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722 by the versed sine of the first second foundation; but in respect to the of the quadrant!" and of making this visionary scheme before us, is perversed sine“ the measure of the equa- fectly just ; for in this hypothesis every ble power of nature, which carries the thing is darkly delivered, and no class moon through the quadrant.” Leav- of phænomena is exhibited with which ing those absurdities with the author the appearances pretended to be exof them, it may be observed, that as plained correspond; while we see in we estimate a cause by its effect, and Newton's admirable theory, the most since in a curve at any point, the de- perfect harmony. flection from the tangent, taken very By whom“ the fifth appeal to vulgar near the point of contact, is truly faith,” has been exhibited as unanmeasured by the versed sine of the swerable,” I cannot tell; but it will very small arc of which it is the be sufficient“ merely to observe,” that versed sine, it follows, that if a body the Newtonian theory rests on the sure move in the curve, its deflection from basis of observations; and being once the tangent, which is the effect of the established, calculations may be founddeflecting force, is truly measured, and ed on it; for though astronomical calconsequently the deflecting force itself, culations are generally founded on obwhatever it is, is truly measured by servations, yet they may, in certain rethe versed sine of the small arc de- spects, be founded on theory, and often scribed in a very small portion of time. are so; and the calculations so conduct
Newton then, having calculated the ed, agreeing with those entirely derived versed sine, that is, having found the from observation, or rather agreeing deflection of the moon, obtained a true with facts obtained by subsequent obmeasure of the force by which she is servations, not only as well, but more prevented from pursuing the line of perfectly than the others, is a circumher motion, and is continually brought stance not unfriendly to the theory. into a new direction, so as to revolve But when some able mathematician about the earth ; and by this means, shall have solved the great problem, he found that the force so measured, proposed by Sir Richard Phillips at corresponded exactly with the general the close of his paper, we may expect law of gravitation, and that a stone to see more of the extraordinary quaplaced at the distance of the moon lities and advantages of this new phiwould fall just as much towards the losophy, so called. earth, as the moon does in the same time; and consequently, he was autho
Question on the Catholic Claims. rized to consider the retention of the moon in her orbit, as a particular case of universal gravitation. The same Sir,-Few have noticed with more remay be otherwise demonstrated; the gret than myself, the great silence law of gravitation being admitted, that has prevailed in general over the (and Sir Richard himself admits the kingdom, with respect to the “ Catholaw,) for then the square of the peri- lic Claims.” It is true, a few indiviodical times will be proportional to duals have benefited society in pubthe cubes of the distances; and hence, lishing pamphlets, and distributing a body revolving round the earth attracts, &c. expressive of the danger to its surface, would complete its revolu- which the Protestant Religion in this tion in 84 minutes and 34 seconds, and country would have been subject; yet the deflection from the tangent of this these, comparatively speaking, will orbit, in one second, would be 1672 fall into few hands. I would therefore feet, being precisely the space through take the liberty, through the medium of which a stone, by common gravity, your Miscellany, to propose to your would fall in the same time.
readers the following question, to which As to the third“ especial exposure,” I should feel much obliged if some one too little is exposed; the objection would favour me with an answer: ought to have been, that the whimsi- Would the union of the Protestant cal theory offered to notice, not only and Roman Catholic Religion, in the does “not account for the phænomena Imperial Parliament, tend to make the of comets,” but is incapable of ex- national compacts more secure, and plaining any phænomena in nature. more conducive to the welfare of civil This objection, as urged against the and religious liberty? ALPHA. Newtonian physics, is utterly without Islington, August 7, 1819. No. 8. -Vol. I.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
North East View of Stromboli, distance about seren miles.
the distance of half a mile, and many MAGAZINE,
ignited stones fall over the highest pinSIR,
nacle of the volcano. Should you think the annexed sketch
The eruptions from Stromboli are of this singular little island worthy a
uninterrupted; they continue from place in your interesting Miscellany, age to age, only varying in degree;
and how to account for this wonderful you are at liberty to insert it.
receptacle of igneous matter, many I am, &c.
