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On Warming School Rooms, &c. ney, closed at the top, forms the case
ment for the hot air, which may be let As the season is fast approaching, in out at pleasure, by a valve in each which fire will become a necessary ar- room over the stove. The junction of ticle in domestic comfort, we insert the flue with the fire, admitting the the following observations, which we cold air into the case, without admithave had in our possession for some ting the smoke, may be adapted to the time.
oldest fire-places. Whatever difficulty TO TML EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL and delay may prevent a more general MAGAZINE,
application, the fact deserves publiSIR,
city, as it has succeeded perfectly in ON visiting a Sunday School, of two the rooms described. rooms, one over the other, I observed a stove in the lower one, which heated the upper, by a sheet-iron case round
CELESTIAL PHENOMENA. the stove and flue, open at the bottom, and shut at the top; with a valve in
[Continued from col. 359.] the side, for letting out the hot air, which was continually replaced by the Times of Algol's least splendour in the cold air admitted at the bottom, and
months of October, November, and heated on the principle of the patent
December, of the present year. hot air-stoves. This appeared an in
October. vention that may hereafter be extend- First day, at 35 minutes past 2, afternoon. ed, to deliver the chimney-sweeps Seventh day, at 15 minutes past 8, morning.*
Fourth day, at 25 minutes past 11, forenoon. from their worse than negro depra- Tenth day, at 5 minutes past 5, morning.** vity. The economy in fuel also recommends it; and the little room it Thirteenth day, at 53 minutes past 1, morntakes up, must be an advantage to Fifteenth day, at 43 minutes past 10, night.*** houses and manufactories built suit- Eighteenth day, at 32 minutes past 7, evenably for it. No doubt, the heat let out in the upper room, was taken from Twenty-first day, at 21 minutes past 4, afterthe lower; but the object is to save the heat from waste by misapplica- Twenty-fourth day, at 10 minutes past 1, tion, which is invariably the case
afternoon. where there is too great a supply. Twenty-seventh day, at 59 minutes past 9, How many houses are damp and com
morning. * fortless, which at the same time con- Thirtieth day, at 48 minutes past 6, morning. ** sume as much fuel as makes the air
November. over the chimneys abundantly warm.
Second day, at 37 minutes past 3, morning.** If a house of four or six stories, floors, Fourth day, at 26 minutes past 12, night. *** or flats, have but one fire in the bot- Seventh day, at 15 minutes past 9, night. *** tom, this invention may be applied to Thirteenth day, at 53 minutes past 2, after
Tenth day, at 4 minutes past 6, evening. heat any or all of the rooms over it. The iron flue which takes up, the Sixteenth day, at 42 minutes past 11, foresmoke, may be cased in a small brick funnel, which holds the hot air, until Nineteentu day, at 31 minutes past 8, mornit is let out by an aperture in each ing.* room. A small chain in the flue, pass- Twenty-second day, at 20 minutes past 5, ing over a roller at the top, and within reach at the bottom, will draw up and Twenty-fifth day at 9 minutes past 2, morudown a brush, or other proper instru
ing. ment, to cleanse the flue. In manu
Twenty-seventh day, at 58 minutes past 10, factories, the stove may be cased with Thirtieth day, at 47 minutes past 7, night.**
night.* sheet iron, as mentioned.
December. three inches' interstice between the case and the stove, and its flue, beats Third day, at 36 minutes past 4, evening.** the air, and it may pass with safety Ninth day, at 14 minutes past 10, forenoon.*
Sixth day, at 25 minutes past 1, afternoon.* through all the floors, either in the Twelfth day, at 3 minutes past 7, morning.** centre, or whatever position is most Fifteenth day, at 52 minutes past 3, momconvenient. In chimneys already built on the old plan, the flue may be Seventeenth day, at 41 minutes past 12, inserted as described; and the chim
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
Twentieth day, at 30 minutes past 9, night.*** But the special exposure” of five Twenty-third day, at 19 minutes past 6, even- appeals made to credulity, claim our ing."
notice, of which the first respects the Twenty-sixth day, at 8 minutes past 3, aster- terms, Attraction and Gravitation; and
here we observe, that if genuine Twenty-ninth day, at 57 minutes past 11, forenoon.
