has al[Concluded from col. 760.]

ready been given in the preceding obIt will perhaps surprise your corre- servations. But if, which I judge to spondent to be told, that these studies be most probable, he refers chiefly or may sometimes prove of singular ser- solely to the diffusion of the doctrines vice to the ladies. But, after talking of the New Testament, and to the salso gravely on the subject, that I may vation of the human soul, I for one, not appear to be joking, I shall merely protest against this mode of trial, as refer him for satisfaction on this point, irrelevant. Or, at least, if Mathemato No. 1, of the third volume of a pe- tics are to be tried upon this question, riodical publication, entitled “ the let every art, and every employment of Leeds Correspondent,” in which he life, be immediately summoned to the will be informed, “ that a considerable | same tribunal. change (for the better) has taken place, The interests of Christianity, it will in one of the most genteel female cir- be said, (and very truly to a certain cles, in a certain town of Yorkshire, extent) may be promoted without the by the adoption of philosophical and study of the Mathematics; yes, and mathematical amusements in their se- so they may too without the mechanilect parties.” p. 28,

cal arts of shoemaking and weaving. It will be observed, that in the enu- And if the former are to be discarded, meration of the various branches of because the Divine Wisdom has not mixed Mathematics, no mention is been pleased to appoint them as immade of the very important and useful mediate instruments by which the sciences of electricity, galvanism, and world is to be morally renewed, let chemistry :-and an inference may per- every thing that cannot claim this hohaps be drawn from thence, in favour nour, be swept out of society along of that side of the controversy on

with them. Let every art and every which it is maintained, that useful employment, that has not a direct tenknowledge is absolutely independent dency to promote the spread and inof the Mathematics. But these sci-fluence of revealed truth, and to save ences are yet comparatively in their souls from death, be banished from infancy; and their theory with respect the world, as a busy and profane into first principles, being built chiefly truder on the invention and industry on conjecture, does not supply a suffi- 1 of man. No matter, how much the

or

On

present constitution of society may | office, he has then too little time to be disorganized in consequence of study them to any purpose, and he their expulsion; excepting only the must be content to have such an acemployments subservient to the art of quaintance with them, as amounts to a printing, and the use of such books as knowledge merely of their terms and are peculiarly adapted to the Christian definitions, together with as many of minister, together with as much of the leading propositions in each sciship-building and navigation as may ence, as may be gathered from the be sufficient for the transportation of popular compendious publications of bibles and missionaries, into distant the day. For, highly as I estimate the countries, let every thing be scouted. importance of an acquaintance with Away at once with music, and sculp- these sciences, I am very far from ture, and poetry, and painting; away considering them as worthy, in such a with everything else which merely case, to take the precedence of other adorns or sweetens human life; and studies. I allow, that it is not so let us descend, in the simplicity of our much the business of a Christian mihabits and engagements, as nearly as nister to know every thing, as to know we can, to a level with the beasts that those things which aim more directly perish.

at the peculiar objects of his calling ; It is surely quite a sufficient apology, and I can even admit, that in some in behalf of studies which are in other cases they are to be neglected altogerepects of any service, that they do ther; particularly, when there is either not obstruct the progress of Chris- a decided aversion, a powerful tianity ; and the establishment of such bias to these studies; because in the an apology, ought to shelter them from former case they will be attended with Christian persecution. As much as very little profit, and, in the latter, the this at least, may be said in defence of mind will be in danger of a criminal Mathematics. Indeed, with respect absorption in them, and an attention to any hostile interference with each to them, inconsistent with what is due other, Christianity cares nothing about to more important avocations. Mathematics, and Mathematics care this account, I can easily forgive the nothing about Christianity; as there late Rev. Dr. Buchanan, for complainis nothing in either of them, which the ing so heavily of being obliged to other has any reason to fear, or any yield so great a share of his attention tendency to oppose. The objects they to these studies, as he was compelled respectively pursue, are somewhat dif- to do, during his residence at Camferent; but the accomplishment of the bridge. glorious designs of the one, and the 3dly.--In proposing the third query, attainment of the useful ends of the your correspondent seems to intimate, other, are perfectly compatible. I that the study of these sciences has a shall have occasion, however, to say a tendency to promote scepticism and little more upon this point in my an- infidelity. In doing this he has asswer to the third query, and shall sumed, that a great proportion out therefore leave the general question of the whole number of Mathematifor a little, to notice its bearing in one cians are found ranged beneath their particular case, the importance of standard. Now, Sir, I question the which, I hope, will be considered as a validity of this assumption; and, in sufficient apology for the digression. support of my protest against it, I in

Perhaps your correspondent, when quire-Of those who during the last he wrote the second query, wished to century have figured on the theatre of ascertain, whether or not it was ad- infidelity, how many were Mathemavisable for a Christian minister to ticians? 'Tis true, there are D'Alemdevote his attention to these studies? bert, Condorcet, and a few others; but -a question which has sometimes for those who were at the same time been proposed to me. Understanding | eminent Mathematicians and rank inthis to be his wish, I should reply; If fidels, we shall find more than an in the course of early education the equal number, who were infidels too, mind has been habituated to them, so though they knew no more of Mamuch the better. But if they have thematics than they did of other been neglected till the person has ar- sciences, and multitudes who knew rived almost at the period when he is nothing of the sciences at all. And if to enter on the sacred duties of his any science is to be denounced be

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