have been puzzled. Spalanzani asStalmin, Sept. 2, 1819. W. B. serts, that it consists of porphyry rocks,
and that these rocks furnish matter Being on deck one evening, about ten for the present eruptions. o'clock, on the coast of Italy, the cliffs We are entirely ignorant as to the of Belvidere bearing S. E. by E. dis- date when this volcano began its actant about three leagues, I was rather tivity ; it is an epoch beyond any hissurprised to see Stromboli, the dis- tory. But we have accounts of its tance from which, according to an ac- conflagrations, as transmitted by hiscurate chart, I found to be 50 miles : torians, prior to the Christian era its fiery eruptions, which were plainly nearly 300 years.
There is not the distinguishable, were ontinued with least doubt, that it is of volcanic great frequency. Stromboli is the origin; and this seems to derive conmost northern of any of the Lipari firmation, from the appearance of a islands, and bears nearly due N. from small rock, about two miles distant the promontory of Melazzo, distant from its eastern side, of which no menabout 60 miles ; its shape is circular, tion is made by historians; of this
, the from which circumstance, the Greek reason most probably is, that it has geographers called it Στρογγυλη. It been thrown up by subterranean fire consists of a single mountain, which subsequent to the times in which they at some distance bifurcates; one sum- wrote. On its southern side, this mit stretching to the N. E., the other island is thinly inhabited, the number to the S. W., the altitude about an is said to be about 1000 souls; I think English mile. The crater of this vol- its diameter cannot much exceed two cano, different from any other I have or three miles. seen, is about one third from the sum
According to the ancient mythology, mit, on its N. E. side, the edges of this island was the seat of the god which project, and form a cliff. The Æolus, who presided over the winds. ejected matter is sometimes thrown up See Virg. En. and Homer's Odyssey.
bens also visited this country; and ON THE FINE ARTS.
Peter Oliver, the son of Isaac, prac[Continued from col. 629.]
tised miniature painting with deserved In the succeeding reign of Henry success, in a way worthy of the reputa8th, the art of Painting was properly tion of his father. encouraged. Artists were patronized, Immediately on the accession of and Royal invitation was given to Charles, he began to form his collecRaphael and Titian to visit the island. tion of paintings, and invited the most
Hans Holbein was the ornament of celebrated artists to his court. Rubens, this reign: he was by birth a Swiss ; ( Vandyck, Poelemburg, and other fobut visited England at an early age, reigners, were duly honoured; but not and was patronized by the great Sir to the exclusion of native talent. DobThomas More, who entertained him at son, who obtained the name of the his own house, and employed him to English Tintoret; George Jamesone, paint the portraits of himself and fami- called the Vandyck of Scotland ; John ly, which were hung up in a great hall. Hoskins, and others, were supported The monarch having seen them, was and encouraged by royal favour. Of so struck with their life, beauty, and these, Dobson was the most distinsimilarity, as instantly to become his guished: he was the father of the patron, and ever after to employ and English school of portrait-painting; encourage him. His principal occu- his manner is unequal, but it betrays pation was in painting portraits in oil; much of the style of Vandyck, under although he sometimes used both wa- whom he studied: he resided much at ter-colours and distemper. His great Oxford, where he has left somc lovely attempts in history, were two compo-portraits: he also painted history; the sitions for the hall of the Steel-Yard Astronomer and his Family at BlenCompany; but their true designation heim, and the Decollation of St. John, would be groups of portraits. His at Wilton, are well known, and justly works are marked with great force of co- admired : his premature death, at the louring; and he was equally successful early age of 36, robbed the Arts of in pourtraying the piercing and intel- England of a distinguished ornament, ligent More, or the graceful and lovely at a time when they stood in need of Anne Boleyn: he finished his pictures his continued support. with wonderful neatness, and was so The collection made by Charles was highly esteemed by Zucchero, that he most valuable; and the dispersion compared his portraits with those of and destruction of it has been, and Raphael and Tiziano. The reign of ever will be, a matter of great regret Mary was unpropitious to the arts: to all artists and amateurs. The asthat of Elizabeth was marked by the cendency of the popular party was fatal appearance of some very respectable to the Arts; it was considered part of artists; the Queen had no taste for the religious duty of those in power, to Painting, except when she beheld in wage war on the Arts, which had been a portrait a flattering representation of countenanced by the late King. The herself. The fame of Isaac Oliver, Parliament resolved, that all pictures, who flourished about the end of this being a representation of our Saviour reign, as a miniature-painter, is well or the Virgin Mary, should be burned; known. He painted a most beautiful and the rest of the royal collection portrait of the unfortunate Queen they ordered to be sold. The spirit of Scots; he drew well, and made of Republicanism was, at this period, some admirable copies, after the Ita- lamentably destructive of the Arts. lian painters.
