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whole Christian system, this tract has subject himself to that charge of blasan imperious claim upon the public; phemy which Mr. Carlisle seems to and so far as it is known, we flatter our- have merited, is dishonourable to our selves, that every man friendly to or- common pature, as well as a disgrace der, to the welfare of his country, and to the age in which we live. But the to the interest of Jesus Christ, what- fact itself tends to shew that alarming ever his private opinion on disputable degradation of religious character, points may be, will readily use his en- which might be expected uniformly to deavours to give it publicity, and to prevail, should Mr. Carlisle prove as extend its circulation.

successful in extinguishing all religi

ous principles in others, as he has On former occasions, Infidelity, been in eradicating them from his own ashamed to appear in its native form, bosom. Should such an event happen, assumed an aspect and a name, calcu- the horrors of moral anarchy would lated to disguise reality, and to im- soon be associated with those proposc upon the unsuspecting. Paine, duced by that which is denominated however, when he published his Age civil; and England would exhibit to of Reason, put on a bolder tone; and, the nations of the earth, a melancholy with a degree of impudence unknown example of the complicated evils which before, threw forth his naked prin- would result from both. ciples before the public eye. These With men of Mr. Carlisle's theoloindeed, he endeavoured to accommo- gical character, it has long been a fadate to the degenerate propensities of vourite maxim to declaim against the the beart, by the licentious ideas which union which subsists between Church he contrived to interweave with the and State, under the pretext of indeleterious potion he attempted to con- troducing a reformation in each. They vey to the mind ; and by that defiance seem, however, to have forgotten, that of authority, and contempt of what the between Infidelity, and the political friends of Revelation had been taught principles they appear solicitous to esto revere as sacred, which he well tablish, the connexion is not less conknew would always be received with spicuous, than that which they seem pleasure, and carefully cherished, by anxious to abolish. And if the declathe restless, the turbulent, the fero-rations of the defendant during the late cious, and the abandoned part of man- | trial, may be considered as a fair spekind. But the impudence of Paine cimen of what will be public sentidefeated its own purposes. His Age ment, if his principles should gain the of Reason operated as a powerful an- ascendancy, we can be at no loss for a tidote to bis Rights of Man; and mul- reasonable ground of analogy, to know titudes turned with disgust from his when civil anarchy shall march in the politics, as soon as they discovered his rear. The present occasion teaches an theological creed.

important lesson to all those who calAt this moment we perceive Infide- culate upon the advantages which they lity assuming a still more unblushing expect a convulsive change would proaspect. In the person of Mr. Richard duce, without adverting to the perniCarlisle, we have seen Infidelity bold- cious consequences which lurk in amly enter a British court of judicature, bush. Such characters would act a and, in the face of legal authority, at- prudent part, before they advance antempt to brand Christianity as an im- other step, to pause on the margin of posture; to represent her own claims as the gulf which yawns before them, and equal, if not paramount, to the religion contemplate, in the character of this of our country, which the wisest and blasphemer, the dangerous precipice best men this nation ever produced, on which they stand. Should the dohave successively cherished, in every velopement of this man's principles, period of its history.

openly avowed on his trial, operate Into the trial itself of this man, we like those of Paine's Age of Reason, have no intention at present to enter. by proving an antidote to his political His guilt has been determined by a doctrines, the more thoughtful and rejury of his countrymen, one half of flecting will abandon the visionary whom he thought ought to have been in- schemes they have so eagerly pursued; fidels like himself; but the sentence of and the sentence which shall be passed the judge has not yet been pronounced. on Carlisle, may save our country from That a man in this country should impending commotions.

773 Opening of a Church. - Improvements in Liverpool. 774

judicious exertions, we understand, OPENING OF A CHURCH.

these afflicted objects have been in

structed, not only in the Liturgy of our Opening of the Church attached to the Church, but in the whole of the Psalms School for the Blind, in Liverpool.

of David. On Wednesday, October 6, 1819, the When the congregation broke up, Church which has been erected for the Bishop and his suite, together this institution, was opened, for the with the ladies and their parties, refirst time, by the Right Rev. the tired from the church, through a subBishop of Chester. To the friends of terraneous passage, to the music-room religion, morality, virtue, and huma- of the institution, where a cold collanity, this was a truly gratifying spection was provided by the committee. tacle; and it is with much pleasure Of this building, we hope in a future we state, that it excited a considerable number to furnish our readers with a interest. The text chosen for the oc-plate, and an architectural description. casion, was from 1st of Kings, chapter viii. verse 18th.-And the Lord said unto David my father, Whereas it was

