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On Friendship.

742 our tranquillity, may be concerned ? or to that sex who are destined to make where doubting judgment hangs sus- more conspicuous figures in the world; pended, whether it ought to retreat or yet if the female heart could be laid pursue its course. In the latter case, open to inspection, I am inclined to beparticularly, how beneficial must be lieve we should behold many instances the counsel of a Friend, in whose judg- of exalted attachment;-in short, all ment we can place implicit confidence! those virtues which give grace to the and who, from not being a party con- feminine character, are peculiarly calcerned in the important transaction, culated to inspire Friendship and coolly beholds it, through all its de- affection. vious ramifications. “ The counsel of Though females have been accused a friend in such a situation, (observes of a versatility of disposition inimical Lord Bacon)

“ it is always better to to permanent association, I know sefollow, than any self-interested sugges- veral instances of Friendships formed tions."

at an early period, which have only Friendship has appropriately been been terminated by dissolution. That termed the balm of existence ; it is a a sentiment which possesses the power gem, whose value is not to be calcu- of augmenting our joys and dimilated; a treasure, which royalty can- nishing our sorrows, should be cultinot purchase, and which none but the vated, and that we should seek it with virtuous and the amiable must ever an ardour proportioned to its inestihope to possess! The more youthful mable value, is doubtless a pursuit at part of my readers will doubtless be once natural and laudable; yet, in that astonished at this assertion, whilst pursuit, unfortunately, we often mismemory furnishes them with such a take the shadow for the substance. variety of instances of Friendship ; all Pleasing manners, polished courtesy, which, I must candidly assure them, and insinuating accomplishments, are are mere associations, formed upon mu- | too often the mere foundation on tual convenience. In an extensive in- which we erect an altar to Friendship; tercourse with the world, real Friend- whilst the heart, the temper, and the ship is scarcely to be hoped for, much propensities, are scarcely thought of, less expected, and in a successive as- instead of being studied. sociation with varying characters, it Though I consider religion too sais scarcely possible to discover the cred a subject for frequent conversaessential qualities of a Friend. In the tion, yet in confidential intercourse it calm sequestrations which fashion must occasionally be introduced ; if even decrees to her greatest votaries, merely animadverting upon a sermon, young persons may be more fortunate; which the parties may recently have for the intercourse which takes place heard: and if the slightest degree of in the country, is of a different de- levity is attached to such conversation, scription to that which prevails in the I would exclaim, Beware of entering metropolis—families of rank and for- into the bonds of Friendship! Filial tune alternately assimilate in each affection, is the next imposing duty to other's houses, and by that means ac- piety; and which of course includes quire knowledge of dispositions and passive obedience to those whose mopropensities. In favour of this opinion, tives are almost invariably instigated I cannot avoid quoting that judge of by tenderness and affection : but if human nature, Dr. Johnson ; who in- parental commands are resisted, or forms us, we can acquire a greater complied with reluctantly, the head is knowledge of the real character of our either weak, or the heart corrupted ; acquaintance by a three weeks' resi- consequently such a character“ was dence in their own houses, than by three not ordained by nature to become a times three years occasional association. sincere Friend. A compassionating

Various are the instances recorded disposition, is a necessary qualificain sacred and ancient history, of dis- tion in those characters with whom we interested Friendship subsisting be- have an intention of forming a Friendtween characters of the most exalted ship; in short, I am inclined to beand dignified description ; instances, lieve, that persons destitute of sensiwhich at once do honour to human na- bility are totally incapable of attachture, and add dignity to that refined ment. A general probity of conduct in sentiment. Though history has con- the most minute circumstances, for: fined her proofs of this noble passion, necessary virtue in the character


Friend: at the same time, I would not sopher, deserve to be written in chahave it supposed, that human nature racters which time cannot efface. The can be totally free from blemish; or difficulty of finding a real Friend, is that perfection is to be expected in a truly poetical; and the simile of that creature so frail, or so faulty, as man. purity of heart which is necessary to

“ Genuine and perfect Friendship render Friendship intrinsically valu(observes a philosophical writer) can able, is figuratively described by the only exist between persons of inte- unsoundness of the core ; whilst deligrity, and refinement of feeling ; it is berating upon the character, and the a tacit covenant, entered into between propensities, previous to entering into persons of sensible and virtuous dispo- the bonds of Friendship, may at once sitions. I say sensible, (he adds,) be- be termed a necessary and useful cause a monk or a recluse may not lesson. That confidence, which the be wicked, and yet live without know- contract requires, when once sacredly ing any thing of Friendship: and I formed between two persons, is no say virtuous, because the vicious have less instructive and beautiful: in short, only accomplices, the voluptuous have a sufficient number of extracts might only companions, the interested have be selected from that admired author, associates, but the virtuous, and the to compose a moderate-sized volume. virtuous only, can expect to enjoy the That solicitude which parents nasweets of Friendship.