philosophy may not “ give names to N. B. One asterisk denotes that the phasis allowed to give a name,
or at least to
effects, yet the philosopher may be of the least splendour will not be visible; only a part of the variation from the second to adopt one, expressive of any thing he the fourth
magnitude, or from the fourth to the has occasion frequently to mention, or second. By two asterisks is signified that the introduce in his discourse. Again, if minimum splendour will be visible together we grant, “that it is the bounden duty with a part of the variation. When the whole of every legitimate philosopher, to phænonienon of variation will be visible, this adopt an explanation of the proxicircumstance is pointed out by three asterisks. mate cause of an effect,” should he
know the cause, we likewise insist, that if he cannot give the explanation,
it is his duty to acknowledge his inaMAGAZINE.
bility : but surely, the Newtonians Sir,
cannot be accused of “refusing to inOn reading Sir Richard Phillips' reply quire into the cause :” they, of all to my strictures, inserted in your Ma- philosophers, are the most rational
, gazine for August, p. 563, or rather to and most diligent inquirers into the the advocates of the philosophy which
causes of phænomena; using the comin supreme contempt he denominates, bined efforts of continued experiments " the legerdemain philosophy,” it ap- and observations, to obtain from the peared to me at first unnecessary to lips of Nature herself
, the secret make any further remarks on the sub- springs which give rise to her beauty, ject; but judging that some of your and life to all her charms. numerous readers may expect a few observations on his paper, I present the Newtonians, by the term attrac
An attempt is made to prove, that the following, for a place the Impe- tion, necessarily mean a force, whatrial Magazine, if they meet your ap- ever they affirm to the contrary; for probation.
they invent a force to oppose it; if so, Thos. Exley.
they have laboured in vain; to what Bristol, Sept. 16, 1819.
purpose was the legerdemain employAmong the fanciful agents which the ed to call up innate attraction, if they Newtonian Philosophy is said to have were obliged to exercise their hocusintroduced into nature, I cannot con- pocus, to conjure the same into a non.ceive the reason why the epithet eter- entity? The truth is, they every where NAL, is connected with PROJECTILE see the projectile force, of bodies in FORCE ; surely none can sanction the motion, which is nothing else than phrase “ETERNAL PROJECTILE FORCE,” their tendency to continue moving in except those who impiously deny crea- the same line of direction, with the tion, and assert the eternity of matter: same velocity; or, in other words, to but is it not a curious fact, that Sir preserve their momenta in that direcRichard himself admits of the projec- tion. In the planets, it tile force ? Even he cannot do without dently, that the tendency to continue in
and hence he frequently speaks of the same direction is constantly dethe momenta of bodies in the direc- stroyed, by some power deflecting tion of their motions; of forces gene- them toward the sun, as if the sun had rating, and destroying the momenta, hold of them, and attracted them aland deflecting moving bodies from the ways from their course in a line drawn line of their direction, &c. Is it not to his centre. Hence, they say, the strange for him to rail at Newton, for sun attracts the planets, &c.; and inventing this force, (though he never surely, they may well be allowed the invented it,) and then freely employ- free use of the term attraction, to deing the same “ fanciful agent?”. This signate an effect, which appears very, force, however, is not an invention to much like the act of drawing ; espe:serve a theory, it is not fanciful, but cially when they distinctly inform us, presents itself in every phænomenon they cannot tell what the cause or real of matter.
operating force is, or where it resides,
whether in matter or out of it, only these forces will vary, if the distance that they can judge of its quantity and vary; and therefore, the planet may direction, and the law of its operation, sometimes actually approach nearer to by the effects produced on the bodies the sun, and at other times recede. subject to its influence; and as the The deflection is, in fact, an effect conforce and its effect reciprocally mea- tinually observed; and from this most sure each other. Thus, by the word evident fact, it is legitimately inferred, attraction of a body, is denoted very that the planets have a tendency to appropriately, the effect, or the mea- fall to the sun;” the Newtonians, do sure of the force, whatever it is, and not, therefore, at all deduce the conits direction toward the body, which, clusion from the fall of a stone! A for conveniency, is said to attract quotation from Mr. Cotes' excellent the other; and the name is not “ by preface to Newton's Principia, will themselves converted into a force or properly close this part of my obsertendency,” but very properly serves to vations. “ That every body perseveres express the effect, which measures the in its state, either of rest, or of movquantity of force or tendency, and at ing uniformly in a right line, unless in the same time readily conveys the idea so far as it is compelled to change that of the direction of that force. Hence, state by forces impressed, is a law of it is no otherwise the name of a force, nature universally received by all phithan as that force is expressed by its losophers. But from thence it follows, proper measure, that is, by its effects; that bodies which move in curve lines, in this way, it is indeed, necessarily and are, therefore, continually going expressive of force.