Local Improvements in Liverpool. in thy heart to build an house to my The spirit of improvement in this name, thou didst well that it was in thine place, keeps pace with that spirit of heart. The discourse which accom- benevolence which we have noticed in panied this passage, embodied a the preceding article. In addition to powerful appeal to the hearts and un- the church for the “ Blind School,” derstanding of the hearers. We un- there are three churches now in a state derstand, that at the request of the of building or completing; namely, St. committee, his Lordship has consented Luke's, St. Michael's, and St. George's, that it shall be published. The col- which, when finished, promise in conlection which was made on the occa- junction with the Church for the sion, amounted to £282. 14s. 8d. It Blind,” to rank among the most handis pleasing to add, that the following some sacred edifices of the present age. ladies, supported by the gentlemen of On the eastern side of the town, in an the committee, condescended, in a elevated and salubrious spot, Abermanner characteristic of genuine bene- crombie-square has been laid out, on volence, to hold the plates, and re- an extensive scale. This is now nearly ceive the contributions of the congre- enclosed with iron palisades; and, gation:—the Countess of Sefton, Lady when completed, will rank among the Georgiana Grenfell, Lady Mary Stan- most elegant in the kingdom. One of ley, Lady Barton, Mrs. Blackburne, the most frequented streets in this poand Mrs. Patten Bold.

pulous town, having been found too The concourse of people assembled, narrow for public accommodation, has amounted to about 1300. These, by been widened considerably, the houses the judicious arrangements which had on one side having been taken down. previously been made, by the erection The work is now rapidly going on, and of seats over the altar,-by placing when finished, it will contribute much forms along the aisles,—and by the to the health of the inhabitants, to care which was taken in the distribu- the convenience of travelling, and to tion of the tickets, were furnished with commercial transactions. Through every suitable accommodation. The Clayton-square a new road has lately service was read in a very impressive been opened, which cannot fail to be manner, by the Rev. Edward Hale, of public utility, as it will afford an easy A. M. the minister of the church. Se- ascent to the higher parts of the town. lections of sacred music appropriate to Five new docks or basins are also in a the occasion were performed by the pu- state of great forwardness. Four of pils, associated with several instru- these are new, and one of them in parments, which gave additional effect to ticular is of such vast dimensions, that, the harmony. During the service, the when completed, it will stand among blind pupils delivered their responses, the proudest monuments of human inwith a degree of correctness, regula- genuity, exerted in gigantic labours. rity, and feeling, which reflected an On Monday the 18th, John Tobin, honour on themselves, and on their Esq. was chosen mayor for the ensuing zealous chaplain, the Rev. Wm. Blun- 1 year. From this gentleman the inhadell; through whose unwearied and bitants have every reason to expert

In the very

A DISSERTATION ON GEOLOGY.

that the public works, so kindly fos- | superficial that view may be, we tered, and promoted by his predeces- cannot fail of arriving at the most sor in office, will be conducted towards satisfactory conclusions. maturity, and that new ones will be threshold of our inquiries, we meet planned for the general advantage. with confirmations of the truth. In

the very commencement of our voyage, we are blessed by the most auspicious

omens; and charmed by the preludBy E. S. Boyd, Esq.

ing hand of Science, atuning the harp To magnify the glorious name of the of Nature to the praise of Deity.* Lord God Almighty, the Creator, the

It is considered as an indisputable Ruler, and the Upholder of the Uni- fact, by all true Geognists, that this verse; to illustrate the grandeur of his globe was originally formed in a fluid; designs, and the magnificence of his that the waters stood very high above productions; to demonstrate the infal- its surface; and that the materials, of libility of his word, as well as the won- which its crust is composed, were ders of his arm; to reflect from crea- held in chemical solution. Through tion's page, the commemorated truths of some mysterious, and unknown power, Revelation; and to strike the heart of the waters began to resign the treathe infidel, if not with conviction, at sures which they held : their beauteous least with surprise; these are the crystals were precipitated, and the genuine results of real Geology. But primitive rocks were formed. It is in order that He, the Alone, the In- known to all philosophers, that any comprehensible, may be glorified; in motion, communicated to water, canorder that his grandeur may be evinc- not act far beneath the surface. It ed, his magnificence displayed, his was therefore impossible, that any power manifested, his wisdom illus- other than chemical formations could trated, and his truth confirmed; in be produced, while the waters towerorder that the infidel may be amazed | ed, in terrific grandeur, above the at coincidences unlooked for, and that earth. But, when the fair face of naall may be harmony, and light, and ture was newly revealed; or, perhaps, splendour in the Lord; it is needful, when at an earlier period, her watery that he who writes should possess at vail was about to be removed, meleast a general knowledge of the sub-chanical agency commenced. At this ject. Then, may results be produced, period, the transition rocks were formcongenial to the wishes of each devout ed; deriving their origin partly from heart. Then may the holy nuptials of chemical precipitation, and partly by Divinity and Science be duly solem- | mechanical deposition. By the same nized. Then may Sacred and Philo- method were the flætz rocks produced. sophical Truth be united in the golden It should however be remarked, that bonds of eternal concord, walk with as the formations went on, the ratio of undivided hearts through the bound the mechanical deposition, to the cheless realms of nature, and chaunt one mical precipitation, was greatly incommon song, to magnify one common creased. It is thus apparent, that the Father!