turally feel for the pure welfare of their The justly admired Dr. Young, in offspring, induces them to impress senNight the Second, evidently entertains timents of the greatest precaution rea similar opinion to this celebrated specting that sentiment termed Love; philosopher; and appealing to Lo- whilst that of Friendship, on which, renzo, inquires whether he was ac- their future happiness in a great meaquainted with that exalted passion. sure depends, is too often passed " Knows't thou, Lorenzo ! what a Friend contains !

over in total silence. So numerous As Bees mixt nectar draw from various flowers,

have been the instances of the subse“So men from Friendship, wisdom and delight; quent misfortunes which have arisen “ Twins ty'd by nature; if they part, they die." from these ill-fated associations, that

the interest I take in the happiness of " Friendship the means of wisdom richly gives,

the youthful part of my own, the female “ The precious end, which makes our wisdom wise; sex, will, I trust, act as an apology for “Nature, in zeal for human amity,

prolixity and precaution. At an early Denies, or damps, an undivided joy."

period of life, a heart, prone to sensi

bility, imperceptibly selects some ob“Rich fruit! heav'n-planted! never pluck'd by one. ject, on which to place the softer af“ Need ful auxiliaries are Friends, to give

fections; and, if the tender tie of bro“ To social Man true relish of himself."

ther and sister is excluded,


all As the advice which that pious di- its emotions in Friendship’s fostering vine has given respecting Friend- bosom. The solitude of individuality, ship, is applicable to my subject, I gives an ardency to these attachments, shall unhesitatingly insert it, for the unknown to those whose affections instruction of my readers; conceiving branch out into a variety of different the sentiments of a man so universally channels; and we expect to find in the respected are likely to be more impres- bonds of Friendship all those endearsive than my own.

ing sensations which accompany the

ties of nature. That this expectation " What if, (since daring on so nice a theme,) « I shew thee Friendship delicate as dear,

should so frequently become falla“ of tender violations apt to die!

cious, doubtless is greatly to be deReserve will wound il--and Distrust destroy !

plored; yet

the frequency, I am of opi“ Deliberate on all things with thy Friend ;

nion, is to be attributed to the eager“ But since Friends grow not thick on ev'ry bough,

ness with which young persons enter “ Nor ev'ry Friend unrotten at the core, First on thy Friend delib'rate with thyself;

into these associations. Though a susPause, ponder, sist; not eager in the choice,

picious and distrustful mind is incaNor jealous of the chosen; fixing, fix ;

pable of Friendship, yet in a contract, “ Judge before Friendship,--then confide till Death."

where our happiness must be interThese few lines are so full of in-woven with that of another person's, structive counsel, that they may be it surely becomes a matter of imsaid to contain a perfect volume; and, portance to acquire a knowledge of like the maxims of an ancient philo- the leading traits of that person's cha


Joy flies monopolists; it calls for two;

745 Election and Predestination.-- Regulations recommended. 746 racter; and though a similarity of import of the terms Election and Pretaste may not be essential, we ought destination. to have convincing proofs of an ami- In reply to this correspondent, we able disposition.

beg to observe, that as these subjects Pleasing manners, unfortunately, have been investigated for ages, we often conceal the want of intrinsic qua- despair of giving any interpretation lifications; even depravity possesses to the terms, that will not be offensive the power of assuming virtue's attract- to some parties. Those whose sentiive form; and it has frequently been ments coincide with our own, may known to impose both upon age and perhaps be pleased with the observaexperience. This imposition, however, tions we might make; but others who can only occur in cases where frequent differ from us, and who have an equal association is impracticable : for imi- right with ourselves to form their own tation, of every description, cannot al- judgments, will also demand a hearways be upon its guard; and some in- ing, which we could not in justice cautious word, or some unreflected up-deny: and this would involve us in a on action, often removes the veil which controversy, to which it would be diffihad concealed a designing heart! cult to predict a termination. To the

Anevil of this kind, however, neither various writers who have distinguished can norought to be dreaded, in Friend- themselves in this field of polemical ships which are formed between those, theology, we presume this corresponwho from childhood have had frequent dent is no stranger: to their writings communication; for at that period, of we must therefore refer him. A single course, each thought of the heart is topic or a solitary feature, on any queslaid open, and the leading traits of tion in divinity or science, that might character may easily be remembered. be deemed worthy of investigation, It therefore cannot be against associa- would be suitable for our pages ; but tions of this description, that I am de- whole systems are too ponderous for sirous of cautioning the youthful part our undertaking. of my readers; but against those sudden intimacies which take place in their intercourse with the world ; where