off from the right lines that are tanBut, Sir Richard admits the law of gents to their orbits, are by some conthis force: very good ; this law was tinued force retained in those curviliNewton's great discovery, and the near paths. Since then the planets glory and crown of all his discoveries move in curvilinear orbits, there must in astronomy. This great acquisition be some force operating, by whose rehas vastly extended the field of science, peated actions they are perpetually and unfolded mysteries in nature not made to deflect from the tangents." otherwise to be unravelled; and pre- The greatest part of the second“ spesented beauties in the grand system cial exposure,” is far beyond the reach of material existence, not otherwise of my capacity; and therefore, leaving to be seen. But we are told, that “ a the sublime explanation of the eccenplanet does not face to the sun;" true; tricities of the planetary orbits, to perbut it falls towards the sun, and while sons of more skill in the mysteries of its tendency towards the sun would philosophy, I shall confine my obserhave carried it in a straight line, con- vations on this, and the fourth exnecting its place and that luminary, posure, to the application of geometry its momentum in the direction of its to astronomical science.
And since motion, (its projectile force,) carries it geometry is conversant about quantiout of that line in advance; and it is ties, and their relations, any science, actually nearer the sun than it would as far as quantity is concerned, may have been if the attaction had not ex- be served by netry: and since asisted, but farther from the sun than it tronomy, and physical science in gewould have been if the projectile force neral, every where contemplates quan(momentum in the direction of its mo- tities, as those of space, time, magnition) had not existed; that is, the tude of bodies, velocities, momenta, distance from the sun will be between with a variety of others, and the quanthe limits of the distances which would tities are frequently connected by nehave been attained by supposing first cessary relations, it will not be thought one tendency to exist alone, and then wonderful, if geometry should be abunthe other. But whether the planet dantly useful in physical astronomy; will be actually nearer to, or farther yet, they who make the application, from the sun, will depend on the pro- cannot be thought to be so void of portion of the two tendencies, and the sense, as to suppose that the physical angle contained by their directions ; phænomena exist in virtue of the reand since the law of the tendency to- lations of the geometrical quantities. wards the sun is admitted to vary in- Newton is accused of a whimsical versely as the square of the distance, “ attempt to connect the motions of it is allowed that the proportion of the moon, with the quantity expressed by the versed sine of the first second | foundation; but in respect to the of the quadrant!" and of making this visionary scheme before us, is perversed sine“ the measure of the equa- fectly just ; for in this hypothesis every ble power of nature, which carries the thing is darkly delivered, and no class moon through the quadrant.” Leav- of phænomena is exhibited with which ing those absurdities with the author the appearances pretended to be exof them, it may be observed, that as plained correspond; while we see in we estimate a cause by its effect, and Newton's admirable theory, the most since in a curve at any point, the de- perfect harmony. flection from the tangent, taken very By whom the fifth appeal to vulgar near the point of contact, is truly faith,” has been exhibited as unanmeasured by the versed sine of the swerable,” I cannot tell ; but it will very small arc of which it is the be sufficient“ merely to observe,” that versed sine, it follows, that if a body the Newtonian theory rests on the sure move in the curve, its deflection from basis of observations; and being once the tangent, which is the effect of the established, calculations may be founddeflecting force, is truly measured, and ed on it; for though astronomical calconsequently the deflecting force itself, culations are generally founded on obwhatever it is, is truly measured by servations, yet they may, in certain rethe versed sine of the small arc de- spects, be founded on theory, and often scribed in a very small portion of time. are so; and the calculations so conduct
Newton then, having calculated the ed, agreeing with those entirely derived versed sine, that is, having found the from observation, or rather agreeing deflection of the moon, obtained a true with facts obtained by subsequent obmeasure of the force by which she is servations, not only as well, but more prevented from pursuing the line of perfectly than the others, is a circumher motion, and is continually brought stance not unfriendly to the theory. into a new direction, so as to revolve But when some able mathematician about the earth; and by this means, shall have solved the great problem, he found that the force so measured, proposed by Sir Richard Phillips at corresponded exactly with the general the close of his paper, we may expect law of gravitation, and that a stone to see more of the extraordinary quaplaced at the distance of the moon lities and advantages of this new phiwould fall just as much towards the losophy, so called. earth, as the moon does in the same time ; and consequently, he was autho