whole of the materials, which formed I have been led into the above re- the crust of our globe, were originally flections, by meditating on the non- held in water. sense which I have met with even in Reader, I have not been unfolding learned writers, when treating of the the dogmata of men, whose professed creation, and the deluge; especially object is to support the Scriptures. ! the latter. It is really lamentable to have been detailing the doctrine of perceive, what blunders are committed even by the most eminent scholars, Although this Essay has not been pubwhen they enter these regions of lished until now, it was written at the latter philosophy, without a previous pre

end of the year 1817, and it has not been subparation. It is almost ludicrous jected to any alteration, nor received any addito hear them maintaining absolute tion, excepting two or three notes, since that impossibilities, that the phænomena of of the same nature should have been published

period. I mention this, because, if any Work nature may be made to harmonize within the last two years, and if it should con, with the Sacred Records. But when tain any ideas or arguments similar to mine, I we have acquired a correct view of might be unjustly accused of borrowing from the structure of the carth; however others.

*

777

A Dissertation on Geology.

778

sion;

philosophers, who either know little, , tions to the infidel. Tell me, 0 thou that or care little, for the word of God. deniest the inspiration of the Bible; Is it not grateful, is it not consolatory from whence did Peter derive this wonto your heart to perceive, how com- drous knowledge? How did he discopletely they agree with the sacred re- ver that the earth was formed in water, cords?

and by the agency of water ?-You wilí It is the characteristic feature of the not assert, that he learnt it from the Wernerian Geognosy, that the earth heathen philosophers; you, who reprewas formed out of water, and by the sent the Jews as utterly ignorant of agency of water.

I will not assert, science; and the Apostles, as the most that Moses teaches both these facts, illiterate of the Jews? Alas! what in the first chapter of Genesis ; but he did this poor and lowly follower of certainly announces to us the former. Jesus know of the Greek philosoSt. Peter, however, is clear and de- phers ?-If he even had looked into cided, upon both these points. In them, they would only have bewildered the third chapter of his second epistle, and confounded his untutored mind. he has a most remarkable passage. It Some of the heathen sages taught, that is ill translated in our common ver- the universe was formed from water;

but in the original, it is preg- others, that it owed its origin to fire; nant with a sense inestimable. As others, that it was made from air; and the Greek Testament is a book, which other opinions were propagated by may be met with in almost every other sages. Out of so many theories, house; and as I do not wish, that this how could Peter have known which to little treatise should display aught of chuse? Did he select the true one by the parade of learning; I shall con- mere chance ?-You will probably say, tent myself with a simple reference. that he took it from Moses. And The Greek scholar who shall examine where did Moses get it? Will you the original, will perceive, that the fol- tell me, that as he was skilled in all lowing is the real meaning.

the learning of the Egyptians, he pro“ The Heavens were of old; and bably derived from them this knowthe earth, being formed, (or constitut- ledge? But how did the Egyptians ed) out of water, and by means of come by it? You will not assert, that water.”'t

they possessed any real knowledge of We have here the precise doctrine of Geology; much less will you maintain, the Wernerian school. Werner not that they were acquainted with all only taught, that the earth was brought which is known at present.—The conto its present form by the agency of clusion is plainly this, Moses could water; but also, that it was primarily have known it only by divine illuminamade in the water, and afterwards tion; and Peter could have known emerged from it. Thus, in whichever it only from the writings of Moses, or sense you take the preposition out of, from the same heavenly teaching.--We you will perceive, that the doctrine of see then, that in the beginning of our the saint is confirmed by the system philosophical career, Theology and of the philosopher.