Fanaticism also lent her willing aid,James the First entirely disregarded Painting was deemed idolatrous, the Arts, but they had now taken such Sculpture on monuments became cardeep root, that even the absence of royal nal pride,--and a Collegiate Church patronage could not expel them from an abomination, equally offensive to the soil. The duke of Buckingham, Magna Charta and the Bible. who was a collector of pictures, direct- On the Restoration, the Fine Arts ed the study of prince Charles to again held up their heads; but his paintings, and objects of art in gene- Continental education had given to ral. Cornelius Jansens, a portrait Charles a licentious and indelicate painter of Amsterdam, resided for style ; he liked to see the Maids of some time in England; the great Ru- Honour about his Court painted in a
wanton and Frenchified manner; and, for heroes, poets, and philosophers
, unfortunately, the painters and poets was not equally distinguished for arof the day were too ready to succumb tists: except Kneller, whom we have to his bad taste. Sir Peter Lely was mentioned, there was no painter of the best painter of the time: he was eminence: he, however, met with great originally a landscape-painter, but encouragement; he is said to have probably adopted portraits, from the painted ten crowned heads; viz. four reputation and emolument with which Kings of England and three Queens, they were attended. He is celebrated the Czar of Muscovy, the Emperor for his female portraits, which have Charles, and Louis XIV. Boil, the all, however, a sameness of character: enamel painter, must not be forgotthe air of languishing sweetness which ten; he has never been surpassed, but he has infused into all his female by his successor, Zincke. forms, has been aptly described as We have now arrived at a period, “The sleepy eye, that spoke the melting when the Arts were almost wholly dissoul.”
regarded. George the First was enVarelst was much distinguished in tirely devoid of taste or judgment on this reign, as a flower-painter; and such subjects; and was, when he he also sometimes painted portraits. ascended the throne, at an age too Cooper, the pupil of Vandyck, paint advanced to cultivate or acquire a ed heads in a very bold and original relish for them. Dalh and Richardstyle.
son were men of somewhat more than The short reign of James the Second ordinary talent: the colouring of the afforded no encouragement to the Arts. former was good; the latter was bold He was not himself averse to them; in his style, but his men are undignibut the commotions of contending fied, and his women without grace. parties, depressed and kept out of Jervas was the fashionable painter of sight all the milder and more peace- the day; but his works are deficient ful studies.
in almost every respect: bis drawing William cared nothing for the Arts: is bad, and his colour tricksy, crude, he was born in a country where taste and glaring. never flourished; and it is therefore
[To be continued.] not surprising, that this monarch was Errata.--col. 626, line 23, for Teuris, read entirely without it. Mary, however,
Zeuxis. line 52, for Chautery, read his consort, seems to have had a sort
Chantrey. of relish for the Arts; but not enough to extend to them her patronage or protection.