Regulations recommended. a polished address, and conciliating

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL manners, become the chief, if not only foundation, which Friendship is built

SIR, upon. With the warning voice of a

Liverpool, June 23d, 1819. sincere Friend, I would caution them Meeting lately with a manuscript against these hastily-formed attach-Essay by a young friend, “On the Imments; entreating them to attend to portance of moral and mental Culture the admonitions of Doctor Young-to in early Life;" I was pleased with pause---ponder-sift—and examine well, hints on the two interesting subjects the character, before they enter into found in the following extract, which, Friendship’s sacred bonds.

if approved of, I beg you will insert in It has been observed, that those may the present or next number of your usejest at wounds, whose bodies are free ful and widely-extended Miscellany. from blemish; or, in other words, are I have been induced to hand it to you, incapable of exhibiting any scars : and by the hope, that it may excite that atthose who have

felt the pangs inflicted tention to its contents, which they do by treacherous Friendship, are certain- not merely deserve, but demand; ly best calculated to caution others. As that its appearance in print may proexample is universally allowed to be voke abilities to the subject; and that more efficacious than precept; I shall your readers may forget what is obventure, in the ensuing Essay, to pre-jectionable in its style, for the subjects sent one to my readers ; merely re- of which it treats. sorting to fiction in the names which I After the following admission, “ 'Tis shall bestow on the parties concerned. true all are not called to glorify God

in the same public way; and perhaps

it will be found that his honour is most ELECTION AND PREDESTINATION.

displayed and secured amongst those From a correspondent who subscribes his honest, sincere, and simple serhimself “ Neuter,” we have received vants, not remarkable for intellectual some queries respecting the Scriptural expansion or refined thought;" he ol


I am per

serves as follows, “ And yet I cannot will not be asserted, I should hope, by but notice the discreditable incapacity any man, friendly either to the moral of the Laity of our day, for conducting or bodily interests of Man. The cuswith vigour or effect, the public-spi- toms and interests of modern times, in rited and benevolent institutions of the the “universal passion” for moneyage ; an incapacity the more mortify- getting, has produced a mental dwarfing too, as it arises not from any de- ishness, little creditable to the advanced fect of mental constitution, but merely age in which we live; and the shamefrom a wilful misimprovement, or an ful abuse of the powers and the time of inglorious disuse, of the powers God men, in pressing this broad and muchhas given them. If a public meeting thronged road, is a lamentable evil. I is to be convened, resolutions moved, argue not against diligence in busithe nature and objects of the institu- ness, but against that want of it which tion detailed, committees named, or induces the constant attendance of the important business of correspond commercial men to it. ence conducted, we generally find the suaded, if a steady glow of determined whole of this complicated labour hud- feeling, a fixed application, a oneness dled on the shoulders of our Reverend of object, a systematic disposal, and Pastors. We do indeed find them habitual dispatch-a WORKING that upon a committee, or sometimes as deserves the name—are given to busijoint-secretaries ; but in the one case ness, that one half of the time usually the meetings are too often favoured employed in it, might, without detriwith their bare corporeal presence, ment be spared for the great object of where also the corporeal (not pious) act self-discipline and improvement, and of the up-lifting of their hands, if found for purposes of general usefulness. I necessary, is given : and in the other, do hope, for the honour of humanity, as the very nomination of a clerical col- well as for the credit of the scientific league, though the advantage of the character of the town, this subject, with union is obvious, may argue the justice its branches, viz. late hours, &c. will of the mild remonstrance I have thus have the able attention of some humane ventured to make. These things may, individual.” and perhaps do, come within the sphere, I would just observe, in behalf of but cannot be the main object, of a that dependent part of the community Pastor's duty; but it is the almost ex- employed in shops or counting-houses, clusive and NECESSARY engagement of such interference is most devoutly to them in public business of this sort, of be wished ;—that however unguarded which I complain. I should be glad to some expressions in the above extract see this subject taken up by one of may appear, there is considerable justhemselves. I rejoice that there are tice in them on the whole; and that I some creditable exceptions to the ge- am, with sincere respect, a humble neral rule; and beg to be explicitly coadjutor in your attempts to produce understood, that the above remarks, real moral “ reform," and enhance the intended merely as a stimulus, are not interests of science. meant to (and indeed cannot fairly) be