Science walk hand in hand before us. And here, I would put a few ques- May they never be separated from us,

† I am aware it may be objected, that I by Mr. Bakewell, in his elegant and ingenious take for granted the truth of the Wernerian work on Geology ; and I believe, that it is System ; whereas several of the most distin- maintaived by the illustrious Woollaston. Our guished Mineralogists, and Geologists, are argument, however

, is not affected by these Huttonians, believing that the crust of our discrepancies of opinion. Whether one, or globe was brought to its present state, princi- both, or neither of the rival systems, be true, pally by fire. Such for instance, are Playfair, it is a certain fact, that there was once a period, and Sir James Hall. I answer, I am not only when this earth was entirely covered with aware of this, but I am also aware, that there water, and that afterwards it emerged from the are others who hold a middle course ; believ- water; or, which is the same thing, that the ing that both systems are true in part, and that water receded from it. Now, the passage of both fire and water had a considerable share St. Peter, which I have translated by means of in the production of the various strata. Mr. water, may certainly be rendered in the midst of Lowry, whose profound knowledge of Mine- water; alihough the former version appears talogy, has gained him almost as splendid a the best. Thus, in every case, the assertion reputation, as the excellency of his engravings, of the Apostle, is confirmed by Geological is an advocate of this opinion. It is also held facts.

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or from one another; but may they , explanations, proceeds to enumerate continually guide us, through paths of the Volcanic Rocks; but it is not neceslight to regions of immortality ! sary to introduce them here. I have thus pointed out one remark

(To be continued.) able confirmation of Sacred Writ; namely, the fact, that this earth was Ascent of Messrs. Livingston and formed by the agency of water. I

Sadler in a Balloon. now proceed to a second, which is On Tuesday September 28th, 1819, the more remarkable, because it is more inhabitants of Liverpool, and its vicomplex: I mean, the order in which cinity, were highly gratified with this the vegetables, and the different kinds of animals, were created.-We learn of this balloon surpassed those of any

splendid spectacle. The dimensions from Scripture, that vegetables were

one hitherto constructed, its diameter formed before fishes ; fishes, before measuring 32 feet, and its height 38. beasts; and beasts, before the human It contained 31,880 cubic feet of gas,

On the third day, vegetation and its power of ascension was equal commenced on the primordial moun

to 1100 pounds. tains. Then the earth, fresh and bloom

The weather was rather unfavourable ing, as a newly wedded bride, was in the morning, but the atmosphere arrayed in its beauteous vesture of put on a more inviting aspect as the trees and plants. On the fifth day, day advanced, which the sun occathe sea was peopled. Then, the fishes sionally enlivened with his beams. leaped into life, and knew the luxury At an early hour the people began to of existence. On the sixth day, the assemble; and for some time about earth was inhabited. Then, the land

noon, the principal streets poured forth animals received their portion of life, their myriads towards the eminence and light, and happiness. Lastly, whence the balloon was expected to man was formed. The Son of God, ascend, and in that direction which communing in holy counsel with the the wind would compel it to take Father and the Spirit, prepared the when it left the earth. An accurate noblest work, for the highest pur- estimate of the number of spectators, pose. Man was formed, that Jehovah will scarcely come within the reach of might be glorified! Man was made, in conjecture. On this point several opithe semblance of the Deity !-Such nions have been given, varying from was the order of creation, if the words 80,000 to 130,000. of Moses may be credited.

The Balloon being inflated, the car Those who are wholly unacquainted attached, and every preparation made, with Geology, will be surprised on Messrs. Livingston and Sadler took hearing, that we are in possession of their seats, receiving the flags from the documents, by which we can ascertain hands of the Countess of Sefton and the truth, or the falsehood, of the Mrs. Blackburne. The signal-guns above narration. For the benefit of being fired, the Balloon was let loose such persons, I shall enter into a mi- about sixteen minutes past two, and, nute and circumstantial detail.

in majestic grandeur, mounted with The crust of our globe, is composed rapidity into the air, amidst the shouts of a series of stupendous rocks, which and congratulations of such a multiare piled, or built one upon another. tude as was never before convened in The most ancient of these, are deno

Liverpool. The aëronauts displayed minated Primitive. They are four- above the spectators, the utmost intreteen in number. The next in order,

pidity, waving their flags, moving their are the Transition Rocks, which are hats, and bowing with as much comfive in number. To these succeed the posure, as though their feet had rested Flætz, amounting to twelve.

Next

on terra firma. The direction which follow the Alluvial Rocks, and the the Balloon took was N. E. by E. number of these is seven. Professor Jameson, from whom I have taken twelve minutes, it seemed to sink be

After remaining in sight about the above list, as well as the following low the horizon, somewhat to the east

# I believe, that Jameson's Work on Mi- of Everton; but shortly afterwards it neralogy, of which a new edition is now pub- reascended, and regularly took an eastlishing, is considered by the best judges, to be wardly direction. Moving with conthe most admirable work extant, on that im- siderable celerity, it speedily withdrew portant subject.

from the gaze of the spectators, dimi

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