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for by the change the sound is made | upon paper of the forementioned very disagreeable. Its having been laid phrases, you will, perhaps, honour down as a rule by grammarians, and them with a place in your Magazine: want of thought in the writers, were the consequence will be, AN will no the causes of its being changed. more usurp the place of A. I never yet met with a book wherein

I am, Sir, the writer of it had used the article in

Your's, with respect, the shape of an before the word youth ;

ALPHEUS. and yet it would be quite as proper to use it thus, as it is to use it before the word “unity.That this invariable

Observations on Participles. rule has exceptions, the consideration MR. EDITOR, of the word youth affords sufficient Sir,—That Lindley Murray's Gramproof, for, in its pronunciation, it be- mar has its excellencies, I believe few gins precisely in the same manner as doubt; but that it is in all cases the unity; therefore, when the Indefinite standard of propriety, is a position Article is used before either youth or which others, as well as A. B. have unity, the form of it which is proper to reason to scruple. I have waited with be used before one, is proper to be anxiety for an answer to A. B.'s inused before both : this being the case, quiries, (col. 419,) respecting “ the and it being improper to write an youth, cause of my not receiving it.” Two it necessarily follows, that it is equally articles have appeared; but it seems improper to write “ an unity.

to me that Gamma Delta has done The exceptions to the useful rule of nothing towards elucidating the diffichanging a to an before a word, the culty of the above form of expression; first letter of which is a vowel, are con- while M. S. having written in haste

, fined to certain words which begin with has misunderstood A. B. altogether. the vowel u, viz. words, of which the As the first note, under the 14th Rule u forms of itself the first syllable; as, of Syntax, allows a similar construcusurper: and words wherein the first tion, viz. “ by observing which," and letter(u) has its long sound; as, useful. as we have no rule in Murray's Gram

Sept. 13th, 1819. mar by which we can parse such a Since writing the above, respecting construction, it will be necessary to the Indefinite Article, I have met with, have recourse to other authorities, bewhilst reading, the following phrases— fore we can have our scruples fully re

an European, such an one." I have moved :—for, in the first place, we have found, after an examination of them, a preposition (of) which, according to that what I remarked concerning the grammarians in general, must govern exceptions to the grammatical rule of the objective case; and this preposichanging a to an before a vowel being tion evidently points to receiving, CONFINED to words which begin with the which, it would appear, from this convowel u, is not correct; for it is easy sideration, is a noun: but again, reto perceive, that, AN Europeanceiving retains its action, which falls sounds much more disagreeable than upon the pronoun it, and causes it to A European; and that an one" sounds be in the objective case, which case is no better than an warrior, which no not governed by nouns. person would ever think of putting up- If, however, we have recourse to the on paper, if he meant to write English; Latin tongue, we shall find the diffitherefore, in addition to the exceptions culty removed; for in the conjugation which I mentioned in my last letter, it of an active verb, we have what are should be observed, that before all called gerunds: as, from the verb rewords which begin with a vowel, but are cipio, to receive, comes recipiendi, of pronounced as though they began with receiving, which, being active, will ada consonant, the article remains in its mit an object after it; lience we may. original form.

say of receiving it, or, “ the cause of If

, Sir, you think that these few re- my not receiving it.This reasoning marks are likely, in any degree, to ac- appears to me to be legitimate; if so, complish the end for which they are then the above construction is proper, written, viz. to counteract the want of and this conclusion is agreeable to Dr. thought which caused (for I am con- Lowth, who says, (see page 103 of his vinced that want of thought was the Grammar,) “ The participle with a chief cause) the erroneous appearance preposition before it, and still retain

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On the Language spoken in Paradise, &c.


ing its government, answers to what is man, and Eve of the first woman; or called in Latin the gerund : as, Hap- that these names are Hebrew ; the piness is to be attained by avoiding word Adam, signifying much more evil, &c.

than red or ruddy, for which we geneIt may be objected, that in the Eng-rally take it, namely, a florid whitelish tongue we have no gerunds; but ness, and the brightness and lustre is it not sufficiently evident that we proper to pearls and precious stones : have a form of speech, which is used Eve, a mother, as the scripture tells by all our best writers, for which we us ; Issa, which Adam first called his have no specific name, and which wife, when he saw her; Vira, or a sheexactly corresponds with what is called man. But this is also very remarkin Latin the gerund ? And what im- able in the Hebrew names of all livpropriety can there be in giving a name ing creatures, imposed by Adam, to it illustrative of its meaning ? Dr. which appear not to be given by Johnson defines the gerund to be a chance, or deflected from any other verbal noun, which governs cases like language, as the Greek, Latin, and all a verb :—why then may we not call others, but to contain therein the naparticiples in such a situation, gerunds, ture of the creature, as the learned or verbal nouns?