Question on the Catholic Claims. rized to consider the retention of the moon in her orbit, as a particular case of universal gravitation. The same SIR,-Few have noticed with more remay be otherwise demonstrated; the gret than myself, the great silence law of gravitation being admitted, that has prevailed in general over the (and Sir Richard himself admits the kingdom, with respect to the “ Catholaw,) for then the square of the peri- lic Claims.” It is true, a few indiviodical times will be proportional to duals have benefited society in pubthe cubes of the distances ; and hence, lishing pamphlets, and distributing a body revolving round the earth at tracts, &c. expressive of the danger to its surface, would complete its revolu- which the Protestant Religion in this tion in 84 minutes and 34 seconds, and country would have been subject; yet the deflection from the tangent of this these, comparatively speaking, will orbit, in one second, would be 1672 fall into few hands. I would therefore feet, being precisely the space through take the liberty, through the medium of which a stone, by common gravity, your Miscellany, to propose to your would fall in the same time.
readers the following question, to which As to the third “ especial exposure,” I should feel much obliged if some one too little is exposed; the objection would favour me with an answer: ought to have been, that the whimsi- Would the union of the Protestant cal theory offered to notice, not only and Roman Catholic Religion, in the does “not account for the phænomena Imperial Parliament, tend to make the of comets,” but is incapable of ex- national compacts more secure, and plaining any phænomena in nature. more conducive to the welfare of civil This objection, as urged against the and religious liberty ? ALPHA. Newtonian physics, is utterly without Islington, August 7, 1819. No. 8. -Vol. I.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL
Short Account of Mount Stromboli, one of the Lipari Islands.
the distance of half a mile, and many MAGAZINE,
ignited stones fall over the highest pinSIR,
nacle of the volcano. SHOULD you think the annexed sketch
The eruptions from Stromboli are of this singular little island worthy a
uninterrupted; they continuc from place in your interesting Miscellany, age to age, only varying in degree;
and how to account for this wonderful you are at liberty to insert it.
receptacle of igneous matter, many I am, &c.
have been puzzled. Spalanzani asStalmin, Sept. 2, 1819. W. B. serts, that it consists of porphyry rocks,
and that these rocks furnish matter Being on deck one evening, about ten for the present eruptions. o'clock, on the coast of Italy, the cliffs We are entirely ignorant as to the of Belvidere bearing S. E. by E. dis- date when this volcano began its actant about three leagues, I was rather tivity; it is an epoch beyond any hissurprised to see Stromboli, the dis- tory. But we have accounts of its tance from which, according to an ac- conflagrations, as transmitted by hiscurate chart, I found to be 50 miles : torians, prior to the Christian era its fiery eruptions, which were plainly nearly 300 years. There is not the distinguishable, were continued with least doubt, that it is of volcanic great frequency. Stromboli is the origin ; and this seems to derive conmost northern of any of the Lipari firmation, from the appearance of a islands, and bears nearly due N. from small rock, about two miles distant the promontory of Melazzo, distant from its eastern side, of which no menabout 60 miles ; its shape is circular, tion is made by historians; of this, the from which circumstance, the Greek reason most probably is, that it has geographers called it Στρογγυλη. . It been thrown up by subterranean fire consists of a single mountain, which subsequent to the times in which they at some distance bifurcates; one sum- wrote. On its southern side, this mit stretching to the N. E., the other island is thinly inhabited, the number to the S. W., the altitude about an is said to be about 1000 souls; English mile. The crater this vol-its diameter cannot much exceed two cano, different from any other I have or three miles. seen, is about one third from the sum- According to the ancient mythology, mit, on its N. E. side, the edges of this island was the seat of the god which project, and form a cliff. The Æolus, who presided over the winds. ejected matter is sometimes thrown up See Virg. En. and Homer's Odyssey.