AELFRED. applied to those who are obliged to Liverpool, 23d July, 1819. give nearly the whole of their time to their secular concerns, either from the

Queries on the Divine Foreknowledge. cupidity of employers, or the shamefully retrenching habits of the times, TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL in those who conscientiously do what they can.-Still, experience, as well as SIR, the exception, proves the rule. In the ninth paragraph of your Re

“ With respect to the two efficient view, col. 18, for March last, you say: causes of want of improvement above “ Whatever we denominate past, must stated, I beg to remark, that the em- certainly be considered as having been ployer has not only legally, but in right, once present, though now it is not; and a claim to the services of those under what we call future, we must conclude him, during what are unnecessarily to be something that has not yet arcalled “ business hours:" but that rived. In this light all such events and these are included in the constant, un actions must be considered with regard mitigated, unrelaxed exertions of a ser- to ourselves; and as such, we cannot vant, from the first to the last of a day, doubt, the Almighty beholds them.


749 Queries on the Divine Foreknowledge, &c.

750 The terms AFTER-knowledge and FORE- | if you will, in your next number, clear knowledge, are therefore highly proper up a little more, your assertions in in relation to us; but to a Being, with respect to this affair. I do not follow whom nothing can be either past or fu- blindly either Calvin or Arminius, or ture, the terms AFTER-knowledge and any other man. So far as they keep Fore-knowledge are totally inapplica- within compass, in undeniable truths, ble. To him, it is only perfect or I follow all men; but when they are simple knowledge, from which the re- lost in a labyrinth of speculations, I lative ideas of After and FORE, or judge it best to walk in that road which Past and FUTURE, are necessarily ex- is pointed out by unerring wisdom. cluded.”

And to know this road, we have only Now, Sir, as a searcher after truth, to follow the Lord Jesus Christ. independent of any man, or his condi

1 am, Sir, tion, be he of whatsoever party or sect

Your's, obediently, he may; permit me to ask the follow

TYRO. ing Questions.—If an action be past to Hanley, Staffordshire Potteries, us, or future to us, how can you make 18th Sept. 1819. it appear, it is not so to the Almighty in respect to himself also ? Of all the Observations on the preceding Queries. transactions which have past in this We have inserted the preceding artiworld; are they not past to God, as they cle, that our correspondent Tyro might are to man? Does not God then view not be furnished with any plausible the actions as past in regard to His own occasion of complaint; although we “perfect or simple knowledge?” cannot but think, that many of his in

Let us take the Jews for an example. quiries might have been spared; since When the Lord Jehovah called Abra- | they have already received an answer ham to leave his father's house, and in that number of our Magazine go into a strange land, which He would whence he has taken the quotation. shew Abraham, and promised to give As Tyro professes to be actuated with his posterity, and make of his seed a a sincere desire to obtain from the great nation, and bless them with all Reviewer of Verax some additional the blessings of this world, so long as information on the momentous subject they would obey Him; but if they dis- discussed in that Review, he ought in diosbeyed His commands, He would justice to have examined the argupunish them: can any man, with any ments which the Reviewer has adshew of reason, positively maintain that vanced, and to have pointed out their all which befel the Jews was not clear- defects; or at least to have shown why ly seen by God, as future to himself as he thought them inconclusive. well as the Jews? All these actions, Tyro must be sensible, that, on every which as past to the Jews, must also argument which can be advanced, be past to God.

though amounting to the most unLet us demolish nights and days, let equivocal demonstration, it will be us make away with all those means by exceedingly easy for him, or for any which we distinguish time at present, other person, to come forward and and bring ourselves to an eternal light. say, “ I shall be greatly obliged to In this state we have something to do; you, Sir, if you will, in your next numas well as we have something to do ber, clear up a little more, your assernow, in our present state. Would not tions in respect to this affair." He the actions which we should do in this may rest assured, that when he shall eternal state, be past when they were have fairly pointed out the defects of done? And those which we knew we those reasonings, by which the Rehad to do, would they not be future viewer attempts to prove that nothing to us?— Are we to suppose, that the can be either past or future to God, he blessed in heaven have nothing to do? | may expect to hear something more on If we allow them to employ themselves the occasion. in something, which we are informed Tyro ought to have known, that this by revelation they do; we must con- subject, instead of being exhausted, clude that the actions which have been is only transiently surveyed, as done are past to them, though there is thoughts were entertained, that any no distinction of time ; and what they person pretending to understand the have to do, is future to them.

question, would ever conceive that the I shall be greatly obliged to you, Sir, Eternal God could be liable to the m.


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