and industrious Bochart admirably I shall feel gratified if any of your proves, in his Hierozoicon, where he ingenious correspondents will inform shews their names were partly taken me, through the medium of your va- from something obvious to the senses, luable Miscellany, if the following form as their colour, their hair, their stature, of the possessive pronouns, your's, and their external form ; partly from our's, &c. be correct, or what form their inward properties and disposithey would have, were the ellipses sup- tions, which he could neither know by plied ?

use, nor the information of others, but I submit the above remarks and by that original wisdom wherewith queries to your consideration.-Should he was created, (by the Socinian's you deem them worthy of a place in leave) and a great part whereof he lost your justly esteemed Miscellany, their by the fall: for which reason, these insertion will oblige,

names are the most noble monuments Yours, respectfully,

of antiquity we have left in the world. Bolton-le-Moors,

I. W. Thus, to instance in a few. The Camel, Oct. 5th, 1819.

a creature which keeps its name almost in all languages, and which

Varro himself grants to be taken from On the Language spoken in Paradise ;

the Syriac language. It is derived and on the Tree of Knowledge.

from the Hebrew word Gamal, which MR. EDITOR,

signifies to retribute, or repay, either In answer to two Queries, contained in good or evil ; for which the camel is page 576, of the number for August, of still noted as the most tenacious of your valuable and instructive Maga- any animal. The Hebrew name of a zine, I beg leave to quote the follow- Horse, is derived from a root which ing articles, from a very ancient and signifies to rule, to guide, to moderate; scarce publication, which perhaps your and it is notorious, this creature is the correspondent of Lytham has never most docile, and the most easily ruled, read. Your insertion of them, (should considering its vast strength, of any you think them worthy of a place) will other. The Ass is derived from a word oblige

À SUBSCRIBER. which signifies red, of which colour Belfast, 1819.

they generally are in the East, a white 1st Query.—What language was ass being, it seems, a rarity; the judges spoken by our first parents in Para- and great persons, usually, for state, dise?

riding upon them, as we see in the Answer.-I think the Hebrew, or song of Deborah : another name of sacred language, stands much fairer the ass, is taken from its strength, for it than any other; for all the names which is undeniably more than any we find mentioned in the history of the other creatures of the same bulk. The beginning of the world, were undoubt- Bull, or Ox, derives its name from a edly Hebrew. None, I think, who be- word that signifies firmness, or stabilieve the Scriptures, can question that lity; it is in the Hebrew Sor, for which Adam was really the name of the first the Chaldees read Thor, the Arabians Thaur, whence undoubtedly the Greek delivers it as the received opinion of and Latin, tavę@, and Taurus. The his countrymen, in his Antiquities, Goat, from a word which denotes cap. 2, p. 4, of the English translation. roughness. The Swine from another, Among the trees of Eden, says he, alluding to the smallness of its eyes. were the tree of life, and another, the The Dog from Celeb, from the Hebrew tree of knowledge. So the scripture Club, and the Arabian Calub, which seems also not obscurely to assert, signifies a pair of tongs or pincers, thus Gen. ii. 9. Out of the ground God from the firmness of his teeth and hold- made every tree to grow :--the tree of fast; so remarkable, that a true mas- life also, and the tree of knowledge of tiff will let his legs be cut off, before good and evil. And yet more plainly he will quit his hold.

after the fall, chap. iii. verse 22. BeTo instance in no more, though it hold, says God, the man is become as were easy, from the before-mentioned one of us, to know good and evil: author, to run through all sorts of (that is, upon his eating of the tree of creatures; I mean, that all, or most knowldege of good and evil)-and other languages, at least in our part of now lest he put forth his hand, and the world, are derived from them, as take also of the tree of life, and eat, Avenarius has endeavoured to make and live for ever.- What is the meangood throughout his whole Lexicon; ing of that also, if the trees were all and that in many, and I think most one; and what would it be, but a diswords, with at least as little or less tinction, without a difference; nay, a violence than our common etymolo- fruitless caution, and besides an imgists use in works of that nature, when possible one, if he was to be turned out they fetch the original of their words of Paradise, lest he should eat of that nearer hand. And though it may be tree, of which he had eaten already? true, that learned men may sometimes Besides, the effects of the tree of life stretch things farther than they will go, were life, as appears both from its by indulging too much to their fancies, name, and from the supposition here especially in these etymologies; yet I made, that on the tasting thereof, think, the fore-cited great man (Bo- man might live for ever; nor can I see chart) has proved the Punic and Phoe- any need of an irony, which is comnician language to be all one, and both monly supposed in this place. Whereas a dialect of the Hebrew, and most of the effects of the tree of knowledge the names of countries, islands, pro- were quite contrary. In the day thou montories, and remarkable places, in eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die;Europe, as well as further, from them and what can differ more from life than to have taken their originals ; as, death? In the mean time, I must acamongst the rest, our own island, the knowledge, that there are some conetymology of which from Baratanack, jectures from the history, which seem answerable to the Caesciterides of the to make for the other side, and which Greeks, no learned man is now igno- would persuade me it might be one rant of.

tree only. In chap. ii. ver. 9, beforeHowever, thus much I am certain of, mentioned, we read the tree of life that all or most other languages are also in the midst of the garden. visibly derived, at least, as has been chap. iii. ver. 3, the woman tells the said, those about us; but as to the serpent, (who very probably had but a Hebrew, it centres in itself, and we confused knowledge of those things, can have it no further : for which before he got it out of the woman, as reason, as well as those before-men- it should seem by his first guess to her,) tioned, I conclude it to be the primitive she tells him the forbidden tree was language, spoken by Adam in Para- that which was in the midst of the dise, as, to be sure it must be, if he garden. It is plain, the tree they ate named all creatures there with Hebrew of, was the tree of knowledge; the

tree they ate of, was that in the midst 2d Query:-Are we to consider the of the garden. The tree of life Tree of Life, and the Tree of Know the midst of the garden ; therefore one ledge, as the same, or as different would think, the tree of knowledge trees ?

should be the tree of life. But, notAnswer.—That they were distinct, withstanding this, I am rather inclined seems to have been the opinion of to my former opinion, and believe antiquity, as also of Josephus, who it is not very difficult to get clear of



was in

737 Observations on the Tree of Knowledge.

738 this objection, because there might be tion of man's present nature (which two trees planted about the middle of the word of God pronounces to be the garden, encompassed perhaps by evil) is evident from experience, we all the rest, (which if once granted, the must look somewhat further to discodifficulty would vanisb ;) and because ver the effects of the tree of knowledge the words in the 9th verse of the 2d on the human state. chapter may be transposed, or falsely Man consists of an immaterial prinpointed, an alteration in either of ciple, and of a material part or body; which would make the sense very plain. the body also consists of simply orIf, for the tree of life, in the midst ganized parts, and a superadded porof the garden, and the tree of know- tion called life. The latter pair finds ledge of good and evil, I should read him on a level with the brute, and the -the tree of life, and, in the midst former principle places him nearer to of the garden, the tree of knowledge the angelic state. In his primitive of good and evil; that phrase, in the condition, the animal powers were camidst of the garden, would belong to the pable of conveying perfect sensations; following words, the tree of knowledge and the organs of thought being also of good and evil; not the tree of life, perfect, all reasoning was correct and which goes before.

clear. The passions and subordinate This is my judgment, from which I feelings, which arise from the junction shall not be angry, if any differ; and I of life with body, and which, to be shall alter my own, when they give right, require the organs to have no better reasons.

other than their due share and quality

of nervous energy, were also in their From another correspondent we have proper state of subjection to the sureceived the following observations perior faculties. The operation of the

deleterious fruit unsettled all this harrespecting the latter of the preceding questions.

mony, lowering the powers of that

part of the animal by which the suObservations on the Tree of Life, &c. perior faculties were exercised, and

excited to undue action those by which his lower passions were developed; and

in this situation he scarcely waited for Observing some queries in your No. temptation to stain the hitherto spotfor August, (col. 576,) relative to the less whiteness of his mind; for we must Trees of Knowledge and Immortality, observe, that though the soul could

not I recollected I had in my possession govern, it had not lost its power of dissome remarks, which, a considerable cerning right from wrong. time past, I wrote on this and other

When man by his misconduct had so passages in the sacred writings. These far altered the essential properties of the notes are brief, for it would require a body which God had given him, he bevolume to develop all that might be added in illustration and proof of what paradise of delight: but there was an

came unworthy to dwell longer in the I have advanced ; but perhaps it may other reason besides justice that caused elicit some observations from your cor- him be expelled from Eden; and respondents, that may throw greater


bad a share in what appeared a light on the subject.

harsh command. The tree of life was I am, your's, respectfully,

there, the fruit of which was able to reIPOLPUROC.