On Burying Grounds. Sir Godfrey Kneller, who was the
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL fashionable artist of the day, was cer
MAGAZINE. tainly possessed of some genius. His Sir, I here send you a “mite” of inportraits of Dr. Wallis and Lord Crew formation, on one of the subjects menare in a very good style; the latter was tioned in the letter of “ A Friend to Departicularly admired by Sir Joshua Reynolds, for the air of nobility and cency,” inserted in your 5th Number
I have extracted it from Milner's Church greatness which is infused into it: he managed to paint the portraits of
History, vol. 3, p. 172. ladies with much more grace than “ It was not until the days of Pope could be expected, when their heads Gregory II. that Church-yards had a were disfigured with such preposter- beginning. The dead had been usually ous dresses : his works are, however, interred near the highways, according often very negligent and unfinished to the Roman laws, and Christian con
This arose from his love of gain, gregations had followed the practice; which was so predominant, that it has at least, they had burial places remote been said, where he offered one pic from the city. But in Gregory's time, ture to fame, he sacrificed twenty to the priests and monks began to offer lucre. Thornhill flourished at this prayers for the deceased, and received period: his works in fresco on the gifts from the relations, for the pera dome of St. Paul's Cathedral, and the formance of these services; on which painted hall at Greenwich, are well account, these ecclesiastics requested known and properly admired. leave of Gregory, that the dead might The reign of Anne, so distinguished / be interred near the places of the
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
729 Pardon, not an Acquittal.- Public Worship, &c. 1730 monks' abode, or in the churches or The practice is not exclusively conmonasteries; that the relations might fined to those who may be properly have a better opportunity of joining in denominated irreligious; and it prethe funeral devotions. Cuthbert, arch- vails in Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, bishop of Canterbury, introduced the &c. To a stranger accustomed to custom into England, in 750; hence stand or kneel before the Lord his the origin of Church-yards in this maker, and to see others do the same, island, used as Burial Grounds.”—See it appears particularly thoughtless Newcome's History of the Abbey of and irreverent. It is a posture that St. Alban’s, p. 109.
merits severe reprehension, in sin
ful, dependent creatures; and yet Pardon, not an Acquittal.
how seldom is it noticed, by those whose peculiar province it is to take cognizance of such infringements of
propriety. I once, indeed, heard Dr. SIR,
Adam Clarke publicly express his abHaving this morning heard a dis- horrence of this new mode of worcourse by a respected minister, in which shipping the Eternal Self-existent God; it was repeatedly asserted that justifi- but I cannot at present recollect any cation is “ an acquittal from guilt;” it other instance. occurred to me that the phrase acquittal, I should be heartily glad to see the when used in that sense, is highly im- evil in question abolished, but it is proper. If all the world is become
more than probable that in this respect guilty, I cannot see how the Divine
“Wishing of all employments is the worst." Being can ever pronounce them inno- However, if you are pleased to allow cent; and I apprehend the word in these remarks to occupy a place in question conveys that idea. In order
much-esteemed Miscellany, they to have an evangelical title to immortal blessedness, it is indeed indis- indulgent correspondents, something pensably necessary to experience a
more particular on the subject. pardon; but I am inclined to think
With much esteem, that no human soul, without an uncom
I am, Sir, your's, mon share of arrogance and presump
Pentz. tion, can ever hope to be acquitted, either in this world or the world to
On the Indefinite Article. If, Sir, you are of the same opinion,
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL perhaps you will consider these remarks of sufficient importance for the Imperial Magazine.
Liverpool, August 31, 1819. Yours most respectfully,
SIR, --In the generality of English
ALEXANDER. Grammars, it is given as an invariable Newcastle-under-Lyne,
rule, that the article a becomes an beSept. 19, 1819.
fore a word which begins with a vowel. This is certainly incorrect; as evident
ly appears in the following instances, On Public Worship.
where the article an is placed before some words which begin with the vowel U ;~"an unity of affection, an uni
formity of conduct, an useful member Staffordshire, 27th Sept. 1819.
of society :" these instances, and more SIR, -I have the honour to be a native of the same kind, are too often to be of Downpatrick, in Ireland; and since met with in writers of no mean abimy arrival in this country, I have ob- lities. served, with considerable surprise and It it understood, I believe, by all disgust, that in the congregations of a persons who know any thing of Engce ain class of people, who are both lish Grammar, that a changed to an, numerous and respectable, a vast num- not because the word which follows it ber are in the habit of sitting during begins with a vowel; but for the sake of the time of public prayer, as though making the sound agreeable. It could the minister alone had to do with the not be for the sake of this, that, in the Divine presence.
above instances, the article is changed;
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL