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bens also visited this country; and ON THE FINE ARTS. [Continued from col. 629.]

Peter Oliver, the son of Isaac, prac

tised miniature painting with deserved In the succeeding reign of Henry success, in a way worthy of the reputa8th, the art of Painting was properly tion of his father. encouraged. Artists were patronized, Immediately on the accession of and Royal invitation was given to Charles, he began to form his collecRaphael and Titian to visit the island. tion of paintings, and invited the most

Hans Holbein was the ornament of celebrated artists to his court. Rubens, this reign: he was by birth a Swiss; Vandyck, Poelemburg, and other fobut visited England at an early age, reigners, were duly honoured; but not and was patronized by the great Sir to the exclusion of native talent. DobThomas More, who entertained him at son, who obtained the name of the his own house, and employed him to English Tintoret; George Jamesone, paint the portraits of himself and fami- called the Vandyck of Scotland; John ly, which were bung up in a great hall. Hoskins, and others, were supported The monarch having seen them, was and encouraged by royal favour. Of so struck with their life, beauty, and these, Dobson was the most distinsimilarity, as instantly to become his guished: he was the father of the patron, and ever after to employ and English school of portrait-painting; encourage him. His principal occu- his manner is unequal, but it betrays pation was in painting portraits in oil; much of the style of Vandyck, under although he sometimes used both wa- whom he studied: he resided much at ter-colours and distemper. His great Oxford, where he has left somc lovely attempts in history, were two compo- portraits: he also painted history; the sitions for the hall of the Steel-Yard | Astronomer and his Family at BlenCompany; but their true designation heim, and the Decollation of St. John, would be groups of portraits. His at Wilton, are well known, and justly works are marked with great force of co- admired : his premature death, at the louring; and he was equally successful early age of 36, robbed the Arts of in pourtraying the piercing and intel- England of a distinguished ornament, ligent More, or the graceful and lovely at a time when they stood in need of Anne Boleyn: he finished his pictures his continued support. with wonderful neatness, and was so The collection made by Charles was highly esteemed by Zucchero, that he most valuable; and the dispersion compared his portraits with those of and destruction of it has been, and Raphael and Tiziano. The reign of ever will be, a matter of great regret Mary was unpropitious to the arts: to all artists and amateurs. The asthat of Elizabeth was marked by the cendency of the popular party was fatal appearance of some very respectable to the Arts; it was considered part of artists; the Queen had no taste for the religious duty of those in power, to Painting, except when she beheld in wage war on the Arts, which had been a portrait a flattering representation of countenanced by the late King. The herself. The fame of Isaac Oliver, Parliament resolved, that all pictures, who flourished about the end of this being a representation of our Saviour reign, as a miniature-painter, is well or the Virgin Mary, should be burned; known. He painted a most beautiful and the rest of the royal collection portrait of the unfortunate Queen they ordered to be sold. The spirit of Scots; he drew well, and made of Republicanism was, at this period, some admirable copies, after the Ita- lamentably destructive of the Arts. lian painters.

Fanaticism also lent her willing aid,James the First entirely disregarded Painting was deemed idolatrous,the Arts, but they had now taken such Sculpture on monuments became cardeep root, that even the absence of royal nal pride,-and a Collegiate Church patronage could not expel them from an abomination, equally offensive to the soil. The duke of Buckingham, Magna Charta and the Bible. who was a collector of pictures, direct- On the Restoration, the Fine Arts ed the study of prince Charles to again held up their heads; but his paintings, and objects of art in gene- Continental education had given to ral. Cornelius Jansens, a portrait Charles a licentious and indelicate painter of Amsterdam, resided for style; he liked to see the Maids of some time in England; the great Ru- Honour about his Court painted in a wanton and Frenchified manner; and, for heroes, poets, and philosophers, unfortunately, the painters and poets was not equally distinguished for arof the day were too ready to succumb tists: except Kneller, whom we have to his bad taste. Sir Peter Lely was mentioned, there was no painter of the best painter of the time: he was eminence: he, however, met with great originally a landscape-painter, but encouragement; he is said to have probably adopted portraits, from the painted ten crowned heads; viz. four reputation and emolument with which Kings of England and three Queens, they were attended. He is celebrated the Czar of Muscovy, the Emperor for his female portraits, which have Charles, and Louis XIV. Boil, the all, however, a sameness of character: enamel painter, must not be forgotthe air of languishing sweetness which ten; he has never been surpassed, but he has infused into all his female by his successor, Zincke. forms, has been aptly described as We have now arrived at a period, “The sleepy eye, that spoke the melting when the Arts were almost wholly dissoul.”

regarded. George the First was enVarelst was much distinguished in tirely devoid of taste or judgment on this reign, as a flower-painter; and such subjects; and was, when he he also sometimes painted portraits. ascended the throne, at an age too Cooper, the pupil of Vandyck, paint- advanced to cultivate or acquire a ed heads in a very bold and original relish for them. Dalh and Richardstyle.

son were men of somewhat more than The short reign of James the Second ordinary talent: the colouring of the afforded no encouragement to the Arts. former was good ; the latter was bold He was not himself averse to them; in his style, but his men are undignibut the commotions of contending fied, and his women without grace. parties, depressed and kept out of Jervas was the fashionable painter of sight all the milder and more peace- the day; but his works are deficient ful studies.

in almost every respect: bis drawing William cared nothing for the Arts: is bad, and his colour tricksy, crude, he was born in a country where taste and glaring. never flourished ; and it is therefore

[To be continued.] not surprising, that this monarch was Errata.—col. 626, line 23, for Teuris, read entirely without it. Mary, however,

Zeuxis. --line 52, for Chautery, read his consort, seems to have had a sort

Chantrey. of relish for the Arts; but not enough to extend to them her patronage or protection.

On Burying Grounds. Sir Godfrey Kneller, who was the

TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL fashionable artist of the day, was cer

MAGAZINE. tainly possessed of some genius. His

SIR,--I here send you a “ mite” of inportraits of Dr. Wallis and Lord Crew formation, on one of the subjects menare in a very good style; the latter was tioned in the letter of “ A Friend to Departicularly admired by Sir Joshua Reynolds, the air of nobility and cency,” inserted in your 5th Number. greatness which is infused into it: he History, vol. 3, p. 172.

I have extracted it from Milner's Church managed to paint the portraits of ladies with much more grace than “It was not until the days of Pope could be expected, when their heads Gregory II. that Church-yards had a were disfigured with such preposter- beginning. The dead had been usually ous dresses: his works are, however, interred near the highways, according often very negligent and unfinished to the Roman laws, and Christian conThis arose from his love of gain, gregations had followed the practice; which was so predominant, that it has at least, they had burial places remote been said, where he offered one pic from the city. But in Gregory's time, ture to fame, he sacrificed twenty to the priests and monks began to offer lucre. Thornhill flourished at this prayers for the deceased, and received period: his works in fresco on the gifts from the relations, for the perdome of St. Paul's Cathedral, and the formance of these services ; on which painted hall at Greenwich, are well account, these ecclesiastics requested known and properly admired. leave of Gregory, that the dead might The reign of Anne, so distinguished / be interred near the places of the

W. H.



monks' abode, or in the churches or The practice is not exclusively conmonasteries; that the relations might fined to those who may be properly have a better opportunity of joining in denominated irreligious; and it prethe funeral devotions. Cuthbert, arch-vails in Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, bishop of Canterbury, introduced the &c. To a stranger accustomed to custom into England, in 750; hence stand or kneel before the Lord his the origin of Church-yards in this maker, and to see others do the same, island, used as Burial Grounds."-See it appears particularly thoughtless Newcome's History of the Abbey of and irreverent. It is a posture that St. Alban’s, p. 109.

merits severe reprehension, in sinful, dependent creatures; and yet

how seldom is it noticed, by those Pardon, not an Acquittal.

whose peculiar province it is to take cognizance of such infringements of

propriety. I once, indeed, heard Dr. SIR,

Adam Clarke publicly express his abHaving this morning heard a dis- horrence of this new mode of worcourse by a respected minister, in which shipping the Eternal Self-existent God; it was repeatedly asserted that justifi- but I cannot at present recollect any cation is “ an acquittal from guilt;" it other instance. occurred to me that the phrase acquittal, I should be heartily glad to see the when used in that sense, is highly im- evil in question abolished, but it is proper. If all the world is become

more than probable that in this respect guilty, I cannot see how the Divine

“Wishing of all employments is the worst.” Being can ever pronounce them inno- However, if you are pleased to allow cent; and I apprehend the word in these remarks to occupy a place in question conveys that idea. In order

your much-esteemed Miscellany, they mortal blessedness, it is indeed indis- indulgent correspondents, something mortal blessedness, it is indeed indis- may at least draw from some of your pensably necessary to experience a

more particular on the subject. pardon ; but I am inclined to think

With much esteem, that no human soul, without an uncom

I am, Sir, your's, mon share of arrogance and presump

Pentz. tion, can ever hope to be acquitted, either in this world or the world to

On the Indefinite Article. If, Sir, you are of the same opinion, perhaps you will consider these re

MAGAZINE. marks of sufficient importance for the Imperial Magazine.

Liverpool, August 31, 1819. Yours most respectfully,

SIR, --In the generality of English

ALEXANDER. Grammars, it is given as an invariable Newcastle-under-Lyne,

rule, that the article a becomes an beSept. 19, 1819.

fore a word which begins with a vowel. This is certainly incorrect; as evident

ly appears in the following instances, On Public Worship.

where the article an is placed before

some words which begin with the vowel TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL

u ;~" an unity of affection, an uni

formity of conduct, an useful member Staffordshire, 27th Sept. 1819.

of society:” these instances, and more Sir,- I have the honour to be a native of the same kind, are too often to be of Downpatrick, in Ireland; and since met with in writers of no mean abimy arrival in this country, I have ob- lities. served, with considerable surprise and It it understood, I believe, by all disgust, that in the congregations of a persons who know any thing of Engcertain class of people, who are both lish Grammar, that a is changed to an, numerous and respectable, a vast num- not because the word which follows it ber are in the habit of sitting during begins with a vowel; but for the sake of the time of public prayer, as though making the sound agreeable. It could the minister alone had to do with the not be for the sake of this, that, in the

above instances, the article is changed;




Divine presence.

for by the change the sound is made upon paper of the forementioned very disagreeable. Its having been laid phrases, you will, perhaps, honour down as a rule by grammarians, and them with a place in your Magazine: want of thought in the writers, were the consequence will be, an will no the causes of its being changed. more usurp the place of A. I never yet met with a book wherein

I am, Sir, the writer of it had used the article in

Your's, with respect, the shape of an before the word youth ;

ALPHEUS. and yet it would be quite as proper to use it thus, as it is to use it before the word “unity.That this invariable

Observations on Participles. rule has exceptions, the consideration MR. EDITOR, of the word youth affords sufficient SIR,—That Lindley Murray's Gramproof, for, in its pronunciation, it be- mar has its excellencies, I believe few gins precisely in the same manner as doubt; but that it is in all cases the unity ; therefore, when the Indefinite standard of propriety, is a position Article is used before either youth or which others, as well as A. B. have unity, the form of it which is proper to reason to scruple. I have waited with be used before one, is proper to be anxiety for an answer to A. B.'s inused before both : this being the case, quiries, (col. 419,) respecting the and it being improper to write an youth, cause of my not receiving it.” Two it necessarily follows, that it is equally articles have appeared; but it seems improper to write “ an unity.

to me that Gamma Delta has done The exceptions to the useful rule of nothing towards elucidating the diffichanging a to an before a word, the culty of the above form of expression; first letter of which is a vowel, are con- while M. S. having written in haste

, fined to certain words which begin with has misunderstood A. B. altogether. the vowel u, viz. words, of which the As the first note, under the 14th Rule u forms of itself the first syllable; as, of Syntax, allows a similar construcusurper: and words wherein the first tion, viz. "by observing which,” and letter (u) has its long sound; as, useful. as we have no rule in Murray's Gram

Sept. 13th, 1819. mar by which we can parse such a Since writing the above, respecting construction, it will be necessary to the Indefinite Article, I have met with, have recourse to other authorities, bewhilst reading, the following phrases— fore we can have our scruples fully re

an European, such an one.” I have moved :-for, in the first place, we have found, after an examination of them, a preposition (of) which, according to that what I remarked concerning the grammarians in general, must govern exceptions to the grammatical rule of the objective case; and this preposichanging a to an before a vowel being tion evidently points to receiving, CONFINED to words which begin with the which, it would appear, from this convowel u, is not correct; for it is easy sideration, is a noun : but again, reto perceive, that, AN Europeanceiving retains its action, which falls sounds much more disagreeable than upon the pronoun it, and causes it to A European; and that “ an one" sounds be in the objective case, which case is no better than an warrior, which no not governed by nouns. person would ever think of putting up- If, however, we have recourse to the on paper, if he meant to write English; Latin tongue, we shall find the diffitherefore, in addition to the exceptions culty removed; for in the conjugation which I mentioned in my last letter, it of an active verb, we have what are should be observed, that before all called gerunds: as, from the verb rewords which begin with a vowel, but are cipio, to receive, comes recipiendi, of pronounced as though they began with receiving, which, being active, will ada consonant, the article remains in its mit an object after it; hence we may original form.

say of receiving it, or,

" the cause of If, Sir, you think that these few re- my not receiving it.This reasoning marks are likely, in any degree, to ac- appears to me to be legitimate; if so, complish the end for which they are then the above construction is proper, written, viz. to counteract the want of and this conclusion is agreeable to Dr. thought which caused (for I am con- Lowth, who says, (see page 103 of his vinced that want of thought was the Grammar,) “ The participle with a chief cause) the erroneous appearance preposition before it, and still retaining its government, answers to what is man, and Eve of the first woman; or called in Latin the gerund : as, Hap- that these names are Hebrew; the piness is to be attained by avoiding word Adam, signifying much more evil, &c.”

than red or ruddy, for which we geneIt may be objected, that in the Eng- rally take it, namely, a florid whitelish tongue we have no gerunds; but ness, and the brightness and lustre is it not sufficiently evident that we proper to pearls and precious stones : have a form of speech, which is used Eve, a mother, as the scripture tells by all our best writers, for which we us; Issa, which Adam first called his have no specific name, and which wife, when he saw her; Vira, or a sheexactly corresponds with what is called man. But this is also very remarkin Latin the gerund ? And what im- able in the Hebrew names of all livpropriety can there be in giving a name ing creatures, imposed by Adam, to it illustrative of its meaning? Dr. which appear not to be given by Johnson defines the gerund to be a chance, or deflected from any other verbal noun, which governs cases like language, as the Greek, Latin, and all a verb :—why then may we not call others, but to contain therein the naparticiples in such a situation, gerunds, ture of the creature, as the learned or verbal nouns?

and industrious Bochart admirably I shall feel gratified if any of your proves, in his Hierozoicon, where he ingenious correspondents will inform shews their names were partly taken me, through the medium of your va- from something obvious to the senses, luable Miscellany, if the following form as their colour, their hair, their stature, of the possessive pronouns, your's, and their external form ; partly from our's, &c. be correct, or what form their inward properties and disposithey would have, were the ellipses sup- tions, which he could neither know by plied ?

use, nor the information of others, but I submit the above remarks and by that original wisdom wherewith queries to your consideration.-Should he was created, (by the Socinian's you deem them worthy of a place in leave) and a great part whereof he lost your justly esteemed Miscellany, their by the fall: for which reason, these insertion will oblige,

names are the most noble monuments Yours, respectfully,

of antiquity we have left in the world. Bolton-le-Moors,

I. W. Thus, to instance in a few. The Camel, Oct. 5th, 1819.

a creature which keeps its name almost in all languages, and which

Varro himself grants to be taken from On the Language spoken in Paradise ;

the Syriac language. It is derived and on the Tree of Knowledge.

from the Hebrew word Gamal, which MR. EDITOR,

signifies to retribute, or repay, either In answer to two Queries, contained in good or evil; for which the camel is page 576, of the number for August, of still noted as the most tenacious of your valuable and instructive Maga- any animal. The Hebrew name of a zine, I beg leave to quote the follow- Horse, is derived from a root which ing articles, from a very ancient and signifies to rule, to guide, to moderate; scarce publication, which perhaps your and it is notorious, this creature is the correspondent of Lytham has never most docile, and the most easily ruled, read. Your insertion of them, (should considering its vast strength, of any you think them worthy of a place) will other. The Ass is derived from a word oblige

À SUBSCRIBER. which signifies red, of which colour Belfast, 1819.

they generally are in the East, a white 1st Query.-What language was ass being, it seems, a rarity; the judges spoken by our first parents in Para- and great persons, usually, for state,

riding upon them, as we see in the Answer.-I think the Hebrew, or song of Deborah : another name of sacred language, stands much fairer the ass, is taken from its strength, for it than any other; for all the names which is undeniably more than any we find mentioned in the history of the other creatures of the same bulk. The beginning of the world, were undoubt- Bull, or Ox, derives its name from a edly Hebrew. None, I think, who be- word that signifies firmness, or stabilieve the Scriptures, can question that lity; it is in the Hebrew Sor, for whic Adam was really the name of the first the Chaldees read Thor, the Arabia


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