new the stamen of the body, and to preAmong the objects of creative power, vent the waste of what physiologists call of which an account is given by Moses, its irritable powers. Itis observed that there are two, the nature of which ap- every individual is endued with a depears to have been generally misun- finite portion of excitability, or life, derstood. It is beyond a doubt, that which nothing in nature will enable

us the breach of the law of God stains to recruit. By this means it is that the the soul with guilt, and must have arteries, which yesterday performed made even Adam offensive to his their offices of circulation and nutrition Maker. But a guilty mind is not pro- with vigour and effect, to-morrow shall pagated to the offspring ; nor, on the do it in a less perfect manner; and the other hand, is the renovation of the di- absorbents, which are destined to revine image conveyed by natural gene- move the deteriorated parts, will after ration; and therefore as the propaga- | a time leave their functions balf perNo. 8.--VoL, I.

3 B




Lord Bacon.

66 for

formed. The tree of life, which in man's perfect state was desirable, in

By a Lady order to convey to him a renewed portion of excitability or vitality; in his

“ You may take sarza, to remove a disease of the liver;

“ steel, to disperse the spleen; flowers of sulphur, for the deteriorated condition, would only have

"lungs; and castorium, for the brain : but no receipt served to immortalize that which had “ openeth the heart but a true Friend, to whom you may better be destroyed. Death was neces- “ impart griefs, joys, fears, hopes, suspicions, counsels, sary, in the new order of things, that “and whatever lieth upon, and oppresseth the heart." man might lay down deranged organs, and rise again in that incorruptible The sentiments of a man whose tastate which is necessary to the perfec-| lents were so justly admired, and tion of his being; and hence we see whose character was so highly estihow full of mercy was the Divinity when mated, as that of the Lord Chancellor he prevented man from eating of the Bacon, can scarcely fail making an tree of life, and living for ever. It will impression upon the mind of every reappear, then, that I consider the two flecting individual; and it is evident trees here mentioned, as acting on the he had both tried, and found, the anibody of man by their physical pro- mating power of Friendship, before he perties, in the same manner as Peru- made the preceding declaration. vian bark proves a tonic, and jalap a In a succeeding part of the Essay, purge. That this is the case in regard his lordship’s sentiments are equally to the tree of evil, appears evident from judicious and impressive; and there the corporal effects evident to our is something peculiarly beautiful in bis senses, and which alone could be con- comparison between the surrounding veyed, as an hereditary disease, to the Atmosphere and Friendship; offspring; and that the case is similar Friendship (says he) not only makwith regard to the tree of life, is evident eth a fair-day in the affections, shieldfrom the expression of the Almighty ing them from storm and tempest, but before alluded to, and from the care maketh day-light shine upon the undisplayed in keeping man from after- derstanding, out of confusion and wards approaching it.

darkness ;-for the senses clarify (he adds) by communication, and our

thoughts become arranged into an orTO PREVENT THE DRY ROT.

derly attack. Neither is the opening It has been observed that this destruc-of the understanding restrained to tive inmate, the Dry Rot, generally such Friends as are capable of giving makes its first appearance in cellars, wise counsel, for the very unbosoming of or such parts of our habitations as the thoughts teaches a man to reflect ; are most exposed to damps. Many and he had better attach himself, and attempts have been made, both to cure speak aloud, to a statue or a picture, and to prevent it, which have been at than suffer all sensations to evaporate tended with various degrees of suc- in his own breast.”

This evaporation of thought, or raAmong the causes of prevention, the ther of feeling, can only be practised following has been strongly recom- by the insensible or apathetic ; for beings mended to public notice. When per- who are endowed with a susceptibility sons are preparing to whitewash their of disposition, must select some indicellars or rooms, if they will mix so vidual, to participate in their sentimuch copperas with their composition, ments, to share their griefs, enjoy as will give to the wash a clear yel- their prosperity, and become a partner low hue, and repeat this annually, it in every pleasurable sensation which will prove an excellent preventive of arises. Surely solitary pleasures can the dry rot where it has not begun, never be substantial ! even a pictuand will arrest its progress where it resque prospect appears bereft of half has already taken place. The efficacy its charm, if beheld without a compaof this simple specific is said to be nion with whom we can admire the founded upon numerous experiments, works of creation! If we are incapanot one of which has failed. As the ble of enjoying inanimate perfection, trial will be attended with very little without some animated being to partrouble or expense, the probability of ticipate in our emotions, how much success will certainly justify the risk of more essential is such an associate, a disappointment.

where our interest, our happiness, or


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